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"An invaluable primer on how inequity breeds ill health" -New England Journal of Medicine AN ESSENTIAL WORK ON SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH, NOW UPDATED AND EXPANDED This newly revised edition of the classic text is a comprehensive, up-to-date resource for understanding and addressing the profound impacts of social injustice on public health. Across chapters from experts in health and medicine, readers learn to recognize both the threads of inequity and the health impacts they produce. The result is illuminating and essential reading for students and professionals in public health. Enriched with photographs and case examples and featuring contributions from the luminaries whose work helped define the field, Social Injustice and Public Health is a foundational text for understanding and addressing today's biggest challenges in health.
The Deep South has seen a 36 percent increase in AIDS cases while the rest of the nation has seen a 2 percent decline. Many of the underlying reasons for the disease's continued spread in the region-ignorance about HIV, reluctance to get tested, non-adherence to treatment protocols, resistance to behavioral changes-remain unaddressed by policymakers. In this extensively revised second edition, Kathryn Whetten and Brian Wells Pence present a rich discussion of twenty-five ethnographic life stories of people living with HIV in the South. Most importantly, they incorporate research from their recent quantitative study, "Coping with HIV/AIDS in the Southeast" (CHASE), which includes 611 HIV-positive patients from North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana. This new edition continues to bring the participants' voices to life while highlighting how the CHASE study confirmed many of the themes that originally emerged from the life histories. This is the first cohesive compilation of up-to-date evidence on the unique and difficult aspects of living with HIV in the Deep South.
This book introduces China's public health work in detail, including its scope and characteristics, its history and evolution, its achievements and experience, the guiding principles for health development, health service system, public health education as well as science and technology of public health. In this book, opportunities and challenges of China's public health are also presented, along with the prospects of future development. Over the sixty years, China has made remarkable achievements in the areas such as the national immunization program, maternal and child health, disease surveillance, the establishment of a public health information system and its application, as well as the improvement of people's health, with tremendous experience and best practices being accumulated. In the new era, China starts a new journey towards building Healthy China, which is of great significance for the country's public health development. The international community will have a better understanding of the history and current situation of China's public health, as well as its achievements and contributions made to date, from reading this book.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer can have devastating side effects on the skin of a patient. This innovative guide for both dermatologists and oncologists gives a good introduction both to therapy regimes and to dermatological management for medical professionals treating their patients.
After Haiti's 2010 earthquake, over half of U.S. households donated
to thousands of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in that
country. Yet we continue to hear stories of misery from Haiti. Why
have NGOs failed at their mission?
Determinants of health - like physical activity levels and living conditions - have traditionally been the concern of public health and have not been linked closely to clinical practice. However, if standardized social and behavioral data can be incorporated into patient electronic health records (EHRs), those data can provide crucial information about factors that influence health and the effectiveness of treatment. Such information is useful for diagnosis, treatment choices, policy, health care system design, and innovations to improve health outcomes and reduce health care costs. Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains and Measures in Electronic Health Records: Phase 2 identifies domains and measures that capture the social determinants of health to inform the development of recommendations for the meaningful use of EHRs. This report is the second part of a two-part study. The Phase 1 report identified 17 domains for inclusion in EHRs. This report pinpoints 12 measures related to 11 of the initial domains and considers the implications of incorporating them into all EHRs. This book includes three chapters from the Phase 1 report in addition to the new Phase 2 material. Standardized use of EHRs that include social and behavioral domains could provide better patient care, improve population health, and enable more informative research. The recommendations of Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains and Measures in Electronic Health Records: Phase 2 will provide valuable information on which to base problem identification, clinical diagnoses, patient treatment, outcomes assessment, and population health measurement.
Between 1965 and 1987, the cesarean section rate in the United States rose precipitously-from 4.5 percent to 25 percent of births. By 2009, one in three births was by cesarean, a far higher number than the 5-10% rate that the World Health Organization suggests is optimal. While physicians largely avoided cesareans through the mid-twentieth century, by the early twenty-first century, cesarean section was the most commonly performed surgery in the country. Although the procedure can be lifesaving, how-and why-did it become so ubiquitous? Cesarean Section is the first book to chronicle this history. In exploring the creation of the complex social, cultural, economic, and medical factors leading to the surgery's increase, Jacqueline H. Wolf describes obstetricians' reliance on assorted medical technologies that weakened the skills they had traditionally employed to foster vaginal birth. She also reflects on an unsettling malpractice climate-prompted in part by a raft of dubious diagnoses-that helped to legitimize "defensive medicine," and a health care system that ensured cesarean birth would be more lucrative than vaginal birth. In exaggerating the risks of vaginal birth, doctors and patients alike came to view cesareans as normal and, increasingly, as essential. Sweeping change in women's lives beginning in the 1970s cemented this markedly different approach to childbirth. Wolf examines the public health effects of a high cesarean rate and explains how the language of reproductive choice has been used to discourage debate about cesareans and the risks associated with the surgery. Drawing on data from nineteenth- and early twentieth-century obstetric logs to better represent the experience of cesarean surgery for women of all classes and races, as well as interviews with obstetricians who have performed cesareans and women who have given birth by cesarean, Cesarean Section is the definitive history of the use of this surgical procedure and its effects on women's and children's health in the United States.
No single discipline can provide a full account of why health care is the way it is. Introducing an accessible overview of health services and drawing on medicine, sociology, economics, history and epidemiology, this book provides a series of conceptual frameworks which help to clarify some of the complexity that confronts the inexperienced observer. Helping to determine what influences and shapes health services, it also examines some of the key processes involved in providing healthcare, considering three levels: individual patients, health care organizations such as hospitals, and regional or national institutions such as governments. This second edition has been updated to include recent developments and further examples and activities from low, middle and high income countries. The book examines: * how medical knowledge, staff, patients and finance shape health services * what factors influence utilization of health services * the roles played by users of health services * how to define and measure outcomes and assess performance * how practice and policy can be changed to improve the quality of health care Understanding Health Services, 2nd Edition is an essential resource for students of public health and health policy, researchers, public health practitioners and policy makers. Understanding Public Health is an innovative series published by Open University Press in collaboration with the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, where it is used as a key learning resource for postgraduate programmes. It provides self-directed learning covering the major issues in public health affecting low, middle and high income countries. "This excellent book provides an ideal background to understanding how health services work and how they can be studied. Not tied to any particular country, it includes key chapters on how health services have developed and are organised, need and demand, the role of health professionals, and measuring and improving quality of care. The book is ideal reading for students on Masters courses in public health and related subjects from high-, middle- and low-income countries and includes learning objectives and exercises in each chapter which can be completed individually or used for discussion. Strongly recommended." Martin Roland, Emeritus Professor of Health Services Research, University of Cambridge, UK "Health services are central to attaining high levels of population health and providing those services consumes a substantial share of our financial resources. This book provides a splendid introduction to many of the key building blocks including medical knowledge and other key inputs, payment and other factors that influence utilization, and in turn quality of care and outcomes. The learning objectives are a wonderful aid for self-directed learning as are the directed activities and feedback, the text is lucid and the main concepts are very easy to access. This is a great book for someone looking to develop a broad understanding of health services. I will be surprised if it does not become a classic. It will surely be at the top of my list of recommended readings for my own students." Arnold M Epstein, John H Foster Professor and Chair, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, USA
As health policy at a national level has ever increasing impact on local health services, it is essential that public health students understand how the development and implementation of policy and strategy provide the framework for improving quality, innovation, productivity and prevention in the delivery of healthcare.
The book is divided into two sections, with section one covering a strategic overview of national policies, and section two giving specific local implementation of policy examples to support section one. Case studies and examples will help the reader to understand the policy and strategy and to apply them to their local setting.
Written by a team of medical experts, this market-leading dictionary offers clear and authoritative definitions for all aspects of medical science. It features up-to-date coverage of public health medicine, medical research and general practice, drugs and pharmacology, endocrinology, cardiology and radiology, among other specialist areas. This new edition has been revised and updated to reflect advancements in medical research and practice, while over 250 new entries have been added, including American Medical Association, burden of treatment, gaming disorder, MERS, person-centred care, and Zika virus. Recommended web links and detailed illustrations complement the text, and extensive appendices offer useful lists and tables on areas such as inherited medical conditions, units of alcohol, and abbreviations and symbols. Selling over a million copies in previous editions, this is an essential A-Z for students and those working in the medical and allied professions, including nurses, pharmacists, physiotherapists, social workers, hospital administrators, and medical secretaries. It is also an invaluable home reference guide for the general reader.
This volume examines the various challenges in access to health issues and the role of intellectual property rights in access to drugs as well as the scope for using traditional medicine in public health. The volume examines the Health Impact Fund, a mechanism proposed to incentivize research and development in neglected diseases and enhance access to drugs. It also analyzes how China and India can cooperate in the traditional medicine sector: providing reviews on the status of traditional medicine in both countries, the challenges of regulating that sector in China and India, intellectual property rights, and industrial policy. This is a unique collection of research essays that makes a significant contribution to the debates about access to medicine and role of traditional medicine in public health. A team of experts from China, India, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the Philippines have contributed to the volume and include Fatima Alvarez-Castillo, Rosa Cordillera Castillo, David Coles, Lynn J. Frewer, T. C. James, Jing Liu, Jon Pedersen, Wu Qunhong, K. Satyanarayana, Sun Xiaoyun, Liu Yan, Li Zhe, and Gao Zhiqian.
While a number of books have looked at the intersection between human health in general and other topics, such as climate change or diet, this book focuses specifically on cancer as it impacts and is impacted by social justice issues. The massive explosion of research knowledge of cancer immunology and genomics is holding out great promise of therapeutic advances, yet other human actions-climate change, pollution, business decisions, advertising - are fostering health inequalities as well as increasing risks. Those involved in cancer care and research are in a unique position to let their experiences and knowledge inform the public, yet very often have not taken strong public roles when it comes to discussing issues surrounding tobacco, climate change and health risks, financial toxicity of treatments, and diet choices. Written by a multidisciplinary team of authors and for medical oncologists, cancer researchers, occupational health workers, and related medical students, residents, and fellows, this book encourages oncologists to address public health care and the societal issues associated with cancer risk. This volume discusses the overarching theme of environmental justice and oncology, focuses on business and cancer (such as clinical trials, drug development and profits, and global disparities), as well as animals and cancer.
The food system is broken, but there is a revolution underway to fix it. Bite Back presents an urgent call to action and a vision for disrupting corporate power in the food system, a vision shared with countless organizers and advocates worldwide. In this provocative and inspiring new book, editors Saru Jayaraman and Kathryn De Master bring together leading experts and activists who are challenging corporate power by addressing injustices in our food system, from wage inequality to environmental destruction to corporate bullying. In paired chapters, authors present a problem arising from corporate control of the food system and then recount how an organizing campaign successfully tackled it. This unique solutions-oriented book allows readers to explore the core contemporary challenges embedded in our food system and learn how we can push back against corporate greed to benefit workers and consumers everywhere.
.".". this book was written from start to finish by one extremely dedicated and erudite individual. The author has done an excellent job of covering the many topics that fall under the umbrella of computational biology for vaccine design, demonstrating an admirable command of subject matter in fields as disparate as object-oriented databases and regulation of T cell response. Simply put, it has just the right breadth and depth, and it reads well. In fact, readability is one of its virtues--making the book enticing and useful, all at once..."" Human Vaccines, 2010
.".". This book has several strong points. Although there are many textbooks that deal with vaccinology, few attempts have been made to bring together descriptions of vaccines in history, basic bioinformatics, various computational solutions and challenges in vaccinology, detailed experimental methodologies, and cutting-edge technologies... This book may well serve as a first line of reference for all biologists and computer scientists..."" -Virology Journal, 2009
Vaccinology now has at its disposal an array of post-genomic approaches of great power. None has a more persuasive potential impact than the application of computational informatics to vaccine discovery; the recent expansion in genome data and the parallel increase in cheap computing power have placed the bioinformatics exploration of pathogen genomes centre stage for vaccine researchers.
This is the first book to address the area of bioinformatics as applied to rational vaccine design, discussing the ways in which bioinformatics can contribute to improved vaccine development byintroducing the subject of harnessing the mathematical and computing power inherent in bioinformatics to the study of vaccinologyputting it into a historical and societal context, and exploring the scope of its methods and applications.
"Bioinformatics for Vaccinology" is a one-stop introduction to computational vaccinology. It will be of particular interest to bioinformaticians with an interest in immunology, as well as to immunologists, and other biologists who need to understand how advances in theoretical and computational immunobiology can transform their working practices.
Covering both principles and practice, The ESC Textbook of Preventive Cardiology is a 'state of the art' resource for both the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Comprehensive, practical and extensively linked to practice guidelines and recommendations from the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC) it clearly connects the latest evidence base to strategies and proposals for the implementation of prevention in clinical practice. With a strong clinical focus the topics covered range from epidemiology and risk stratification through psychological factors, behaviour and motivation to secondary prevention, integrating hospital-based and community care for cardiovascular disease prevention and information on cardio-protective drugs. Case studies, clinical decision-making trees and drug tables with recommended doses and potential side-effects make it easier than ever to implement treatments in practice. Drawing together current knowledge and evidence, and examining all aspects of preventive cardiology in one succinct volume, The ESC Textbook of Preventive Cardiology is the ideal guide for the physician and allied health professional working to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease in their daily practice. This print edition of The ESC Textbook of Preventive Cardiology comes with access to the online version on Oxford Medicine Online, for as long as the edition is published by Oxford University Press. By activating your unique access code, you can read and annotate the full text online, follow links from the references to primary research materials, and view, enlarge and download all the figures and tables.
This book is about communicating for health and social change. With a clear focus on public health and health promotion practice, it provides a unique introduction to media and cultural studies perspectives on health communication. Health Communication explores the dynamic world of contemporary mass media and diverse forms of alternative, mobile and social media: * How are communities using media to communicate about health and advocate for social change? * What are the challenges and opportunities involved with using the media for health communication? * How can health promotion practitioners utilise media to create opportunities for more participatory and empowering approaches to health communication? This indispensable guide to health communication provides readers with detailed and practical insights into the role of media and culture in contemporary health issues. Accessible theory is blended with case studies from around the world giving students, academics, and practitioners an invaluable framework for practice and a rich source of material for discussion.
Drug resistance continues to be a major problem in the effective treatment of many diseases. Resistance to chemotherapy, whether intrinsic or extrinsic, is the result of at least three well defined mechanisms: prevention of the interaction of drug with the target, decreased intracellular concentration of the drug due to an increased efflux or a decreased influx, and enzymatic modification or destruction of the drug. With the advancement in technology, the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance have been unravelling at a rapid rate. This book is a timely review of such advances in drug resistance research. The nine chapters of this book, written by a group of clinicians and scientists, elegantly summarises recent advances in our understanding of this important clinical problem with emphasis on cisplatin, fibroblasts, natural compounds, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, prostate cancer and kidney cancer. This book will be an important contribution to science, and an invaluable tool for researchers who are interested in drug resistance.
A bold, original book that sheds new light on our understanding of the role courage plays in healthcare. Critically analysing both the positive and negative implications of the presence of courage in delivering care, the authors present literature, theory, and detailed examples from practice, including whistleblowers' own accounts of courage-demanding situations. With a view to promoting better patient outcomes, well-being for practitioners, and support for those who feel compelled to 'speak out' and challenge bad practice, Courage in Healthcare is an invaluable resource for any healthcare practitioner working in the NHS today, a rallying call and a practical guide.
An engaging history of the role that George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin played in the origins of public health in America Before the advent of modern antibiotics, one's life could be abruptly shattered by contagion and death, and debility from infectious diseases and epidemics was commonplace for early Americans, regardless of social status. Concerns over health affected the founding fathers and their families as it did slaves, merchants, immigrants, and everyone else in North America. As both victims of illness and national leaders, the Founders occupied a unique position regarding the development of public health in America. Revolutionary Medicine refocuses the study of the lives of George and Martha Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John and Abigail Adams, and James and Dolley Madison away from the usual lens of politics to the unique perspective of sickness, health, and medicine in their era. For the founders, republican ideals fostered a reciprocal connection between individual health and the "health" of the nation. Studying the encounters of these American founders with illness and disease, as well as their viewpoints about good health, not only provides us with a richer and more nuanced insight into their lives, but also opens a window into the practice of medicine in the eighteenth century, which is at once intimate, personal, and first hand. Perhaps most importantly, today's American public health initiatives have their roots in the work of America's founders, for they recognized early on that government had compelling reasons to shoulder some new responsibilities with respect to ensuring the health and well-being of its citizenry. The state of medicine and public healthcare today is still a work in progress, but these founders played a significant role in beginning the conversation that shaped the contours of its development.
The fields of global health and international relations are increasingly concerned with the responsibilities of nations to respond to disease outbreaks in a way that safeguards their neighbors as well as the broader international community. In Containing Contagion, Sara E. Davies focuses on one of the world's most pivotal (and riskiest) regions in the field of global health-Southeast Asia, which in recent years has responded to a wave of emerging and endemic infectious disease outbreaks ranging from Nipah, SARS, and avian flu to dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Between 2005 and 2010, Davies explains, Southeast Asian states, despite having vastly different health system capacities and political systems, repeatedly committed to pursue a collective approach to the communication of outbreaks. Davies draws on newly gathered data and extensive field interviews to explore how these states implemented the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) through the deliberate alignment of political interests and regional cooperation. Examining why these Southeast Asian states adopted a collective approach, Davies also describes the complications that ensued and traces the consequences of this approach. The first book to explore what problems exist in the relationship between international relations and health, Containing Contagion frames contrasting views of global health agency within the current crises that are facing global health. Providing an immediate, contemporary example of a region networking its response to disease outbreak events, this insightful book will appeal to global health governance scholars, students, and practitioners.
This second edition updates the reader on the most common intrauterine transmitted viral infection, CMV. The history of this disease, its pathophysiological background, epidemiology and symptoms, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, will be discussed in detail. Further a section specifically dedicated to prevention measures is included to the new edition. The chapter on virus-host interaction for defense and transmission is elaborately updated.
Reveals the global effects of the bubonic plague, and what we can learn from this earlier pandemic A century ago, the third bubonic plague swept the globe, taking more than 15 million lives. Plague Ports tells the story of ten cities on five continents that were ravaged by the epidemic in its initial years: Hong Kong and Bombay, the Asian emporiums of the British Empire where the epidemic first surfaced; Sydney, Honolulu and San Francisco, three "pearls" of the Pacific; Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro in South America; Alexandria and Cape Town in Africa; and Oporto in Europe. Myron Echenberg examines plague's impact in each of these cities, on the politicians, the medical and public health authorities, and especially on the citizenry, many of whom were recent migrants crammed into grim living spaces. He looks at how different cultures sought to cope with the challenge of deadly epidemic disease, and explains the political, racial, and medical ineptitudes and ignorance that allowed the plague to flourish. The forces of globalization and industrialization, Echenberg argues, had so increased the transmission of microorganisms that infectious disease pandemics were likely, if not inevitable. This fascinating, expansive history, enlivened by harrowing photographs and maps of each city, sheds light on urbanism and modernity at the turn of the century, as well as on glaring public health inequalities. With the recent outbreak of COVID-19, and ongoing fears of bioterrorism, Plague Ports offers a necessary and timely historical lesson.
"What is public health and why is it important?" By looking at the foundations of public health, its historical evolution, the themes that underpin public health and the increasing importance of globalization, this book provides thorough answers to these important questions.
Written by experts in the field, the book discusses the core issues of modern public health, such as tackling vested interests head on, empowering people so they can make healthy decisions, and recognising the political nature of the issues. The new edition has been updated to identify good modern public health practice, evolving from evidence. New features include: Two new chapters on the expanding role of public health, covering the issues of sustainability and climate change, human rights, genetics and armed conflict Expanded UK and international examples Examination of the impact of globalization on higher and lower income countries Exploration of the tension between the population approach and the personal behaviour change model of health promotion A variety of activities to help understanding and learning of the topics "Issues in Public Health" is an ideal introductory text for higher education students studying public health in depth.
Series Editors: Rosalind Plowman and Nicki Thorogood.
Urban slum dwellers - especially in emerging-economy countries - are often poor, live in squalor, and suffer unnecessarily from disease, disability, premature death, and reduced life expectancy. Yet living in a city can and should be healthy. Slum Health exposes how and why slums can be unhealthy; reveals that not all slums are equal in terms of the hazards and health issues faced by residents; and suggests how slum dwellers, scientists, and social movements can come together to make slum life safer, more just, and healthier. Editors Jason Corburn and Lee Riley argue that valuing both new biologic and "street" science-professional and lay knowledge-is crucial for improving the well-being of the millions of urban poor living in slums.
The training provided by this DVD is designed for a wide range of primary care health professionals including GPs, nurses, occupational health, rehabilitation and many others. This DVD will help busy health professionals learn effective cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) skills to use in primary care consultations with patients presenting with health anxiety, medically unexplained symptoms and functional somatic disorders. Key features include: * Management of patients with high levels of anxiety about health * How to build rapport and avoid excessive investigations and referrals * Managing frequent attendances at primary care services * CBT strategies to encourage self-management and facilitate behavioural change * Patients presenting with 'tired all the time' and chronic fatigue * Managing irritable bowel syndrome DVD ROM contains printable worksheets. Running time: 85 minutes approx.
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