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Mathematical modelling of physiological systems promises to advance our understanding of complex biological phenomena and pathophysiology of diseases. In this book, the authors adopt a mathematical approach to characterize and explain the functioning of the gastrointestinal system. Using the mathematical foundations of thin shell theory, the authors patiently and comprehensively guide the reader through the fundamental theoretical concepts, via step-by-step derivations and mathematical exercises, from basic theory to complex physiological models. Applications to nonlinear problems related to the biomechanics of abdominal viscera and the theoretical limitations are discussed. Special attention is given to questions of complex geometry of organs, effects of boundary conditions on pellet propulsion, as well as to clinical conditions, e.g. functional dyspepsia, intestinal dysrhythmias and the effect of drugs to treat motility disorders. With end of chapter problems, this book is ideal for bioengineers and applied mathematicians.
Mastering the essentials of anatomy, physiology, and even medical terminology has never been easier! Using simple, conversational language and vivid animations and illustrations, Structure & Function of the Body, 15th Edition walks readers through the normal structure and function of the human body and what the body does to maintain homeostasis. Conversational and clear writing style makes content easy to read and understand. Full-color design contains more than 400 drawings and photos. Clear View of the Human Body is a unique, full-color, semi-transparent insert depicting the human body (male and female) in layers. Animation Direct callouts direct readers to Evolve for an animation about a specific topic. Updated study tips sections at the beginning of each chapter help break down difficult topics and guide readers on how to best use book features to their advantage. Special boxes such as Health and Well-Being boxes, Clinical Application boxes, Research and Trends boxes, and more help readers apply what they have learned to their future careers in health care and science. NEW! Language of Science and Medicine section in each chapter includes key terms, word parts, and pronunciations to place a greater focus on medical terminology NEW! Thoroughly revised chapters, illustrations, and review questions reflect the most current information available. NEW! High quality animations for the AnimationDirect feature clarify physiological processes and provide a realistic foundation of underlying structures and functions. NEW! Simplified chapter titles provide clarity in the table of contents. NEW! Division of cells and tissues into two separate chapters improves reader comprehension and reduces text anxiety.
In this thought-provoking book, Denis Noble formulates the theory of biological relativity, emphasising that living organisms operate at multiple levels of complexity and must therefore be analysed from a multi-scale, relativistic perspective. Noble explains that all biological processes operate by means of molecular, cellular and organismal networks. The interactive nature of these fundamental processes is at the core of biological relativity and, as such, challenges simplified molecular reductionism. Noble shows that such an integrative view emerges as the necessary consequence of the rigorous application of mathematics to biology. Drawing on his pioneering work in the mathematical physics of biology, he shows that what emerges is a deeply humane picture of the role of the organism in constraining its chemistry, including its genes, to serve the organism as a whole, especially in the interaction with its social environment. This humanistic, holistic approach challenges the common gene-centred view held by many in modern biology and culture.
Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals, Second Edition provides an engaging and comprehensive overview of human anatomy and physiology, written specifically with health professions students in mind. This text helps students navigate the subject through an array of features-including Test Your Understanding questions that regularly assess comprehension, Learning Goals that correlate to concrete Objectives, and a large assortment of end-of-chapter questions-that reinforce key concepts while promoting mastery of the material. In addition to the text's clean, updated design and more than 450 illustrations and photographs, Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals, Second Edition is accompanied by access to useful online instructor and student resources that make it the perfect fit for traditional, online, or hybrid courses. FEATURES Provides a comprehensive overview of human anatomy and physiology Presents content in an accessible manner targeted to health professions students Features an updated, easily navigable format with more than 450 photographs and illustrations Offers access to helpful animations and interactive learning tools Includes clinical images such as X-rays, CT scans and MRIs Covers the effects of aging on various body systems Offers robust end of chapter assessments for learners NEW TO THE SECOND EDITION * Four additional chapters, including: o New chapter on joints, providing an overview of classifications, types, and injuries o Expanded presentation of the nervous system, with two additional chapters o Enhanced discussion of the cardiovascular system, with one additional chapter * New Focus on Pathology feature connects anatomy and physiology to human disease * Essay Question prompts now appear at the end of each chapter INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES * Slides in PowerPoint format * Test Bank * Instructor's Manual, including teaching strategies, lecture outlines, discussion topics, and answers to end-of-chapter questions * Image Bank, supplying key images from the text * Sample Syllabus, showing how a course can be structured around this text * Transition Guide, providing guidance in switching from the previous edition STUDENT RESOURCES Navigate 2 Advantage Access - Each new copy includes access to Navigate 2 online learning materials featuring a comprehensive and interactive eBook, student practice activities and assessments, learning analytics reporting tools, and more.
Pathophysiology: A Practical Approach, Second Edition is a must have text for teaching undergraduates the complex concepts related to pathophysiology. The Second edition offers an innovative, user-friendly approach to this subject and serves as a practical guide to pathophysiology. This text focuses on the most critical content taking the learner into consideration and has been crafted in a unique manner which provides ease of reading and the use of colorful graphics to bring complex content to life. Pathophysiology: A Practical Approach, Second Edition features updated information resulting from research and current epidemiological trends. Additionally, the author incorporates a concept-based approach which aligns with the recommendations from both the Institute of Medicine and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to promote clinical reasoning and lifelong learning. Key pedagogical features of the text include: * Chapter Objectives * Key Terms * Learning Points * Myth Busters * Critical Cases (called "Application to Practice") * Chapter Summary * Learning Aids
All healthcare students have to study anatomy and physiology. They often find it a challenging subject and struggle to see how the subject will link to their professional practice. Anatomy and Physiology in Healthcare is a brand new textbook focused on what healthcare students need to know about the biological principles which underpin the practice of healthcare. Uniquely, the book integrates clinical cases with the essential biological facts to provide all students with a thorough understanding of how anatomy and physiology can be applied in healthcare. By using clinical cases throughout, the book helps the reader grasp the practical relevance of anatomy and physiology to decision-making and care delivery. The clinical cases have been carefully selected to reflect common conditions encountered in practice today, and the changing patterns of disease and healthcare. Clear high-quality full colour illustrations, links to appropriate web-based content, and self-assessment material make this the perfect, practical textbook for all healthcare students. Early praise: "Having reviewed the text I will be recommending it to my nursing students" "It looks like a very good introductory text, with clear illustrations and diagrams. I think this would be appropriate for student nurses at different levels throughout their training." "I particularly like the approach of making the clinical relevance so clear. Introducing these at the start really sets the scene for why this topic is so important to clinical practice." "I am very interested in adopting this as a key text for our course." "I particularly like the case histories which bring a clear sight of application." "This book is excellent for the two new modules on anatomy and physiology I am putting together." Review: "This textbook presents anatomy and physiology in a fun and interactive way....It is divided into 14 chapters and the way the authors have introduced the information gives it a modern twist. For example, instead of titling a chapter 'The reproductive system', it is called 'From one generation to the next'. .....What works particularly well is the way the authors have used case studies that reflect the reality of the changing patterns of health and disease....This book provides a good foundation in clinical application and it seeks to link theory to practice." Nursing Standard 27 September 2017, volume 32 number 5
How does the brain regulate sexual behavior, or control our body weight? How do we cope with stress? Addressing these questions and many more besides, this thoroughly revised new edition reflects the significant advances that have been made in the study of neuroendocrinology over the last twenty years. The text examines the importance of the hypothalamus in regulating hormone secretion from the endocrine glands, describing novel sites of hormone release including bone, heart, skeletal muscle and liver. The role of steroid hormone, neurotransmitter and peptide receptors, and the molecular responses of target tissues, is integrated into the discussion of the neuroendocrine brain, especially through changes in gene expression. Particular attention is attached to neuropeptides, including their profound influence on behavior. Complete with new full-color figures throughout, along with review and essay questions for each chapter, this is an ideal resource for undergraduate and graduate students of neuroscience, psychology, biology and physiology.
This book provides an innovative and comprehensive overview of the relationship between lung and exercise, both in healthy, active subjects and in subjects with chronic respiratory diseases. It investigates in detail the central role of the lungs during exercise and illustrates the impact of respiratory impairment due to both acute and chronic lung diseases on performance. Further, the book presents the latest evidence-based findings, which confirm that exercise is an effective and safe form of prevention and rehabilitation in respiratory diseases. The first section describes the changes in the respiratory system during exercise and the contribution of respiration to exercise, while readers will learn how to perform a respiratory assessment in the second section. The third section addresses a broad range of chronic respiratory diseases and the (in)ability of those affected to play sports and perform exercise, thus providing a basis for individual assessments. The last two sections focus on respiratory training, rehabilitation and the relationship between respiration and the environment, e.g. in high-altitude and underwater sports. The book will appeal to a wide readership, including pulmonologists, sport medicine physicians, physiotherapists and trainers, as well as instructors and students in exercise science.
Gain a foundational understanding of complex physiology concepts with this thoroughly revised text. Cellular Physiology and Neurophysiology, a volume in the Mosby Physiology Series, explains the fundamentals of these multi-faceted areas in a clear and concise manner. It helps bridge the gap between basic biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, and neuroscience, and organ and systems physiology, providing the rich, clinically oriented coverage needed to master the latest concepts in neuroscience and how cells function in health and disease. Helps you easily master the material in a systems-based curriculum with learning objectives, Clinical Concept boxes, highlighted key words and concepts, chapter summaries, self-study questions, and a comprehensive exam. Focuses on clinical implications with frequent examples from systems physiology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. Provides a solid depiction of transport processes?an integral topic often treated superficially in other cell biology texts. Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices. Complete the Mosby Physiology Series! Systems-based and portable, these titles are ideal for integrated programs. White, Harrison, & Mehlmann: Endocrine and Reproductive Physiology Johnson: Gastrointestinal Physiology Koeppen & Stanton: Renal Physiology Cloutier: Respiratory Physiology Pappano & Weir: Cardiovascular Physiology Hudnall: Hematology: A Pathophysiologic Approach
This book focuses on immune reactions and interactions of humans with Helicobacter pylori - a human pathogen connected to gastritis, peptic ulcers and even gastric cancer. With nearly half of the world's population colonized, it has been characterized as one of the most successful pathogens for more than 100,000 years of co-evolution with its host. The respective chapters discuss not only how H. pylori infection is considered a paradigm for persistent bacterial infection and chronic inflammation, but also how the infection might be connected to host protection against gastro-esophageal diseases, asthma, and other allergic disease manifestations. Readers will gain essential insights into the roles of specific factors in the immune response and learn about the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, the book discusses the strategies used by this bacterium, which allow it to colonize specific sites in the stomach, interact with the microbiome, evade immune surveillance and undermine the resolution of inflammation during persistent infection. This volume presents a concise summary of recent advances in the areas of induction, resolution and escape of inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, gastric disease development, as well as treatment and vaccination against H. pylori. Accordingly, it offers a valuable asset for scientists and clinicians alike.
Vasopressin is a hormone which has an increasingly important profile. Not only does it play a physiologically significant role in renal water regulation but it also has other renal actions and plays a role in overall cardiovascular control. Even more interesting is the recent growing interest in its potential effects on the brain, notably its influence on specific behaviours. This monograph about the polypeptide vasopressin covers all aspects relating to the production, control of release, and actions of this molecule within the body, including its roles as a hormone and as a central neurotransmitter. A consideration of the evolution of the molecule across the species and a brief historical perspective are also included. Clinical conditions associated with hypo- and hyper-production states are considered together with aspects of treatment, in addition to other clinical correlates.
Five leaders in the field of mammalian preimplantation embryo development provide their own perspectives on key molecular and cellular processes that mediate lineage formation during the first week of life. The first cell-fate decision involves the formation of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) and extraembryonic trophectoderm (TE). The second cell-fate choice encompasses the transformation of ICM into extraembryonic primitive endoderm (PE) and pluripotent epiblast. The processes, which occur during the period of preimplantation development, serve as the foundation for subsequent developmental events such as implantation, placentation, and gastrulation. The mechanisms that regulate them are complex and involve many different factors operating spatially and temporally over several days to modulate embryonic chromatin structure, impose cellular polarity, and direct distinct gene expression programs in the first cell lineages.
In The Story of the Human Body, Daniel Lieberman, Professor of human evolutionary biology at Harvard, shows how we need to change our world to fit our hunter-gatherer bodies This ground-breaking book of popular science explores how the way we use our bodies is all wrong. From an evolutionary perspective, if normal is defined as what most people have done for millions of years, then it's normal to walk and run 9 -15 kilometres a day to hunt and gather fresh food which is high in fibre, low in sugar, and barely processed. It's also normal to spend much of your time nursing, napping, making stone tools, and gossiping with a small band of people. Our 21st-century lifestyles, argues Daniel Lieberman, are out of synch with our stone-age bodies. Never have we been so healthy and long-lived - but never, too, have we been so prone to a slew of problems that were, until recently, rare or unknown, from asthma, to diabetes, to - scariest of all - overpopulation. The Story of the Human Body asks how our bodies got to be the way they are, and considers how that evolutionary history - both ancient and recent - can help us evaluate how we use our bodies. How is the present-day state of the human body related to the past? And what is the human body's future? 'Monumental. The Story of the Human Body, by one of our leading experts, takes us on an epic voyage' - Neil Shubin, author of Your Inner Fish 'Riveting, enlightening, and more than a little frightening' - Christopher McDougall, author of Born to Run Daniel Lieberman is the Chair of the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology at Harvard and a leader in the field. He has written nearly 100 articles, many appearing in the journals Nature and Science, and his cover story on barefoot running in Nature was picked up by major media the world over. His research and discoveries have been highlighted in newspapers and magazines, including The New York Times, Boston Globe, Discover, and National Geographic.
Circadian rhythms, the biological oscillations based around our 24-hour clock, have a profound effect on human physiology and healthy cellular function. Circadian Rhythms: Health and Disease is a wide-ranging foundational text that provides students and researchers with valuable information on the molecular and genetic underpinnings of circadian rhythms and looks at the impacts of disruption in our biological clocks in health and disease. Circadian Rhythms opens with chapters that lay the fundamental groundwork on circadian rhythm biology. Section II looks at the impact of circadian rhythms on major organ systems. Section III then turns its focus to the central nervous system. The book then closes with a look at the role of biological rhythms in aging and neurodegeneration. Written in an accessible and informative style, Circadian Rhythms: Health and Disease,will be an invaluable resource and entry point into this fascinating interdisciplinary field that brings together aspects of neuroscience, cell and molecular biology, and physiology.
This textbook uses a case-study approach to present the core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology in the context of human disease to students who will be involved in patient care. The 29 clinical cases have been carefully selected to cover key scientific concepts and some common, and other not so common, diseases. While the principal focus is on topics relating to metabolic disease, further subjects such as connective tissue disorders, neurological disorders, auto-inflammatory disorders, infective diseases, and cancer are also addressed. Each chapter provides a specific patient report that includes the natural history, pertinent clinical laboratory data, physical findings, subsequent diagnosis, and therapy. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion of the normal biochemical processes and reactions pertaining to the case, along with the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. Graphical diagrams are provided in each chapter for ease of comprehension.
The Retinoids: Biology, Biochemistry, and Disease provides an overview and synthesis of the retinoid molecules, from basic biology to mechanisms of diseases and therapy. Divided into five sections, the book covers retinoic acid signaling from biochemical, genetic, developmental, and clinical perspectives. The text is divided into five sections, the first of which examines vitamin A metabolic and enzymatic pathways. Focus then shifts to the role of retinoic acid signaling in development, and then to retinoids and physiological function. The book concludes with chapters on retinoids, disease and therapy. Comprehensive in scope and written by leading researchers in the field, The Retinoids: Biology, Biochemistry, and Disease will be an essential reference for biologists, biochemists, geneticists and developmental biologists, as well as for clinicians and pharmacists engaged in clinical research involving retinoids.
The Sunday Times Science Book of the Year, Anatomies by Hugh Aldersey-Williams, author of bestseller Periodic Tales, is a splendidly entertaining journey through the art, science, literature and history of the human body. 'Magnificent, inspired. He writes like a latter-day Montaigne. Stimulating scientific hypotheses, bold philosophic theories, illuminating quotations and curious facts. I recommend it to all' Telegraph ***** 'Splendid, highly entertaining, chock-full of insights ... It inserts fascinating scientific snippets and anecdotes about our organs into the wider history of our changing understanding of our bodies' Sunday Times 'A relentlessly entertaining cultural history of the human body ... brims with fascinating details, infectious enthusiasm ... the terrain he covers is so richly brought to life' Guardian 'Elegant and informative ... For Aldersey-Williams, [the body] is a thing of wonder and a repository of fascinating facts' Mail on Sunday **** In Anatomies, bestselling author Hugh Aldersey-Williams investigates that marvellous, mysterious form: the human body. Providing a treasure trove of surprising facts, remarkable stories and startling information drawn from across history, science, art and literature - from finger-prints to angel physiology, from Isaac Newton's death-mask to the afterlife of Einstein's brain - he explores our relationship with our bodies and investigates our changing attitudes to the extraordinary physical shell we inhabit. 'More than a science book - it's also history, biography and autobiography - Anatomies is writing at its most refined, regardless of genre' Sunday Times Praise for Periodic Tales: 'Science writing at its best ... fascinating and beautiful ... if only chemistry had been like this at school ... to meander through the periodic table with him ... is like going round a zoo with Gerald Durrell ... a rich compilation of delicious tales, but it offers greater rewards, too' Matt Ridley 'Immensely engaging and continually makes one sit up in -surprise' Sunday Times 'Splendid ... enjoyable and polished' Observer 'Full of good stories and he knows how to tell them well ... an agreeable jumble of anecdote, reflection and information' Sunday Telegraph 'Great fun to read and an endless fund of unlikely and improbable anecdotes ... sharp and often witty' Financial Times Hugh Aldersey-Williams studied natural sciences at Cambridge. He is the author of several books exploring science, design and architecture and has curated exhibitions at the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Wellcome Collection. His previous book Periodic Tales: The Curious Lives of the Elements was a Sunday Times bestseller and has been published in many languages around the world. He lives in Norfolk with his wife and son.
How do our muscles produce energy for exercise and what are the underlying biochemical principles involved? These are questions that students need to be able to answer when studying for a number of sport related degrees. This can prove to be a difficult task for those with a relatively limited scientific background. "Biochemistry for Sport and Exercise Metabolism" addresses this problem by placing the primary emphasis on sport, and describing the relevant biochemistry within this context.
The book opens with some basic information on the subject, including an overview of energy metabolism, some key aspects of skeletal muscle structure and function, and some simple biochemical concepts. It continues by looking at the three macromolecules which provide energy and structure to skeletal muscle - carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. The last section moves beyond biochemistry to examine key aspects of metabolism - the regulation of energy production and storage. Beginning with a chapter on basic principles of regulation of metabolism it continues by exploring how metabolism is influenced during high-intensity, prolonged, and intermittent exercise by intensity, duration, and nutrition.
Key Features: A clearly written, well presented introduction to the biochemistry of muscle metabolism.Focuses on sport to describe the relevant biochemistry within this context.In full colour throughout, it includes numerous illustrations, together with learning objectives and key points to reinforce learning.
"Biochemistry for Sport and Exercise Metabolism" will prove invaluable to students across a range of sport-related courses, who need to get to grips with how exercise mode, intensity, duration, training status and nutritional status can all affect the regulation of energy producing pathways and, more important, apply this understanding to develop training and nutrition programmes to maximise athletic performance.
Human Body Systems: Structure, Function, And Environment Is An Informative Primer That Focuses On The Organ Systems Within The Human Body, And Their Part In Health And Disease. The Ideal Supplement To Any Human Biology, A & P, Or Microbiology Course, It Covers: -Nutrition -Digestion -Circulation And Blood -Immunity -Respiration -Senses -Urinary System -Nervous System - Skeletal And Muscular Systems - Endocrine And Reproductive Systems It Closes With A Brief Discussion Of Ecology And Environmental Issues That Affect The Way Humans Live And Interact With The World Around Them.
Phosphatases, such as TNAP are fundamental in regulating the roles of cellular, and consequently numerous body functions. TNAP is a ubiquitous enzyme with a wide spectrum of substrates and specificity. Regulation at the cellular level and the lack of TNAP activity is a lethal condition. Recent findings of a highly specific regional, laminar and subcellular localization of TNAP in the cerebral cortex indicates that in addition to its metabolic and skeletal functions, TNAP also plays a role in regulating cerebral functions, most probably cognition. In fact, TNAP disturbance could result in complex diseases such as epilepsy, developmental retardation and Alzheimer's disease. Available data suggest that, regarding brain functions, TNAP is a potentially important target of clinical research. This book aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of the functions of TNAP in the brain and on other tissues and organs.
This highly visual text is the perfect companion for anyone studying anatomy and physiology. Offering innovative techniques to help students with their learning, this user-friendly, accessible study skills text is the perfect accompaniment to any course or textbook. Complex processes are brought to life with imaginative diagrams and storylines which aid understanding, reinforce memory and also support students with memory, dyslexic or mathematical difficulties. New to this edition is a fully updated section on First Aid, and brand new content on making posters and presentations
Melatonin is a powerful hormone and antioxidant with numerous effects on the metabolism and the health of humans. Available as a dietary supplement in the United States since 1993, it is one of the most popular over-the-counter alternative remedies available. Comprising contributions from researchers who have studied the role of melatonin in various disease and physiological states, Melatonin in the Promotion of Health, Second Edition provides a wide variety of expert reviews on the biology of melatonin relevant to health. Beginning with a history of melatonin and its relation to circadian rhythms, the book examines its use in a host of applications, including: Gut motility and gastrointestinal diseases Anesthesia and surgery Bone health Breast cancer Cardiovascular diseases Diabetes Age-related macular degeneration and uveitis Melanoma, solar skin damage, and collagen synthesis The prevention of DNA damage Mental disorders, sleep, and issues related to jet lag and shift work The data gathered from a large number of carefully controlled animal and human studies have clearly implicated melatonin in the control mechanisms of a wide variety of physiological and psychological activities, making it a potent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment of a diverse range of diseases. This volume demonstrates that continued studies of this molecule raise the exciting prospect of providing new avenues of treating numerous diseases more effectively and with less side-effects than those found in conventional treatment modalities.
Exercise Biochemistry, 2nd Edition translates a potentially difficult and technical subject into a clear explanation of how exercise affects molecular-level functioning. The text is written in a very conversational style making it an ideal resource for students. This new second edition has been significantly updated to include the latest research. It includes coverage of metabolism, endocrinology and assessment all in one volume. Other updates to this second edition include new chapters, examinations of caffeine as an ergogenic acid and up-to-date findings on how different types of exercise can affect lipid metabolism. To help with student learning, Exercise Biochemistry incorporates chapter objectives, summaries, key terms, sidebars and questions throughout. Split into four parts, the first section introduces students to biochemistry basics. The second part applies the basic to explore neural control of movement and muscle activity. The third section details exercise metabolism related to carbohydrates, lipids and protein. And, the final section covers biochemical assessment of people who exercise. Exercise Biochemistry, 2nd Edition is an authoritative resource that arms future sport and exercise scientists with a clear understanding of the effects of exercise on the function of the human body.
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