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This book helps the next generation of doctors understand how to contribute to making healthcare safer. Patient safety is increasingly important in medical practice today and is becoming a core part of training for medical students and foundation doctors. This book will enable the student or junior doctor to challenge and innovate in practice to improve patient safety and care. It takes a practical approach and explores what patient safety is, why it is important, how to involve patients, the role of education, technology and resources, how to be an innovative practitioner and measuring the impact of patient safety initiatives.
Using a range of primary sources from imperial, colonial and local government records, Rockefeller Foundation Archives, memoirs and reports, this study provides the most comprehensive account to date of public health in Jamaica in the post-emancipation colonial period to the onset of the Second World War. The account is framed by two pivotal Jamaican experiences that were vital in precipitating significant policy changes at the imperial centre. An examination of the development of the part-time colonial medical service reveals it to be underresourced and inadequate. Most Jamaicans accessed Western medical aid through the Poor Law, a distinguishing feature of the British West Indian colonies, and the issues around the intermeshing of medical and Poor Law aid is a vital contextual question. Chapters on the epidemic and endemic diseases of smallpox and malaria expose the attitudes and the nature of the responses of government, elites and the medical services to such threats. The International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation was active in Jamaica from 1919 until 1950. A detailed analysis of their hookworm campaign, public health education programme and tuberculosis work contributes to a critical understanding of this philanthropic endeavour. The contribution of Jamaica to a new imperial development policy, as exemplified in the 1940 Colonial Development and Welfare Act, is also assessed. A story of government and elite reluctance to finance public health services emerges in which Jamaicans were frequently blamed for their own ill health. Socio-economic causation was sidestepped as class and race perceptions, underpinned by the legacy of slavery, held sway.
In this report, the Commission provides updated guidance on radiological protection against radon exposure. The report has been developed considering the latest ICRP recommendations for the system of radiological protection, all available scientific knowledge about the risks of radon, and the experience gained by many organisations and countries in the control of radon exposure. The report describes the characteristics of radon exposure, covering sources and transfer mechanisms, the health risks associated with radon, and the challenges of managing radon exposure. The Commission recommends an integrated approach for controlling radon exposure, relying as far as possible on the management of buildings or locations in which radon exposure occurs, whatever the use of the building. This approach is based on the optimisation principle, and is graded reflecting the responsibilities of key stakeholders, notably in workplaces, and the intent of the national authorities to control radon exposure. The report also provides recommendations on managing radon exposure when workers' exposures are considered as occupational, and the appropriate requirements of the Commission should be applied.
The HIV epidemic in Bolivia has received little attention on a global scale in light of the country's low HIV prevalence rate. However, by profiling the largest city in this land-locked Latin American country, Carina Heckert shows how global health-funded HIV care programs at times clash with local realities, which can have catastrophic effects for people living with HIV who must rely on global health resources to survive. These ethnographic insights, as a result, can be applied to AIDS programs across the globe. In Fault Lines of Care, Heckert provides a detailed examination of the effects of global health and governmental policy decisions on the everyday lives of people living with HIV in Santa Cruz. She focuses on the gendered dynamics that play a role in the development and implementation of HIV care programs and shows how decisions made from above impact what happens on the ground.
A practical introduction to participatory program evaluation Evaluating Public and Community Health Programs provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of evaluation, with a participatory model that brings stakeholders together for the good of the program. Linking community assessment, program implementation, and program evaluation, this book emphasizes practical, ongoing evaluation strategies that connect theory with application. This updated second edition includes new discussion on planning policy change programs using logic models and theory of change, plus expanded coverage of processes, outcomes, data collection, and more. Each chapter includes classroom activities and group discussion prompts, and the companion website provides worksheets, lecture slides, and a test bank for instructors. Mini cases help illustrate the real-world applications of the methods described, and expanded case studies allow students to dig deeper into practice and apply what they've learned. Accurate and effective evaluation is the key to a successful program. This book provides a thorough introduction to all aspects of this critical function, with a wealth of opportunities to apply new concepts. * Learn evaluation strategies that involve all program stakeholders * Link theory to practice with new mini cases and examples * Understand the uses, processes, and approaches to evaluation * Discover how ongoing evaluation increases program effectiveness Public and community health programs are a vital part of our social infrastructure, and the more effective they are, the more people they can serve. Proper planning is important, but continued evaluation is what keeps a program on track for the long term. Evaluating Public and Community Health Programs provides clear instruction and insightful discussion on the many facets of evaluation, with a central focus on real-world service.
The field's bestselling reference, updated with the latest tools, data, and techniques Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health is a practical introduction to the tools, methods, and procedures used worldwide to perform cost-effective research. Covering every aspect of a complete cost-effectiveness analysis, this book shows you how to find which data you need, where to find it, how to analyze it, and how to prepare a high-quality report for publication. Designed for the classroom or the individual learner, the material is presented in simple and accessible language for those who lack a biostatistics or epidemiology background, and each chapter includes real-world examples and "tips and tricks" that highlight key information. Exercises throughout allow you to test your understanding with practical application, and the companion website features downloadable data sets for students, as well as lecture slides and a test bank for instructors. This new third edition contains new discussion on meta-analysis and advanced modeling techniques, a long worked example using visual modeling software TreeAge Pro, and updated recommendations from the U.S. Public Health Service's Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to evaluate medical interventions worldwide, in both developed and developing countries. This book provides process-specific instruction in a concise, structured format to give you a robust working knowledge of common methods and techniques. * Develop a thoroughly fleshed-out research project * Work accurately with costs, probabilities, and models * Calculate life expectancy and quality-adjusted life years * Prepare your study and your data for publication Comprehensive analysis skills are essential for students seeking careers in public health, medicine, biomedical research, health economics, health policy, and more. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health walks you through the process from a real-world perspective to help you build a skillset that's immediately applicable in the field.
""This comprehensive and practical text provides a clear
introduction to health policy analysis ... The book combines an
overview of the theoretical base of the field with a range of real
world examples drawn from different settings ... It is widely
recognised as an essential text of international relevance, for
students and practitioners alike. I highly recommend it to the new
generation of activist-scholars in the field."
" Part of the "Understanding Public Health" series, this bestselling book is the leading text in the field. It focuses on how health policy is made nationally and globally, clearly explaining the key concepts from political science with a wide array of engaging examples.
This edition is fully updated to reflect new research and ways of thinking about the health policy process. Written by leading experts, this clear and accessible book addresses the "how" of health policy making in a range of international settings.
The book provides an accessible approach to understanding: Health policy analysis Power and policy making Public and private sector Agenda setting Government roles in policy Interest groups and policy Policy implementation Globalization and policy process Policy research and evaluation Doing policy analysis "Making Health Policy 2nd edition" is an ideal resource for students of public health and health policy, public health practitioners and policy makers.
"Understanding Public Health" is an innovative series published by Open University Press in collaboration with the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. It provides self-directed learning covering the major issues in public health affecting low, middle and high-income countries.
Series Editors: Rosalind Plowman and Nicki Thorogood.
""This book is excellent and unique in the way it addresses
complexity within the field of global health and policies in a
simplified and practical way. Each chapter is structured to include
Activities and Feedback, which fosters reflection and adult
learning. This approach makes the book ideal for teaching at all
levels of university. I highly recommend it."
""This is an excellent and accessible introduction to the
politics of health policy-making by three of the world's leading
scholars on the subject. If anyone thinks that improving the health
of a population is solely about getting the interventions and
policy content right, this book will surely disavow them of that
belief. Political dynamics matter, and the authors draw on the most
up-to-date research to provide practitioners and students with
clear, sensible, evidence-based guidance on how to manage these
"""Making Health Policy" is a must-read for those studying and
working in global health. It provides a unique introduction to core
concepts in global health policy and brings politics to the core of
public health. Why do some issues get more attention than others?
Why is evidence-based policy-making so difficult? How can we
understand and study power in the health system? This book provides
answers to these crucial questions."
""Having used the earlier edition of this book, I would highly
recommend it. The book provides an outstanding mix of policy
theories, described in clear and accessible terms, with up-to-date
and engaging examples from across the world that illustrate the
application of those theories. Frequent activities throughout the
book provide openings for greater student engagement in the subject
matter. It's a great resource for teaching."
" ""This book is an excellent teaching tool on policy making in
the field of public health. It is very clearly structured and
written, and provides a wealth of concrete examples to illustrate
new concepts ... One of the key strengths is to highlight the
political nature of health policy making, not presenting it as a
technocratic process, but very much part of power dynamics at the
local, national and global level."
""A great introduction and reference for health policy students,
offering clear and concise explication of key theories about
policy-making and applied to the health sector. This book unravels
the complex world of health politics and decision-making, making it
comprehensible for many who have difficulty understanding the
system they work in, or aspire to enter the world of health policy
to make a difference."
Essential Primary Care aims to provide undergraduate students with a comprehensive overview of the clinical problems encountered in primary care. It covers the structure of primary care in the UK, disease prevention and the management of common and important clinical presentations from infancy to old age. Case studies are used in every chapter to illustrate key learning points. The book provides practical advice on how to consult with patients, make sense of their symptoms, explain things to them, and manage their problems. Essential Primary Care: Is structured in five sections: - The building blocks of primary care: its structure and connection with secondary care, the consultation, the process of making a diagnosis, prescribing, and ethical issues - Health promotion - Common and important presenting problems in roughly chronological order - Cancer - Death and palliative care Gives advice on how to phrase questions when consulting with patients and how to present information to patients Provides advice on how management extends to prescribing - often missing from current textbooks Contains case studies within each chapter which reflect the variety of primary care and provide top tips and advice for consulting with patients Supported by a companion website at www.wileyessential.com/primarycare featuring MCQs, EMQs, cases and OSCE checklists
This work provides an evenhanded and authoritative overview of vaping and its impact on American culture and public health, especially among younger Americans. The 21st Century Turning Points series is a one-stop resource for understanding the people and events changing America today. This volume is devoted to the rapid rise of vaping across the nation, especially among young people. This trend has prompted fierce debate in communities across the country, with some people heralding "e-cigarettes" and other vaping devices as valuable smoking cessation tools and others condemning them for being unhealthy in their own right-and a gateway to future cigarette consumption. The Vaping Controversy describes the key events and people that provided the foundation for the rise of e-cigarettes and vaping, from governmental and medical efforts to reduce traditional cigarette smoking to the emergence and rapid spread of an entire industry devoted to selling vaping devices and accessories. This volume also explores how vaping has influenced youth culture and high school life, its impact on "old school" tobacco companies, and the increasingly visible partisan divide in attitudes about the public health impact of vaping. * Devotes individual entries to specific events and milestones * Profiles important activists and other notable figures * Explores the lasting impact of the event on American life in essays * Includes a bibliography of sources for further study
Working interprofessionally is an essential part of successful health and social care provision in the twenty-first century. This engaging and easy-to-follow new text highlights the need for collaboration between practitioners from all branches of health and social care. It offers an indispensable guide to learning and working better together, and shows what being interprofessional really means. The book encourages students to sharpen their understanding of concepts and theories surrounding collaborative practice, with a clear emphasis on theory, policy and practice. Chapter-by-chapter, the book takes readers through the most important and relevant issues in contemporary health and social care, including working in teams, learning from others, policy issues, working with children and adults, and specialist practice. Through student-friendly case studies and thoughtful learning exercises, it also considers ways of applying these ideas to the real world. It covers work across the statutory, voluntary and community sectors, drawing on the insights and experiences of a wide range of service users, carers and a variety of practitioners. Being Interprofessional will be essential reading for students and practitioners in all branches of health and social care, such as nursing, social work, midwifery and youth work. Whatever their background, it will inspire readers to find new ways of working together to meet the needs of patients and clients.
Global public health has improved vastly during the past 25 years, and especially in the survival of infants and young children. However, many of these children, particularly in Africa, continue to live in poverty and in unhealthy, unsupportive environments, and will not be able to meet their developmental potential. In other words, they will survive but not thrive. The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) stress sustainable development, not just survival and disease reduction, and the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health proposes a Survive (end preventable deaths), Thrive (ensure health and wellbeing) and Transform (expand enabling environments) agenda. For children to thrive they must make good developmental progress from birth until the end of adolescence.
Addressing the social determinants of developmental problems, this volume offers a broad, contextualised understanding of the factors that impact on children and adolescents in Africa. Unlike other works on the subject it is Africa-wide in its scope, with case studies in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda and South Africa. Covering mental health as well as physical and social development, it looks at policies and practice, culture and priorities for research, identifying challenges and proposing solutions.
Recommended for academics, students and practitioners in psychology, including developmental psychology, child clinical psychology, developmental psychopathology, psychiatry, human ecology, and in schools of education. It will also be of interest to nurses and paediatricians, health workers and those interested in early childhood development.
The Intervention Mapping bible, updated with new theory, trends, and cases Planning Health Promotion Programs is the "bible" of the field, guiding students and practitioners through the planning process from a highly practical perspective. Using an original framework called Intervention Mapping, this book presents a series of steps, tasks, and processes that help you develop effective health promotion and education programs using a variety of approaches. As no single model can accurately predict all health behavior or environmental changes, this book shows you how to choose useful theories and integrate constructs from multiple theories to describe health problems and develop appropriate promotion and education solutions. This new fourth edition has been streamlined for efficiency, with information on the latest theories and trends in public health, including competency-based training and inter-professional education. New examples and case studies show you these concepts in action, and the companion website provides lecture slides, additional case studies, and a test bank to bring this book directly into the classroom. Health education and health promotion is a central function of many public health roles, and new models, theories, and planning approaches are always emerging. This book guides you through the planning process using the latest developments in the field, and a practical approach that serves across discipline boundaries. * Merge multiple theories into a single health education solution * Learn the methods and processes of intervention planning * Gain a practical understanding of multiple planning approaches * Get up to date on the latest theories, trends, and developments in the field Both academic and practice settings need a realistic planning handbook based on system, not prescription. Planning Health Promotion Programs is the essential guide to the process, equipping you with the knowledge and skills to develop solutions without a one-size-fits-all approach.
In recent decades, we have seen five perilous and interlocking trends dominate global discourse: irreversible climate change, extreme food and water shortages, rising chronic illnesses, and rampant obesity. Why can't we make any progress in counteracting these problems despite vast expenditures of intellectual, institutional, and social capital? What makes these global emergencies the "wicked problems" that resist our best efforts and only grow more daunting? Daniel Callahan, noted author and the nation's preeminent scholar in bioethics, examines these global problems and shines a light on the institutions, practices, and actors that block major change. We see partisan political and ideological forces, old-fashioned hucksters, and trumped-up scientific disagreements but also the problem of modern progress itself. Obesity, anthropogenic climate change, degenerative diseases, ecological degradation, and global famine are often the unintended consequences of unchecked industrial growth, insatiable eating habits, and technologically extended life spans. Only through well-crafted political, regulatory, industrial, and cultural counterstrategies can we change enough minds to check these threats. With big thinking on issues that are usually evaluated separately, this book is sure to scramble partisan divides and provoke unusual, heated debate.
The concept of expressing acidity as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration was defined and termed pH in the beginning of the 20th century. The general usefulness of the pH concept for life science was recognized and later gained importance to analytical research. Reports on results of pH measurements from living skin established the term acid mantle - the skin's own protective shield that maintains a naturally acid pH. It is invisible to the eye but crucial to the overall wellbeing of skin. Chronic alkalization can throw this acid mantle out of balance, leading to inflammation, dermatitis, and atopic skin diseases. It is therefore no surprise, that skin pH shifts have been observed in various skin pathologies. It is also obvious that the pH in topically applied preparations may play an important role. Optimal pH and buffer capacity within topical preparations not only support stability of active ingredients and auxiliary materials, but may also increase absorption of the non-ionized species of an acidic or a basic active ingredient. They may even open up opportunities to modify and "correct" skin pH and hence accelerate barrier recovery and maintain or enhance barrier integrity. Further efforts are needed to standardize and improve pH measurements in biological media or pharmaceutical/cosmetic vehicles to increase and ensure quality, comparability, and relevance of research data. In this volume, we present a unique collection of papers that address past, present and future issues of the pH of healthy and diseased skin. It is hoped that this collection will foster future efforts in clinical and experimental skin research.
This important title brings together a distinguished panel of thought-leaders, known for their insights into the development and application of minimally-invasive surgical and endovascular techniques, to provide a comprehensive and discerning compendium of our most current knowledge and state-of-the-art procedures in the management of cerebral vascular diseases. Written in a style that is accessible to students and experienced practitioners alike, the book covers all the important recent advances that have reshaped the field in dramatic ways. Emphasizing how surgical and endovascular techniques are complementary, the volume includes illuminating chapters on the nexus of endovascular and conventional "open" cerebrovascular surgery, including patient assessment and practice in a hybrid operating environment, utilizing the best methods to achieve optimal outcomes. A major addition to the clinical literature, Management of Cerebrovascular Disorders: A Comprehensive, Multidisciplinary Approach will be of significant interest to neurosurgeons, neurologists, neuroradiologists, neurointensivists, students, residents, fellows, and specialized attending physicians.
This volume argues for the importance of essential nutrients in our diet. Over the last two decades there has been an explosion of research on the relationship of Omega-3 fatty acids and the importance of antioxidants to human health. Expert authors discuss the importance of a diet rich in Omega-3 Fatty acids for successful human growth and development and for the prevention of disease. Chapters highlight their contribution to the prevention and amelioration of a wide range of conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, obesity, mental health and bone health. An indispensable text designed for nutritionists, dietitians, clinicians and health related professionals, Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Keys to Nutritional Health presents a comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge about the nutritional effects of Omega-3 fatty acids and their delivery in foods.
The bestselling guide to the field, updated with a new, more relevant perspective Health Care Information Systems is the gold-standard textbook for the field, providing in-depth coverage of real-world health information management. Merging general concepts with practical detail, this book provides students with a highly transferable skill set that transitions seamlessly into practice. This new fourth edition has been completely reworked to reflect the health care system's evolving needs, providing a big-picture health system perspective on information systems throughout the continuum of care. Coverage of new and emerging technologies and population health management offers engaging discussion of current shifts in the health care industry, and case studies have been updated and expanded to provide additional illustration of important concepts. Recent years have brought significant changes to the health care industry, and information management is becoming an increasingly critical part of managing health and healthcare; this book provides essential guidance toward all aspects of the field. * Learn how information systems are used across the health care continuum * Discover the role of IT in managing health, patient engagement, and care management * Explore the latest technologies that facilitate the management of sensitive information * Delve into increasing trends, such as population health management Health care reform, accountable care, and an increasingly global focus has turned the health care data stream into a deluge. Information systems are becoming increasingly powerful, but they are of little use unless backed by practitioners with a deep understanding of both information management and the health care system. Health Care Information Systems equips future health care managers to serve the needs of any health care organization.
Enhance your students' practical skills and develop their key content knowledge with this proven formula for effective, structured revision. Target success in OCR's Cambridge Technical Level 3 Health and Social Care with this revision guide that brings together exam-style questions, revision tasks and practical tips to help students to review, strengthen and test their knowledge. With My Revision Notes, every student can: - Enjoy an interactive approach to revision, with clear topic summaries that consolidate knowledge and related activities that put the content into context. - Plan and manage a successful revision programme using the topic-by-topic planner. - Build, practise and enhance exam skills by progressing through revision tasks and Test Yourself activities. - Improve exam technique through exam-style questions and sample answers with commentary from an expert author and teacher. - Get exam ready with answers to the activities available online
This book focuses on the modelling of contemporary health and social problems, especially those considered a major burden to communities, governments and taxpayers, such as smoking, alcoholism, drug use, and heart disease. Based on a series of papers presented at a recent conference hosted by the Leverhulme-funded Tipping Points project at the University of Durham, this book illustrates a broad range of modelling approaches. Such a diverse collection demonstrates that an interdisciplinary approach is essential to modelling tipping points in health and social problems, and the assessment of associated risk and resilience.
This book covers recent developments in the implementation of a European collaboration for assessing cross-border toxicological threats. It discusses the European guidelines for the risk assessment and management of serious international public health dangers. It covers REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & restriction of Chemicals) directives and the work of the ASHT (Alerting System for Chemical Health Threats) project. It is applicable to regulators, toxicologists, poisons centres, industrialists and COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health) specialists.
Perhaps more than any other American city, Chicago has been a center for the study of both urban history and economic inequity. Community Health Equity assembles a century of research to show the range of effects that Chicago's structural socioeconomic inequalities have had on patients and medical facilities alike. The work collected here makes clear that when a city is sharply divided by power, wealth, and race, the citizens who most need high-quality health care and social services have the greatest difficulty accessing them. Achieving good health is not simply a matter of making the right choices as an individual, the research demonstrates: it's the product of large-scale political and economic forces. Understanding these forces, and what we can do to correct them, should be critical not only to doctors but to sociologists and students of the urban environment--and no city offers more inspiring examples for action to overcome social injustice in health than Chicago.
Unlock the secret to successful innovation-with this groundbreaking guide from the Chief Innovation Officer of Cleveland Clinic A world-renowned leader in medical innovation, Cleveland Clinic has revolutionized the industry with a proven working model for mission-driven, results-oriented success. Now you, too, can implement these best practices in your organization-to stimulate creative ideation, operationalize and execute the process, and develop game-changing technologies that serve customers and benefit the business.Packed with enterprising solutions-and backed by a sterling success record-the Cleveland Clinic approach can be applied to any organization, whether your goal is to deliver robust services, build customer loyalty, or gain that competitive edge. It's a must-read for every forward-thinking leader, and sure to be a classic in the field.Thomas J. Graham, MD, is the Chief Innovation Officer of Cleveland Clinic and Vice Chairman of Orthopedic Surgery. A prolific inventor and serial entrepreneur, he is regularly recognized as one of America's Best Doctors.
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