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A pill can strengthen national security? The suggestion may seem odd, but many states around the world believe precisely that. Confronted with pandemics, bioterrorism, and emerging infectious diseases, governments are transforming their security policies to include the proactive development, acquisition, stockpiling, and mass distribution of new pharmaceutical defenses. What happens-politically, economically, and socially-when governments try to protect their populations with pharmaceuticals? How do competing interests among states, pharmaceutical companies, regulators, and scientists play out in the quest to develop new medical countermeasures? And do citizens around the world ultimately stand to gain or lose from this pharmaceuticalization of security policy? Stefan Elbe explores these complex questions in Pandemics, Pills, and Politics, the first in-depth study of the world's most prominent medical countermeasure, Tamiflu. Taken by millions of people around the planet in the fight against pandemic flu, Tamiflu has provoked suspicions about undue commercial influence in government decision-making about stockpiles. It even found itself at the center of a prolonged political battle over who should have access to the data about the safety and effectiveness of medicines. Pandemics, Pills, and Politics shows that the story of Tamiflu harbors deeper lessons about the vexing political, economic, legal, social, and regulatory tensions that emerge as twenty-first-century security policy takes a pharmaceutical turn. At the heart of this issue, Elbe argues, lies something deeper: the rise of a new molecular vision of life that is reshaping the world we live in.
Community Health Workers in Action proposes support and expansion of the role of community health workers in meeting the health needs of marginalized groups in United States cities (although their potential reach is not limited to any one group or geographical section). Given the health inequities that continue to touch the lives of millions of people of color across the country, these professionals' efforts-which translate to innovative, community-centered responses designed to reach particularly vulnerable populations-are quite timely. In order to truly understand the topic of health care, one must first explore its historical contexts, socio-cultural factors, and the ways in which values play a critical role in shaping a worldview of the right to quality care. This book offers readers a window into the dynamic field that continues to expand in highly creative and cost-effective ways, which ultimately shape one major piece of the complicated puzzle that is health care in America.
This book is an unbiased scientific compendium documenting the state-of-the-art in the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of Cannabis Use Disorders (CUD). Unlike any other current medical text, this volume focuses on the scientific aspects of CUDs and provides a resource for researchers, physicians and other health care providers who treat patients suffering from the disorder or its consequences. It begins by establishing the landscape of the disorder, including its prevalence, association with disabilities and comorbidities, and frequency of patients seeking treatment. The text delves into the complexity of the disorder in today's environment by including the discoveries on the nature and extent of the endocannabinoid system as well as potential breakthroughs in safe and effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Experts in the field contribute discussions on the most cutting-edge diagnostic and biological topics, including genetics, medical consequences, and clinical manifestations. The text also covers the challenges and risks presented by external factors, including social repercussions, protective factors, psychiatric comorbidities, withdrawal, and treatment services. Cannabis Use Disorders is a vital resource for researchers, psychiatrists, psychologists, addiction medicine specialists, toxicologists, hospital administrators, nurses, social workers, and all health care professionals working with patients who misuse cannabis.
This Handbook provides an authoritative overview of current issues and debates in the field of health care management. It contains over twenty chapters from well-known and eminent academic authors, who were carefully selected for their expertise and asked to provide a broad and critical overview of developments in their particular topic area. The development of an international perspective and body of knowledge is a key feature of the book. The Handbook secondly makes a case for bringing back a social science perspective into the study of the field of health care management. It therefore contains a number of contrasting and theoretically orientated chapters (e.g. on institutionalism; critical management studies). This social science based approach is a refreshing alternative to much existing work in this domain and offers a good way into current academic debates in this field. The Handbook thirdly explores a variety of important policy and organizational developments apparent within the current health care field (e.g. new organizational forms; growth of management consulting in health care organizations). It therefore explores and comments on major contemporary trends apparent in the practice field.
Covering all aspects of vaccine research and development in one volume, this authoritative resource takes a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing not only on basic science, but also on the many stages required to commercialize and navigate the regulatory requirements for human application, both in the United States and Europe. * Reviews in detail the process of designing a vaccine, from the initial stages of antigen discovery to human application * Includes evaluation of vaccine efficacy and safety * Details clinical trial design, including regulatory requirements * Discusses the emerging field of active cellular immunotherapy Vaccinology: Principles and Practice provides an invaluable resource for clinicians, scientific and medical researchers, lecturers and postdoctoral fellows working in the field of vaccines.
This book honours the contribution Professor Pascale Quester has made to academia and higher education, through her research, teaching, and leadership. It provides readers with a comprehensive, contemporary perspective on marketing practice with an emphasis on the role of marketing in making a difference. Organisations are interwoven with the society in which they operate and are thus commonly expected to shoulder some responsibility in advancing that society. While there has been significant academic and practitioner focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR), research is often limited to the organisational benefits and implementation of CSR initiatives, this book presents a broader perspective. It highlights a variety of players and approaches that are making a difference to their various stakeholder groups, specifically in the areas of sponsorship, consumer behaviour, education, health and innovation.
Health communication is key to promoting good population and individual health outcomes. As the field has developed, there is a growing need for a critical appraisal of the ideologies and theories underpinning health communication in order to ensure effective practice. This book clearly situates health communication within its social context. It provides a critical overview of three key disciplinary areas education, psychology and communication. Drawing on international examples throughout, the book challenges the underlying assumptions that drive the design and delivery of health promotion interventions. The authors argue that health communication is inherently political and pay close attention to issues of power, ethics and inequality throughout the text. This book will be valuable for those students at all levels who require a critical perspective, as well as practitioners in health communication and health promotion. With reference to detailed examples and annotated suggestions for further reading, the book is an accessible resource for analysing contemporary health communication.
A New York Times bestseller
This book provides clinicians and their staff with essential information on the vaccines that are recommended and not recommended for their patients, the diseases these vaccines prevent, and a broad range of potential vaccine safety issues that may be brought up by their patients. Each topic, from specific vaccines to safety concerns, is covered succinctly, based upon systematic reviews of the scientific literature, with talking points to be used with patients. The organization of the information makes it easy to reference specific topics and quickly find pertinent information, with the most practical details (such as recommendations and causality conclusions) highlighted at the very beginning of the respective sections. There are also sections outlining the vaccine safety system and evidence-based strategies for how to talk with patients about vaccines. This book aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical vaccine discussions with patients, leading to more informed patients and timely vaccination. This is an ideal resource for all clinicians administering vaccines and their healthcare teams.
The Health Care Safety Net in a Post-Reform World examines how national health care reform will impact safety net programs that serve low-income and uninsured patients. The "safety net" refers to the collection of hospitals, clinics, and doctors who treat disadvantaged people, including those without insurance, regardless of their ability to pay. Despite comprehensive national health care reform, over twenty million people will remain uninsured. And many of those who obtain insurance from reform will continue to face shortages of providers in their communities willing or able to serve them. As the demand for care grows with expanded insurance, so will the pressure on an overstretched safety net. This book, with contributions from leading health care scholars, is the first comprehensive assessment of the safety net in over a decade. Rather than view health insurance and the health care safety net as alternatives to each other, it examines their potential to be complementary aspects of a broader effort to achieve equity and quality in health care access. It also considers whether the safety net can be improved and strengthened to a level that can provide truly universal access, both through expanded insurance and the creation of a well-integrated and reasonably supported network of direct health care access for the uninsured. Seeing safety net institutions as key components of post-health care reform in the United States-as opposed to stop-gap measures or as part of the problem-is a bold idea. And as presented in this volume, it is an idea whose time has come.
After Haiti's 2010 earthquake, over half of U.S. households donated
to thousands of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in that
country. Yet we continue to hear stories of misery from Haiti. Why
have NGOs failed at their mission?
Each year, hospital-acquired infections, prescribing and treatment errors, lost documents and test reports, communication failures, and other problems have caused thousands of deaths in the United States, added millions of days to patients' hospital stays, and cost Americans tens of billions of dollars. Despite (and sometimes because of) new medical information technology and numerous well-intentioned initiatives to address these problems, threats to patient safety remain, and in some areas are on the rise.
In First, Do Less Harm, twelve health care professionals and researchers plus two former patients look at patient safety from a variety of perspectives, finding many of the proposed solutions to be inadequate or impractical. Several contributors to this book attribute the failure to confront patient safety concerns to the influence of the "market model" on medicine and emphasize the need for hospital-wide teamwork and greater involvement from frontline workers (from janitors and aides to nurses and physicians) in planning, implementing, and evaluating effective safety initiatives.
Several chapters in First, Do Less Harm focus on the critical role of interprofessional and occupational practice in patient safety. Rather than focusing on the usual suspects physicians, safety champions, or high level management these chapters expand the list of "stakeholders" and patient safety advocates to include nurses, patient care assistants, and other staff, as well as the health care unions that may represent them. First, Do Less Harm also highlights workplace issues that negatively affect safety: including sleeplessness, excessive workloads, outsourcing of hospital cleaning, and lack of teamwork between physicians and other health care staff. In two chapters, experts explain why the promise of health care information technology to fix safety problems remains unrealized, with examples that are at once humorous and frightening. A book that will be required reading for physicians, nurses, hospital administrators, public health officers, quality and risk managers, healthcare educators, economists, and policymakers, First, Do Less Harm concludes with a list of twenty-seven paradoxes and challenges facing everyone interested in making care safe for both patients and those who care for them."
"Describes 75 jobs and how to attain them "
Information technology is one of the fastest-growing segments of the labor market. This practical, one-stop career guide describes the depth and breadth of job opportunities and careers currently available in health information technology (HIT), and helps readers to enter and advance within this expanding field. The book offers guidance for students in higher education and currently employed individuals looking for mid-career opportunities. It includes a description of educational requirements for success in the HIT field and major themes of the HIT workforce such as informatics, provider-based jobs, vendor, government, and payer-based employment.
The book describes quickest-route pathways for careers that require advanced training and professional associations that provide important information and resources. It examines the varied environments in which HIT careerists can work-hospitals, ambulatory care facilities, physician practices, the managed care and insurance sector, public health organizations, consulting firms and HIT vendors, and education and training-along with related job opportunities. Seventy-five jobs include a description, experience and/or education requirements, core competencies, salary, employment outlook, and references. Interviews with individuals in varied HIT careers present a human face that offers valuable advice. An international perspective on HIT workforce development addresses issues and challenges within other countries, and an industry expert sheds light on future expectations for the HIT industry. Links to job resources, and listings of professional conferences and meetings, add further value to the guide, as do job seeker "tips" throughout. Key Features:
Provides comprehensive, practical information about health information technology (HIT) careers for students and mid-career job seekers Explores the great variety of work environments and job opportunities within them Details education requirements and quickest pathways to attain them Includes interviews with people currently in HIT careers, links to job resources, professional conferences and meetings, and helpful tips throughout Presents an international perspective on HIT career development and the future of HIT careers from industry experts
This book provides concise and cutting-edge studies on threats resulting from exposure to environmental chemicals that can affect human health and development, with a particular emphasis on the DOHaD concept. The book is divided into five main parts, the first of which includes an introduction to the impacts of developmental exposure to environmental chemicals and historical perspectives, while the second focuses on how environmental chemicals can affect human organs, including neurodevelopment, immune functions, etc. In turn, the third part addresses the characteristics of specific chemicals and their effects on human health and development, while the fourth part provides a basis for future studies by highlighting the latest innovations in toxicology, remaining challenges, and promising strategies in children's environmental health research, as well as ideas on how to bridge the gap between research evidence and practical policymaking. The fifth and last part outlines further research directions and related policymaking aspects. Health Impacts of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Chemicals will appeal to young and veteran researchers, students, and physicians (especially gynecologists and pediatricians) who are seeking comprehensive information on how children's health can be affected by harmful chemicals and other environmental toxicants.
How can we use persuasion methods to make people more physically active and improve their sport and exercise experiences? How can instructors, coaches, athletes, and practitioners most effectively communicate their messages to others? Persuasion and Communication in Sport, Exercise, and Physical Activity is the first book to consider the applications of persuasion frameworks within activity-related contexts, while also summarizing the major developments relating to communication topics in these settings. It provides a state of the art review of the key developments, challenges, and opportunities within the field. It brings together international experts from the fields of social, health, and sport and exercise psychology, to give theoretical overviews, insights into contemporary research themes and practical implications, as well as agendas for future research. Covering topics such as changing attitudes towards exercise, social influence, persuasive leadership and communicating with people with physical disabilities, this book provides a contemporary approach to persuasion and communication in a sport, exercise and physical activity setting. It is an important text for upper-level undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as academics in the fields of Sport and Exercise Science, Kinesiology, Health and Physical Activity Promotion, and related areas of Psychology.
In Poverty and the Myths of Health Care Reform, Dr. Richard (Buz) Cooper argues that US poverty and high health care spending are inextricably entwined. Our nation's health care system bears a financial burden that is greater than in any other developed country in large part because impoverished patients use more health care, driving up costs across the board. Drawing on decades of research, Dr. Cooper illuminates the geographic patterns of poverty, wealth, and health care utilization that exist across neighborhoods, regions, and states-and between countries. He chronicles the historical threads that have led to such differences, examines the approaches that have been taken to combat poverty throughout US history, and analyzes the impact that structural changes now envisioned for clinical practice are likely to have. His research reveals that ignoring the impact of low income on health care utilization while blaming rising costs on waste, inefficiency, and unnecessary care has led policy makers to reshape clinical practice in ways that impede providers who care for the poor. The first book to address the fundamental nexus that binds poverty and income inequality to soaring health care utilization and spending, Poverty and the Myths of Health Care Reform is a must-read for medical professionals, public health scholars, politicians, and anyone concerned with the heavy burden of inequality on the health of Americans.
Praise for Small's earlier work on Nightingale: 'Hugh Small, in a masterly piece of historical detective work, convincingly demonstrates what all previous historians and biographers have missed . . . This is a compelling psychological portrait of a very eminent (and complex) Victorian.' James Le Fanu, Daily Telegraph Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) is best known as a reformer of hospital nursing during and after the Crimean War, but many feel that her nursing reputation has been overstated. A Brief History of Florence Nightingale tells the story of the sanitary disaster in her wartime hospital and why the government covered it up against her wishes. After the war she worked to put the lessons of the tragedy to good use to reduce the very high mortality from epidemic disease in the civilian population at home. She did this by persuading Parliament in 1872 to pass laws which required landlords to improve sanitation in working-class homes, and to give local authorities rather than central government the power to enforce the laws. Life expectancy increased dramatically as a result, and it was this peacetime civilian public health reform rather than her wartime hospital nursing record that established Nightingale's reputation in her lifetime. After her death the wartime image became popular again as a means of recruiting hospital nurses and her other achievements were almost forgotten. Today, with nursing's new emphasis on 'primary' care and prevention outside hospitals, Nightingale's focus on public health achievements makes her an increasingly relevant figure.
In people with South Asian ancestry, the cardiovascular diseases of stroke and coronary heart disease (CVD) are epidemic, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is pandemic. As South Asians comprise about 25% of the world's population their high susceptibility is of global public health and clinical importance. Eluding researchers across the globe, this phenomenon continues to be a subject of intensive enquiry. As Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations Secretary-General, points out, the epidemics of chronic diseases, which he describes as a public health emergency in slow motion, can be restrained but not stopped. With a focus on the global South Asian population, Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: Explaining the Phenomenon in South Asians Worldwide is a critical review of current literature investigating the increase in cases of CVD and DM2, and the data underpinning them. The book argues that the high risk of CVD and DM2 in urbanised South Asians is not inevitable, genetic, or programmed in a fixed way. Rather, exposure to risk factors in childhood, adolescence, and most particularly in adulthood, is the key to unravelling its cause. Drawing on current scientific literature and discussions with 22 international scholars, the book presents a unique synthesis of theory, research, and public health practice under one cover - from tissue research to human intervention trials. It also addresses the challenge many health professionals face in developing countries: to produce focused, low cost and effective actions for combating CVD and DM2. The lessons contained within will have ramifications in healthcare across the globe Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: Explaining the Phenomenon in South Asians Worldwide is ideal for scholars, researchers and health practitioners working towards understanding and preventing the epidemics of these modern chronic diseases across the world.
Physical Activity and Health explains clearly, systematically and in detail the relationships between physical activity, health and disease, and examines the benefits of exercise in the prevention and treatment of a wide range of important conditions. Now in a fully updated and revised edition, and still the most complete and engaging textbook on this important subject, Physical Activity and Health offers a balanced examination of the very latest evidence linking levels of physical activity with disease and mortality. It offers a wide-ranging assessment of the importance of inactivity as a factor in major diseases and health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer and osteoporosis. The book is designed to help the reader evaluate the quality and significance of the scientific evidence, and includes an invaluable discussion of common study designs and the inherent difficulties of measuring physical activity. It also explores the full range of contemporary themes in the study of exercise and health, such as the hazards of exercise; exercise and the elderly; children's health and exercise; physical activity and public health policy; and a critical appraisal of current recommendations for physical activity. Containing useful features throughout, such as chapter summaries, study tasks, guides to supplementary reading and definitions of key terms, and richly illustrated with supporting tables, figures and plates, Physical Activity and Health is an essential course text. Now supported by a companion website featuring self-test questions, PowerPoint slides for lecturers, additional learning activities and web links, this book is vital reading for degree-level students of sport and exercise science, public health, physical therapy, medicine and nursing. Visit the companion website for Physical Activity and Health at www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415421980.
In this groundbreaking book, health-care attorney Daniel E. Dawes explores the secret backstory of the Affordable Care Act, shedding light on the creation and implementation of the greatest and most sweeping equalizer in the history of American health care. An eye-opening and authoritative narrative written from an insider's perspective, 150 Years of ObamaCare debunks contemporary understandings of health reform. It also provides a comprehensive and unprecedented review of the health equity movement and the little-known leadership efforts that were crucial to passing public policies and laws reforming mental health, minority health, and universal health. An instrumental player in a large coalition of organizations that helped shape ObamaCare, Dawes tells the story of the Affordable Care Act with urgency and intimate detail. He reveals what went on behind the scenes by including copies of letters and e-mails written by the people and groups who worked to craft and pass the law. Dawes explains the law through a health equity lens, focusing on what it is meant to do and how it affects various groups. Ultimately, he argues that ObamaCare is much more comprehensive in the context of previous reform efforts than is typically understood. In an increasingly polarized political environment, health reform has been caught in the cross fire of the partisan struggle, making it difficult to separate fact from fiction. Offering unparalleled and complete insight into the efforts by the Obama administration, Congress, and external stakeholders, 150 Years of ObamaCare illuminates one of the most challenging legislative feats in the history of the United States.
This work has been written to help women care for their own health, and to help community health workers or others to meet women's health needs - problems that affect only women, or that affect women in different ways from men. It combines self-help medical information with an understanding of the ways in which poverty, discrimination and cultural beliefs may limit women's health or access to care. Developed with community-based groups and medical experts from more than 30 countries, this book aims to help anyone understand, treat and prevent many of the health problems that can affect women.;Topics featured in the book include: how to solve health problems; ways to stay healthy; understanding the reproductive parts of women's bodies; sexual health; HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases; pregnancy, birth and breast feeding; mental health; health concerns of women with disabilities, girls, older women and refugees; the politics of women's health; rape and other violence against women; and the use of medicines in women's health.
Rapid urbanisation, inequalities in income and service levels within and between communities, and population and economic decline are challenging the viability of rural communities worldwide. Achieving healthy and viable rural communities in the face of rapidly changing social, ecological and economic conditions is a declared global priority. As a result, governments all over the world, in both developed and developing countries, are now prioritizing rural and regional development through policies and programs aimed at enhancing the livelihoods of people living in rural regions. In recognition of the important roles that research can play in rural development, a range of systematic literature reviews have rightly examined key priorities in rural development including education, gender, economic development (especially agriculture), and health and nutrition (see Department for International Development [DFID], 2011). However, none of these works has systematically examined the extent to which rural development as a field of research is progressing towards facilitating sustainable change. This book evaluates trends in rural development research across the five continental regions of the world. Specifically, it assesses the total publication output relating to rural development, the types of publications, their quality and impact over the last three decades. Additionally, it evaluates the continental origins of the publications as well as the extent to which such publications engage with issues of sustainability. The aim is to determine whether the rural development field is growing in a manner that reflects research and policy priorities and broader social trends such as sustainability. Development policy makers, practitioners, those teaching research methods and systematic literature reviews to undergraduate and graduate students, and researchers in general will find the book both topical and highly relevant.
HACCP: A Practical Approach, 3rd edition has been updated to include the current best practice and new developments in HACCP application since the last edition was published in 1998. This book is intended to be a compendium of up-to-date thinking and best practice approaches to the development, implementation, and maintenance of HACCP programs for food safety management.
Introductory chapters set the scene and update the reader on developments on HACCP over the last 15 years. The preliminary stages of HACCP, including preparation and planning and system design, are covered first, followed by a consideration of food safety hazards and their control. Prerequisite program coverage has been significantly expanded in this new edition reflecting its development as a key support system for HACCP. The HACCP plan development and verification and maintenance chapters have also been substantially updated to reflect current practice and a new chapter on application within the food supply chain has been added. Appendices provide a new set of case studies of practical HACCP application plus two new case studies looking at lessons learned through food safety incident investigation. Pathogen profiles have also been updated by experts to provide an up-to-date summary of pathogen growth and survival characteristics that will be useful to HACCP teams.
The book is written both for those who are developing HACCP systems for the first time and for those who need to update, refresh and strengthen their existing systems. New materials and new tools to assist the HACCP team have been provided and the current situation on issues that are still undergoing international debate, such as operational prerequisite programs. All tools such as decision trees and record-keeping formats are provided to be of assistance and are not obligatory to successful HACCP. Readers are guided to choose those that are relevant to their situations and which they find are helpful in their HACCP endeavors."
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