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This book focuses on all of the major problems associated with the absence of body weight in space, by analyzing effects, adaption, and re-adaptation upon returning to Earth, using sound scientific principles embedded in a historical context. Serious problems for space travelers range from Space Motion Sickness (SMS) to recently discovered ocular effects that may permanently impair vision. Fluid loss and shifts, spinal changes, and bone and muscle loss are also all results of weightlessness. Starting with a brief definition and history of weightlessness, the authors then address in detail each problem as well as the countermeasures aimed at alleviating them. In some cases, alternative hypotheses regarding what can and should be attempted are also presented. As plans for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars develop, it will be essential to find countermeasures to weightlessness that are effective for missions that could span years.
A classic nephrology reference for over 25years, "Seldin &
Giebisch s" The Kidney, is the acknowledged authority on renal
physiology and pathophysiology. In this 5th edition, such new and
powerful disciplines as genetics and cell biology have been
deployed to deepen and widen further the explanatory framework. Not
only have previous chapters been extensively updated, but new
chapters have been added to incorporate additional disciplines.
Individual chapters, for example, now provide detailed treatment of
the significance of cilia; the role of stem cells is now given
special consideration. Finally, there has been a significant
expansion of the section of pathophysiology, incorporating the
newer findings of cell biology and genetics. If you research the
development of normal renal function or the mechanisms underlying
renal disease, "Seldin & Giebisch s" The Kidney is your number
one source for information.
This volume presents all aspects of delivery of oxygen to tissues and tumors in peer reviewed short articles. Both overview and the most recent, advanced techniques for oxygen measurement are presented. Articles and peer reviewers include those from leaders in their field. Topics such as molecular signaling in the organismal and tumor response to low levels of local oxygenation, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) , cancer metabolism, individual human and animal response to oxygen changes monitored by optical/near infrared spectroscopy/ tomography to novel electron resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, instrumentation, progress in blood substitute research, retinal physiology, cellular hypoxia, mitochondrial function; brain oxygenation and function; oxygen transport in sports, hypoxia in diseases and clinical care. Chapters 10 and 19 of this book are open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.
This is an integrated textbook on the digestive system, covering the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the system, all presented in a clinically relevant context appropriate for the first two years of the medical student course.One of the seven volumes in the Systems of the Body series. Concise text covers the core anatomy, physiology and biochemistry in an integrated manner as required by system- and problem-based medical courses. The basic science is presented in the clinical context in a way appropriate for the early part of the medical course.
This book introduces readers to the latest exciting advances in human motion sensing and recognition, from the theoretical development of fuzzy approaches to their applications. The topics covered include human motion recognition in 2D and 3D, hand motion analysis with contact sensors, and vision-based view-invariant motion recognition, especially from the perspective of Fuzzy Qualitative techniques. With the rapid development of technologies in microelectronics, computers, networks, and robotics over the last decade, increasing attention has been focused on human motion sensing and recognition in many emerging and active disciplines where human motions need to be automatically tracked, analyzed or understood, such as smart surveillance, intelligent human-computer interaction, robot motion learning, and interactive gaming. Current challenges mainly stem from the dynamic environment, data multi-modality, uncertain sensory information, and real-time issues. These techniques are shown to effectively address the above challenges by bridging the gap between symbolic cognitive functions and numerical sensing & control tasks in intelligent systems. The book not only serves as a valuable reference source for researchers and professionals in the fields of computer vision and robotics, but will also benefit practitioners and graduates/postgraduates seeking advanced information on fuzzy techniques and their applications in motion analysis.
The outcome of ten years' work, this book is a carefully planned study of brain dominance, aphasia, and other speech disturbances, and includes a discussion of the cerebral mechanisms of speech and the learning and teaching of language. Originally published in 1959. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Access all of the A&P information you need - whenever and wherever you need it! In class or in practice, all of the A & P information you need is at your fingertips in this handy, easy-to-understand pocket guide. Crystal-clear, full-color illustrations with concise labels put all the need-to-know A&P information at your fingertips. Whether you're looking for a cross section of the cardiac conducting system, a postoperative view of a total hip replacement, or any other perspective on the human body - you'll find it here.
BIOLOGY TODAY AND TOMORROW is packed with applications that are relevant to your daily life. The clear, straightforward writing style, in-text learning support, and trendsetting art help you understand key biological concepts. The accompanying MindTap for Biology includes assessments, videos, study tools, and more. With this accessible and engaging introduction you'll develop an understanding of biology and the process of science while developing the critical-thinking skills you need to succeed!
This book reports on the developments of the bipedal walking robot Lucy. Special about it is that the biped is not actuated with the classical electrical drives but with pleated pneumatic artificial muscles. In an antagonistic setup of such muscles both the torque and the compliance are controllable. From human walking there is evidence that joint compliance plays an important role in energy efficient walking and running. Moreover pneumatic artificial muscles have a high power to weight ratio and can be coupled directly without complex gearing mechanism, which can be beneficial towards legged mechanisms. Additionally, they have the capability of absorbing impact shocks and store and release motion energy. This book gives a complete description of Lucy: the hardware, the electronics and the software. A hybrid simulation program, combining the robot dynamics and muscle/valve thermodynamics, has been written to evaluate control strategies before implementing them in the real biped.
Alzheimer's Disease Theranostics discusses the latest information on recent theranostic avenues for both the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's patients. It presents the pros and cons of the probable mechanistic role of nanoparticles in crossing the blood-brain barrier and improving disease symptoms. Finally, it highlights the merits of existing maneuvers and suggests perspectives to aid in future developments. Despite the difficulty of drug delivery to the brain, there are some nanoparticulate platforms demonstrating promise in treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Manifold theranostic maneuvers include antioxidants, natural bioactive compounds, gene therapy, and nanotechnological approaches, all of which are discussed in this important work.
Fundamentals of Medical Physiology provides a concise, in-depth introduction by organ system to the principles of body function and uses emphasis on general models and clinical cases to foster mastery of these principles. Special features include: * An emphasis on general models that underlie a number of recurring physiologic mechanisms -- for example, flow of substances and the factors that affect flow or energy formation and transformation -- to strengthen understanding * Use of clinical cases -- developed, refined, and tested in the classroom over the past decade -- to test mastery of physiologic concepts * Section-opening Patient Cases conclude with Some Things to Think About to help direct your study of the physiologic mechanisms of that organ system * Chapter Questions ask you to apply what you have learned in that chapter to building an understanding of the case *Answers to chapter questions allow you to check your understanding and direct further review * A comprehensive Case Analysis with "cause-and-effect" diagrams reviews in detail the physiology behind the case * Access via scratch-off code to all the cases in your book -- plus additional clinical cases -- with questions and answers and case analysis to enable convenient online review and testing Specifically designed for the first- and second-year medical student, this innovative text -- ideal as a study aid for the USMLE -- provides the tools needed to learn and apply physiology to medical practice.< /p
This book is the first digital atlas of the degu brain with microscopic features simultaneously in Nissl sections and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As an experimental animal model, the degu contributes to a variety of medical research fields in diabetes, hyperglycemia, pancreatic function, and adaptation to high altitude, among others. Recently the degu has gained increasing importance in the field of neuroscience, particularly in studies evaluating the relationship between sociality and cognitive brain functions, and in studies pertaining to the evolutional aspects of the acquisition of tool-use abilities. Furthermore, aging-related brain dysfunction in humans can be studied using this animal model in addition to mammals with much longer lifespans. This brain atlas is constructed to provide histological and volume-rendered information simultaneously, fitting with any spatial coordination in brain positioning. It can be a useful guide to degus as well as to other rodents for studies of brain structures conducted using MRI or other contemporary examination methods with volume-rendering functions.
Estrogens are a family of hormones that potently regulate reproductive, cardiovascular, bone, brain, and other physiology by altering gene expression. In this book, the authors present topical research in the study of the biochemistry, therapeutic uses and physiological effects of hormones. Topics include the physiological effects of oestrogen in fish and its application; estrogens in osteoarthritis and inflammation; estrogens as mediators of obesity-induced inflammation; the transcriptional effect of estrogens on gene expression; and the role of estrogens in regulating the gender disparity of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biological rhythms time the ebb and flow of virtually every physiological process, and their mutual coordination guarantees the integrity of the organism over space and time. Aging leads to the disintegration of this coordination, as well as to changes in the amplitude and/or frequency of the underlying rhythms. The results of this are accelerated loss of health during aging, and in experimental model systems curtailed lifespan occurs. This book will examine the machinery that constitutes circadian systems and how they impact physiologic processes. It will also discuss how disturbances of circadian rhythms can lead to complex diseases associated with aging. Much of this treatment will focus on metabolism and genome stability. Importantly, the chapters in this book will encompass work in several different models, in addition to human. The book will conclude with a discussion of modeling approaches to biologic cycles and chronotherapy, for future research and translation.
The human body is designed for activity. For most of our history, physical activity was required for survival, but technological advances have eliminated much of the need for hard physical labor. As our activity levels have dropped, it has become clear that a physically inactive lifestyle can lead to a host of health problems. "Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition," provides a comprehensive treatment of the research on the benefits of a physically active lifestyle in comparison with the harmful consequences of physical inactivity.
Written by leading scientists from the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australia, "Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition," brings together the results of the most important studies on the relationship between physical activity, sedentarism, and various health outcomes. The second edition has been fully updated based on the latest advances in this rapidly changing field and expanded to include the following new content:
- A chapter on the physiology of inactivity and the effects of sedentary behavior even in people who engage in appropriate amounts of physical activity, which is an area of growing interest
- More extensive coverage of physical activity, aging, and the brain, including a new chapter on the relationship between physical activity and brain structures and functions
- A chapter on the development of national and international physical activity and health guidelines, which will help readers better understand how scientific findings are converted into practical recommendations
"Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition," offers a detailed yet concise presentation of key concepts as well as a framework to help readers relate results from single studies or collections of studies to the overall paradigm linking physical activity and physical fitness to health. For each of the topics covered, the text provides an overview of the most important research findings, discusses the limitations of the current knowledge base, and identifies directions for future investigation.
At the core of the text is a review of our current understanding of how physical activity affects health concerns such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity as well as aging and mental health. The text identifies sedentary living habits and poor fitness as major public health problems and examines the potential of physical activity to prevent disease and enhance quality of life. This complete resource also looks at the evolution of the field of physical activity and health; variations in physical activity levels across age, sex, and ethnic groups; the body's physiological responses to physical activity; dose-response issues; and the influence of genetics on physical activity, fitness, and health. The book ends with an integration of the issues covered and discusses new opportunities for research.
The second edition of "Physical Activity and Health" continues to offer clear, user-friendly coverage of the most important concepts and research in the field. Numerous special features will aid readers in their comprehension of the material. Chapter outlines and callout boxes help readers key in on important topics and focus their reading, and chapter summaries, definitions of key terms, and study questions provide tools for review and self-testing. Commonly used acronyms and abbreviations are found on the interior covers for handy reference.
Where other books have simply promoted physical activity for the individual or a population, "Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition," completely integrates current knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and health. With contributions from some of the finest scientists in the field, this comprehensive text offers information unmatched in accuracy and reliability.
There has been a marked change in examination strategy over the last five years; EMQs (extended matching questions) are popular with tutors and students alike as they present a more realistic view of a student's ability to apply his or her knowledge in a clinical situation. The new edition of MCQs in Physiology has been subject to a complete overhaul to become MCQs and EMQs in Physiology. This reflects the current methods of examination techniques and will provide the student with a complete revision resource book. Packed with MCQs and EMQs along with clear and simple explanations of each answer, this book covers all the main physiological systems. The questions stretch from basic to applied and interpretative and are written with the modern integrated syllabus firmly in mind. Presented alongside other core revision books such as EMQs in Clinical Medicine this book will soon be seen as a must-have for any medie's shelf.
Despite the continuous effort from the scientific community and the advancements in neonatal intensive care, hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury of term and near-term infants remains a significant problem throughout the world. After asphyxia, infants may suffer from long-term neurological sequelae, including death, cerebral palsy, learning difficulties, epilepsy and other significant cognitive, developmental and behavioural problems in 40% of survivors. This book discusses the risk factors, prevalence and neurological impacts of asphyxia.
This book spans topics in both congenital and acquired right heart disease providing readers with detailed information on the physiology, anatomy and myocardial mechanics of the right ventricle (RV), while describing the use of echo and MRI imaging to diagnose, and new developments in surgery and cardiac catheterization to treat. Right Ventricular Physiology, Adaptation and Failure in Congenital and Acquired Heart Disease includes extensive discussion of RV-pulmonary interactions, pulmonary hypertension and ventricular-ventricular interactions, including specific topics in embryology, fetal RV function, RV mechanics, pathophysiology of RV adaptation/ failure, molecular aspects of RV dysfunction, congenital heart disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary valve replacement, stem cell and future therapies. It is thus important reading for all cardiovascular medicine professionals, but especially pediatric cardiologists and surgeons, those who manage t hese patients in the cardiac care unit and investigators studying the RV.
This both accessible and exhaustive book will help to improve modeling of attention and to inspire innovations in industry. It introduces the study of attention and focuses on attention modeling, addressing such themes as saliency models, signal detection and different types of signals, as well as real-life applications. The book is truly multi-disciplinary, collating work from psychology, neuroscience, engineering and computer science, amongst other disciplines. What is attention? We all pay attention every single moment of our lives. Attention is how the brain selects and prioritizes information. The study of attention has become incredibly complex and divided: this timely volume assists the reader by drawing together work on the computational aspects of attention from across the disciplines. Those working in the field as engineers will benefit from this book's introduction to the psychological and biological approaches to attention, and neuroscientists can learn about engineering work on attention. The work features practical reviews and chapters that are quick and easy to read, as well as chapters which present deeper, more complex knowledge. Everyone whose work relates to human perception, to image, audio and video processing will find something of value in this book, from students to researchers and those in industry.
This publication is unique and ground breaking because no previous volume has focused on the mechanisms by which nitric oxide and oxygen radicals are involved in vascular pathophysiology. This book provides a current review of the use of nitric oxide to treat pulmonary hypertension, whether idiopathic or secondary to congenital heart disease. In this respect, it should be read by pediatric cardiologists. Respiratory care physicians and intensive--care specialists who study and treat ARDS or IRDS (adult or infant respiratory distress syndromes) would also benefit from this publication. This book is of particular interest to physiologists concerned with vascular biology or with the activity of nitric oxide and oxygen radicals.
Find out why more students prefer Netter's Physiology Flash Cards, 2nd Edition, for a quick review and self-test of human physiology essentials. These bestselling, beautifully illustrated cards are fully up to date, with images and questions on the front, answers and clinical correlations on the reverse. Over 200 hole-punched cards, organized by body system, provide concise, quick-access information on key physiology concepts for the perfect, portable review. High-quality Netter and Netter-style illustrations enhance learning. More than a dozen new cards offer expanded coverage of blood and lymph nodes while more clinical correlates throughout help you apply what you've learned. Cross-referenced to Netter's Essential Physiology, 2nd Edition, but also highly effective when used with any preferred physiology text. Ideally suited for individual or group study - and universally appreciated by undergraduate, nursing, allied health, and medical students!
Like many of us, journalist David K. Randall never gave sleep much thought. That is, until he began sleepwalking. One midnight crash into a hallway wall sent him on an investigation into the strange science of sleep. In Dreamland, Randall explores the research that is investigating those dark hours that make up nearly a third of our lives. Taking readers from military battlefields to children s bedrooms, Dreamland shows that sleep isn't as simple as it seems. Why did the results of one sleep study change the bookmakers odds for certain Monday Night Football games? Do women sleep differently than men? And if you happen to kill someone while you are sleepwalking, does that count as murder? This book is a tour of the often odd, sometimes disturbing, and always fascinating things that go on in the peculiar world of sleep. You ll never look at your pillow the same way again."
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