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A public health approach to the US food system Introduction to the US Food System: Public Health, Environment, and Equity is a comprehensive and engaging textbook that offers students an overview of today's US food system, with particular focus on the food system's interrelationships with public health, the environment, equity, and society. Using a classroom-friendly approach, the text covers the core content of the food system and provides evidence-based perspectives reflecting the tremendous breadth of issues and ideas important to understanding today's US food system. The book is rich with illustrative examples, case studies, activities, and discussion questions. The textbook is a project of the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future (CLF), and builds upon the Center's educational mission to examine the complex interrelationships between diet, food production, environment, and human health to advance an ecological perspective in reducing threats to the health of the public, and to promote policies that protect health, the global environment, and the ability to sustain life for future generations. Issues covered in Introduction to the US Food System include food insecurity, social justice, community and worker health concerns, food marketing, nutrition, resource depletion, and ecological degradation. * Presents concepts on the foundations of the US food system, crop production, food system economics, processing and packaging, consumption and overconsumption, and the environmental impacts of food * Examines the political factors that influence food and how it is produced * Ideal for students and professionals in many fields, including public health, nutritional science, nursing, medicine, environment, policy, business, and social science, among others Introduction to the US Food System presents a broad view of today's US food system in all its complexity and provides opportunities for students to examine the food system's stickiest problems and think critically about solutions.
Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors, 3rd Edition is the award-winning, essential textbook and guide for understanding and achieving customer-focused, evidence-based health care design excellence. This updated third edition includes new information about how all aspects of health facility design site planning, architecture, interiors, product design, graphic design, and others - can meet the needs and reflect the preferences of customers: patients, family and visitors, as well as staff. The book takes readers on a journey through a typical health facility and discusses, in detail, at each stop along the way, how design can demonstrate care both for and about patients and visitors. Design that Cares provides the definitive roadmap to improving customer experience by design.
The immune system has incredible power to protect us from the ravages of infection. Boosted by vaccines, it can protect us from diseases such as measles. However, the power of the immune system is a double-edged sword: an overactive immune system can wreak havoc, destroying normal tissue and causing diseases such as type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. The consequences of an impaired immune system, on the other hand, are all too evident in the agonies of AIDS. Packed with illustrations, stories from Dr. William E. Paul's distinguished career, and fascinating accounts of scientific discovery, Immunity presents the three laws of the human immune system-universality, tolerance, and appropriateness-and explains how the system both protects and harms us. From the tale of how smallpox was overcome and the lessons of the Ebola epidemic to the hope that the immune system can be used to treat or prevent cancer, Dr. Paul argues that we must take advantage of cutting-edge technologies and promising new tools in immunological research.
Provides a comprehensive examination of emergency management and offers concepts and strategies for creating effective programs This book looks at the larger context within which emergency management response occurs, and stresses the development of a program to address a wide range of issues. Not limited to traditional emergency response to natural disasters, it addresses a conceptual model capable of integrating multiple disciplines and dealing with unexpected emergencies. Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Second Edition starts by focusing on the three pillars on which successful emergency management is based: an understanding of history, knowledge of social science research, and technical expertise in emergency management operations. It provides insight as to how emergency management has evolved and suggests reasons why the current method of response planning doesn't work as well as it should. The book then goes on to discuss establishing and administering the emergency management program. It looks at the analysis of risk as the basis for strategy development, and considers both the traditional macro view of hazard identification and analysis as well as the micro view required for continuity planning. Strategy development is examined next, followed by coverage of planning process, techniques and methods. The book finishes with chapters on coordinating response, leading in crisis, and crisis management. Features two new chapters on the development of national response strategy and leadership in a crisis Incorporates the Principles of Emergency Management adopted by many emergency management professional associations and agencies Encourages the development of an enterprise wide program to address a wide range of potential threats Covers the various phases of comprehensive emergency management Integrates academic research with practical experience and case studies Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs is an important book that will benefit students, law enforcement, and state and local emergency managers and planners involved in emergency management.
This book focuses on improving well-being among young children. It provides a theoretical base explaining why physical activity is important, and offers practical strategies for increasing health and well-being in early childhood settings. It takes ancient wisdom on the mind and body connection, applies it to the youngest children, and supports it with current empirical and international evidence-all with an eye toward improving wellness across the lifespan. The many topics discussed in the book include children's motor skills, movement, interaction, physical literacy, the use of video games, dog ownership, developmental delays, as well as strategies to improve physical activities in the classroom and broader contexts. In recent years, children's health has become a priority worldwide. Topics such as "screen time" "sedentary behavior" and "childhood obesity" have become important issues everywhere- in the news, in schools, in community and commercials settings, and among health care providers. Limiting sedentary behavior, increasing physical activity, and maintaining a nutritious diet are three fundamental needs during early childhood. Preschool years are a time when children begin to explore the world around them, and develop more vivid understandings of their surroundings. As this book shows, the early years may be the best time to teach wellness concepts and assist young children in establishing healthy lifestyle habits.
In 2001, the WHO recognized depressive disorders as the leading cause of disability worldwide. But most Americans who meet diagnostic criteria for major depression are untreated or undertreated. Luckily, recent advances have finally made it possible for the field of public health to address mental health in the population. Public Health Perspectives on Depressive Disorders fills a gap by identifying the tools and strategies of public health practice and by exploring their application to twenty-first-century public mental health policy and practice. By looking at depressive disorders through a public health lens, this book highlights the centrality of mental health to public health. Linking the available research on depressive illness at the population level with public mental health policy and practice, expert contributors set a research agenda that will help make mental health a central part of public health science and practice. This book is an invaluable resource for researchers and practitioners to develop, facilitate, and conduct pilot and feasibility studies of promising preventive and treatment interventions that might mitigate the progression toward major depression and other mental disorders among populations at risk. The first part of the book underscores the public health significance of depressive illness by focusing on the evidence provided by recent approaches to nosology, epidemiology, illness burden, and impact on overall health. The second part looks at the social and environmental influences on depressive disorders that are critical to future efforts to prevent illness and to promote mentally healthy communities. The third and longest part addresses the vulnerability of diverse groups to depressive illness and underscore best practices to mitigate risk while improving both the preventive and therapeutic armamentaria.
A pioneering cardiac surgeon expertly sews up the heart of surgery, the health of the nation, and the NHS.
The Angina Monologues speeds from the transporting of a donor’s heart up the motorway hard shoulder, to cautionary stories of excessive intervention gone awry in US hospitals, to a traumatic trip to bring advanced cardiac surgery to the Palestinian West Bank. Nashef tells heart-stopping stories of transplants, coronary artery bypasses, aorta repair, and cardiac arrest. He also delivers humane advice about medical realities rarely observed: the futility of obsessing over diet, the necessity of calculating risks, the role of decision making, the resilience of doctor and patient alike, and the threadbare brilliance of the NHS.
Nashef is a magnificently warm and likeable doctor and writer; and he has the best imaginable bedside manner.
Population health has recently grown from a series of loosely connected critiques of twentieth-century public health and medicine into a theoretical framework with a corresponding field of research-population health science. Its approach is to promote the public's health through improving everyday human life: afford-able nutritious food, clean air, safe places where children can play, living wages, etc. It recognizes that addressing contemporary health challenges such as the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will take much more than good hospitals and public health departments. Blending philosophy of science/medicine, public health ethics and history, this book offers a framework that explains, analyses and largely endorses the features that define this relatively new field. Presenting a philosophical perspective, Valles helps to clarify what these features are and why they matter, including: searching for health's "upstream" causes in social life, embracing a professional commitment to studying and ameliorating the staggering health inequities in and between populations; and reforming scientific practices to foster humility and respect among the many scientists and non- scientists who must work collaboratively to promote health. Featuring illustrative case studies from around the globe at the end of all main chapters, this radical monograph is written to be accessible to all scholars and advanced students who have an interest in health-from public health students to professional philosophers.
Incorporating the latest developments from the field, this eagerly awaited new edition once again provides an important and comprehensive analysis of the key issues in public health. Exploring the underlying political context and policy processes, this text is core reading for all those interested in the essentials of this area.
"Talaga's research is meticulous and her journalistic style is crisp and uncompromising. She brings each story to life, skillfully weaving the stories of the youths' lives, deaths, and families together with sharp analysis . . . The book is heartbreaking and infuriating, both an important testament to the need for change and a call to action." -- Publishers Weekly *Starred Review* "Talaga has crafted an urgent and unshakable portrait of the horrors faced by Indigenous teens going to school in Thunder Bay, Ontario . . . Talaga's incisive research and breathtaking storytelling could bring this community one step closer to the healing it deserves." -- Booklist *Starred Review* In this urgent and incisive work, bestselling and award-winning author Tanya Talaga explores the alarming rise of youth suicide in Indigenous communities in Canada and beyond. From Northern Ontario to Nunavut, Norway, Brazil, Australia, and the United States, the Indigenous experience in colonized nations is startlingly similar and deeply disturbing. It is an experience marked by the violent separation of Peoples from the land, the separation of families, and the separation of individuals from traditional ways of life -- all of which has culminated in a spiritual separation that has had an enduring impact on generations of Indigenous children. As a result of this colonial legacy, too many communities today lack access to the basic determinants of health -- income, employment, education, a safe environment, health services -- leading to a mental health and youth suicide crisis on a global scale. But, Talaga reminds us, First Peoples also share a history of resistance, resilience, and civil rights activism, from the Occupation of Alcatraz led by the Indians of All Tribes, to the Northern Ontario Stirland Lake Quiet Riot, to the Standing Rock protests against the Dakota Access Pipeline, which united Indigenous Nations from across Turtle Island in solidarity. Based on her Atkinson Fellowship in Public Policy series, All Our Relations is a powerful call for action, justice, and a better, more equitable world for all Indigenous Peoples.
Published in 2008, the first volume of Public Health focused on issues from the dawn of western civilization through the Progressive era. Volume 2 defines the public health challenges of the twentieth century--this important reference covers not only how the discipline addressed the problems of disease, but how it responded to economic, environmental, occupational, and social factors that impacted public health on a global scale. Major illnesses such as cancer, HIV, and tuberculosis are addressed, along with lifestyle concerns, such as tobacco and nutrition. Chapters also explore maternal-child and women's health, dental public health, health economics and ethics, and the role of philanthropy. Each chapter begins with an in-depth introduction, followed by three original articles that illustrate the problem. The volume is enhanced with a detailed chronology of public health events, as well as appendices that contain many of the original documents that ushered public health into the new millennium.
Welcome to the world of sexed-up medicine, where patients have been turned into customers, and clinics and waiting rooms are jammed with healthy people, lured in to have their blood pressure taken and cholesterol, smear test, bowel or breast screening done. In the world of sexed-up medicine pharmaceutical companies gloss over research they don't like and charities often use dubious science and dodgy PR to 'raise awareness' of their disease, leaving a legacy of misinformation in their wake. Our obsession with screening swallows up the time of NHS staff and the money of healthy people who pay thousands to private companies for tests they don't need. Meanwhile, the truly sick are left to wrestle with disjointed services and confusing options. Explaining the truth behind the screening statistics and investigating the evidence behind the hype, Margaret McCartney, an award-winning writer and doctor, argues that this patient paradox - too much testing of well people and not enough care for the sick - worsens health inequalities and drains professionalism, harming both those who need treatment and those who don't.
Highly Commended in the British Medical Association book awards 2011!! The use of theory in the planning and implementation of health promotion programs will more reliably produce positive outcomes. Following on from the success of the second edition, Theory in a Nutshell 3rd Edition explores the main theoretical concepts and models in health promotion and explains the significance, practical application and impact of different theories on the individual, community and organisation. This edition includes concise reviews of established theories, such as social cognitive theory and health belief model, as well as expanding on new developments in the field including evidence-based policy making and health impact assessment. Thoroughly revised and updated, the book maintains the accessible style suitable for public health practitioners, health promotion and health education specialists, epidemiologists and social policy makers, as well as students of public health and health promotion.
Mandated by the Affordable Care Act, public health demonstration projects have been touted as an innovative solution to the nation's health care crisis. Yet, such projects actually have a long but little-known history, dating back to the 1920s. This groundbreaking new book reveals the key role that these local health programs - and the nurses who ran them - influenced how Americans perceived both their personal health choices and the well-being of their communities. Nursing with a Message transports readers to New York City in the 1920s and 1930s, charting the rise and fall of two community health centers, in the neighborhoods of East Harlem and Bellevue-Yorkville. Award-winning historian Patricia D'Antonio examines the day-to-day operations of these clinics, as well as the community outreach work done by nurses who visited schools, churches, and homes encouraging neighborhood residents to adopt healthier lifestyles, engage with preventive physical exams, and see to the health of their preschool children. As she reveals, these programs relied upon an often-contentious and fragile alliance between various healthcare providers, educators, social workers, and funding agencies, both public and private. Assessing both the successes and failures of these public health demonstration projects, D'Antonio also traces their legacy in shaping both the best and worst elements of today's primary care system.
This unique book presents original research from the largest cross-national survey of the epidemiology of mental disorders ever conducted. It provides the latest findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys based on interviews of nearly 150,000 individuals in twenty-six countries on six continents. The book is ordered by specific disorder, with individual chapters dedicated to presenting detailed findings on the prevalence, onset timing, sociodemographic profile, comorbidity, associated impairment and treatment for eighteen mental disorders. There is also discussion of important cross-national consistencies in the epidemiology of mental disorders and highlighting of intriguing patterns of cross-national variation. This is one of the most comprehensive summaries of the epidemiology of mental disorders ever published, making this an invaluable resource for researchers, clinicians, students and policy-makers in the fields of mental and public health.
We all depend on environmental biodiversity for clean air, safe water, adequate nutrition, effective drugs, and protection from infectious diseases. Today's healthcare experts and policymakers are keenly aware that biodiversity is one of the crucial determinants of health-not only for individuals but also for the human population of the planet. Unfortunately, rapid globalization and ongoing environmental degradation mean that biodiversity is rapidly deteriorating, threatening planetary health on a mass scale. In Wounded Planet, Henk A.M.J. ten Have argues that the ethical debate about healthcare has become too narrow and individualized. We must, he writes, adopt a new bioethical discourse-one that deals with issues of justice, equality, vulnerability, human rights, and solidarity-in order to adequately reflect the serious threat that current loss of biodiversity poses to planetary health. Exploring modern environmental challenges in depth, ten Have persuasively demonstrates that environmental concerns can no longer be separated from healthcare challenges, and thus should be included in global bioethics. Going beyond an individualized perspective, he poses audacious questions: What does it mean that patients are poor or uninsured and cannot afford suggested medicines? How can we deal with the air and water pollution that are producing a patient's illness? How do we respond to patients complaining about the safety and quality of drinking water in their neighborhood? Touching on infectious and noncommunicable diseases, as well as food, medicine, and water, Wounded Planet transcends the limited vision of mainstream bioethics to compassionately reveal how healthcare and medicine must take a broad perspective that includes the social and environmental conditions in which individuals live.
First Responder's Guide to Agricultural Chemical Accidents provides emergency safety and health information for 452 toxic and hazardous products. These products, frequently used by pest exterminators and farmers, include those insecticides, pesticides, rodenticides, herbicides, and fertilizers commonly transported on highways and by rail carriers. The book lists products alphabetically and includes the manufacturer and telephone number, chemical identification, physical properties, hazard ratings, neutralizing agents (when known), fire fighting agents, special warnings, evacuation distances, protective clothing, health hazard information, and emergency first aid for exposure. This important information allows any First Responder to establish a safe plan of action without having to reference the library of chemical books normally carried by a Hazardous Materials Emergency Response Team (HERT). First Responder's Guide to Agricultural Chemical Accidents is an essential reference that provides critical hazardous materials data for personnel at fire departments, law enforcement agencies, and emergency medical agencies. The book will also be useful for business or individuals that store, sell, or use agricultural chemicals.
In this engaging and accessibly written book, Population Health in America weaves demographic data with social theory and research to help students understand health patterns and trends in the U.S. population. While life expectancy was estimated to be just 37 years in the United States in 1870, today it is more than twice as long, at over 78 years. Yet today, life expectancy in the U.S. lags behind almost all other wealthy countries. Within the U.S., there are substantial social inequalities in health and mortality: women live longer but less healthier lives than men; African Americans and Native Americans live far shorter lives than Asian Americans and White Americans; and socioeconomic inequalities in health have been widening over the past 20 years. What accounts for these population health patterns and trends? Inviting students to delve into population health trends and disparities, demographers Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton provide an easily understandable historical and contemporary portrait of U.S. population health. Perfect for courses such as population health, medical or health sociology, social epidemiology, health disparities, demography, and others, as well as for academic researchers and lay persons interested in better understanding the overall health of the country, Population Health in America also challenges students, academics, and the public to understand current health policy priorities and to ask whether considerably different directions are needed.
Patients as Policy Actors offers groundbreaking accounts of one of the health field's most important developments of the last fifty years--the rise of more consciously patient-centered care and policymaking. The authors in this volume illustrate, from multiple disciplinary perspectives, the unexpected ways that patients can matter as both agents and objects of health care policy yet nonetheless too often remain silent, silenced, misrepresented, or ignored. The volume concludes with a unique epilogue outlining principles for more effectively integrating patient perspectives into a pluralistic conception of policy-making. With the recent enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, patients' and consumers' roles in American health care require more than ever the careful analysis and attention exemplified by this innovative volume.
There are so many ways in which health might be improved today and, as technology improves, the opportunities will increase. However, there are limits to budgets as well as other resources so choices have to be made about what to spend money and time on. Economic evaluation can help set out the value of the costs and benefits from competing choices. This book examines how to undertake economic evaluation of health care interventions in low, middle and high income countries. It covers: Ways in which economic evaluations might be structured Approaches to measuring and valuing costs and effects Interpreting and presenting evidence Appraising the quality and usefulness of economic evaluations Series Editors: Rosalind Plowman and Nicki Thorogood.
Using a life course approach, the main chapters in this truly original and enlightening text focus on health and well-being during each of our life stages. A wide range of contemporary literature from disciplines such as public health, sociology, epidemiology and social policy are drawn upon to examine key health and well-being issues in these stages, and to illustrate how health effects can accumulate across the life course. Interactive activities based on the text and on extracts from primary sources are used to encourage critical reflection and debate.
Mary Larkin's book will be essential reading for students on the many courses that need an understanding of health and well-being across all age groups. It will also be an invaluable resource for those in the health and social care sector as well as practitioners working in the field.
An informed argument for reworking the broken market-based U.S. healthcare system by making cost and quality more transparent The United States has the most expensive healthcare system in the world. While policy makers have argued over who is at fault for this, the system has been quietly moving toward high-deductible insurance plans that require patients to pay large amounts out of pocket before insurance kicks in. The idea behind this shift is that patients will become better consumers of healthcare when forced to pay for their medical expenses. Laying bare the perils of the current situation, Peter A. Ubel-a physician and behavioral scientist-notes that even when patients have time to shop around, healthcare costs remain largely opaque, difficult to access, and hard to compare. Arguing for a middle path between a market-based and a completely free system, Ubel envisions more transparent, smarter healthcare plans that tie the prices of treatments to the value they provide so that people can afford to receive the care they deserve.
How partisanship, polarization, and medical authority stand in the way of evidence-based medicine The U.S. medical system is touted as the most advanced in the world, yet many common treatments are not based on sound science. Treatments can go into widespread use before they are rigorously evaluated, and every year patients are harmed because they receive too many procedures--and too few treatments that really work. Unhealthy Politics sheds new light on why the government's response to this troubling situation has been so inadequate, and why efforts to improve the evidence base of U.S. medicine continue to cause so much political controversy and public trepidation. This critically important book draws on public opinion surveys, physician surveys, case studies, and political science models to explain how political incentives, polarization, and the misuse of professional authority have undermined efforts to tackle the medical evidence problem and curb wasteful spending. It paints a portrait of a medical industry with vast influence over which procedures and treatments get adopted, and a public burdened by the rising costs of health care yet fearful of going against "doctor's orders." The book shows how the government's efforts to promote evidence-based medicine have become mired in partisan debates. It also proposes sensible solutions that can lead to better, more efficient health care for all of us. Unhealthy Politics offers vital insights not only into health policy but also into the limits of science, expertise, and professionalism as political foundations for pragmatic problem solving in American democracy.
The book analyses how policies to prevent diseases are related to policies aiming to cure illnesses. It does this by conducting a comparative historical analysis of Australia, Germany, Switzerland, the UK, and the US. It also demonstrates how the politicization of the medical profession contributes to the success of preventative health policy. The book argues that two factors lead to a close relationship of curative and preventative elements in health policies and institutions: a strong national government that possesses a wide range of control over subnational levels of government, and whether professional organizations (especially the medical profession) perceive preventative and non-medical health policy as important and campaign for it politically. The book provides a historical and comparative narrative to substantiate this claim empirically.
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