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Human beings, says Lee Smolin, author of The Trouble With Physics, have always had a problem with the boundary between reality and fantasy, confusing our representations of the world with the world itself. Nowhere is this more evident than in quantum physics, which forms the basis for our understanding of everything from elementary particles to the behaviour of materials. While quantum mechanics is currently our best theory of nature at an atomic scale, it has many puzzling qualities - qualities that preclude realism and therefore give an incomplete description of nature. Rather than question this version of quantum mechanics, however, whole groups of physicists have embraced it as correct and rejected realism. Subscribing to a kind of magical thinking, they believe that what is real is far beyond the world we perceive: indeed, that the 'true' world is hidden from our perception. Back in the 1920s Einstein, both a realist and a physicist, believed that it was necessary to go beyond quantum mechanics to discover what was missing from a true theory of the atoms. This was Einstein's unfinished mission, and it is Lee Smolin's too. Not only will this new model of quantum physics form the basis of solutions to many of the outstanding problems of physics, but, crucially, it is a theory that is realist in nature. At a time when science is under attack, and with it the belief in a real world in which facts are either true or false, never has the importance of building science on the correct foundations been more urgent.
This modern text combines fundamental principles with advanced topics and recent techniques in a rigorous and self-contained treatment of quantum field theory. Beginning with a review of basic principles, starting with quantum mechanics and special relativity, students can refresh their knowledge of elementary aspects of quantum field theory and perturbative calculations in the Standard Model. Results and tools relevant to many applications are covered, including canonical quantization, path integrals, non-Abelian gauge theories, and the renormalization group. Advanced topics are explored, with detail on effective field theories, quantum anomalies, stable extended field configurations, lattice field theory, and field theory at a finite temperature or in the strong field regime. Two chapters are dedicated to new methods for calculating scattering amplitudes (spinor-helicity, on-shell recursion, and generalized unitarity) equipping students with practical skills for research. Accessibly written, with numerous worked examples and end-of-chapter problems, this is an essential text for graduate students. The breadth of coverage makes it an equally excellent reference for researchers.
'A gripping new drama in science ... if you want to understand how the concept of life is changing, read this' Professor Andrew Briggs, University of Oxford When Darwin set out to explain the origin of species, he made no attempt to answer the deeper question: what is life? For generations, scientists have struggled to make sense of this fundamental question. Life really does look like magic: even a humble bacterium accomplishes things so dazzling that no human engineer can match it. And yet, huge advances in molecular biology over the past few decades have served only to deepen the mystery. So can life be explained by known physics and chemistry, or do we need something fundamentally new? In this penetrating and wide-ranging new analysis, world-renowned physicist and science communicator Paul Davies searches for answers in a field so new and fast-moving that it lacks a name, a domain where computing, chemistry, quantum physics and nanotechnology intersect. At the heart of these diverse fields, Davies explains, is the concept of information: a quantity with the power to unify biology with physics, transform technology and medicine, and even to illuminate the age-old question of whether we are alone in the universe. From life's murky origins to the microscopic engines that run the cells of our bodies, The Demon in the Machine is a breath-taking journey across the landscape of physics, biology, logic and computing. Weaving together cancer and consciousness, two-headed worms and bird navigation, Davies reveals how biological organisms garner and process information to conjure order out of chaos, opening a window on the secret of life itself.
This accessible new text introduces the theoretical concepts and tools essential for graduate-level courses on the physics of materials in condensed matter physics, physical chemistry, materials science and engineering, and chemical engineering. Topics covered range from fundamentals such as crystal periodicity and symmetry, and derivation of single-particle equations, to modern additions including graphene, two-dimensional solids, carbon nanotubes, topological states, and Hall physics. Advanced topics such as phonon interactions with phonons, photons and electrons, and magnetism, are presented in an accessible way, and a set of appendices reviewing crucial fundamental physics and mathematical tools makes this text suitable for students from a range of backgrounds. Students will benefit from the emphasis on translating theory into practice, with worked examples explaining experimental observations, applications illustrating how theoretical concepts can be applied to real research problems, and 242 informative full color illustrations. End-of chapter exercises are included for homework and self-study, with solutions and lecture slides for instructors available online.
In The Theoretical Minimum, world-class physicist Leonard Susskind provided a brilliant first course in classical mechanics, offering readers not an oversimplified introduction but the real thing - everything you need to start doing physics, and nothing more. Now he returns with the next challenge that every aspiring physics buff must tackle: quantum mechanics. Unlike most popular physics books, Susskind and his co-author Art Friedman teach the maths and equations that are essential to any real understanding of quantum mechanics. Combining crystal-clear explanations, witty and helpful dialogues, and basic exercises, Quantum Mechanics is, to paraphrase Einstein, as simple as possible, but no simpler.
Changes and additions to the new edition of this classic textbook include a new chapter on symmetries, new problems and examples, improved explanations, more numerical problems to be worked on a computer, new applications to solid state physics, and consolidated treatment of time-dependent potentials.
How quantum electrodynamics evolved in the first quarter of the 20th century, revealed here by its creators in 34 papers by Foley, Fermi, Heisenberg, Dryson, Weisskopf, Oppenheimer, Pauli, Schwinger, Klein and other key figures. 29 are in English, three in German, one each in French and Italian. Preface. Historical commentary.
This work summarises the salient features of current and planned experiments into multiquark hadrons, describing various inroads to accommodate them within a theoretical framework. At a pedagogical level, authors review the salient aspects of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, which has been brought to the fore by high-energy physics experiments over recent decades. Compact diquarks as building blocks of a new spectroscopy are presented and confronted with alternative explanations of the XYZ resonances. Ways to distinguish among theoretical alternatives are illustrated, to be tested with the help of high luminosity LHC, electron-positron colliders, and the proposed Tera-Z colliders. Non-perturbative treatments of multiquark hadrons, such as large N expansion, lattice QCD simulations, and predictions about doubly heavy multiquarks are reviewed in considerable detail. With a broad appeal across high-energy physics, this work is pertinent to researchers focused on experiments, phenomenology or lattice QCD.
Rapid advances in quantum optics, atomic physics, particle physics and other areas have been driven by fantastic progress in instrumentation (especially lasers) and computing technology as well as by the ever-increasing emphasis on symmetry and information concepts-requiring that all physicists receive a thorough grounding in quantum mechanics. This book provides a carefully structured and complete exposition of quantum mechanics and illustrates the common threads linking many different phenomena and subfields of physics.
How can fundamental particles exist as waves in the vacuum? How can such waves have particle properties such as inertia? What is behind the notion of "virtual" particles? Why and how do particles exert forces on one another? Not least: What are forces anyway? These are some of the central questions that have intriguing answers in Quantum Field Theory and the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Unfortunately, these theories are highly mathematical, so that most people - even many scientists - are not able to fully grasp their meaning. This book unravels these theories in a conceptual manner, using more than 180 figures and extensive explanations and will provide the nonspecialist with great insights that are not to be found in the popular science literature.
Category theory is unmatched in its ability to organize and layer abstractions and to find commonalities between structures of all sorts. No longer the exclusive preserve of pure mathematicians, it is now proving itself to be a powerful tool in science, informatics, and industry. By facilitating communication between communities and building rigorous bridges between disparate worlds, applied category theory has the potential to be a major organizing force. This book offers a self-contained tour of applied category theory. Each chapter follows a single thread motivated by a real-world application and discussed with category-theoretic tools. We see data migration as an adjoint functor, electrical circuits in terms of monoidal categories and operads, and collaborative design via enriched profunctors. All the relevant category theory, from simple to sophisticated, is introduced in an accessible way with many examples and exercises, making this an ideal guide even for those without experience of university-level mathematics.
This modern introduction to particle physics equips students with the skills needed to develop a deep and intuitive understanding of the physical theory underpinning contemporary experimental results. The fundamental tools of particle physics are introduced and accompanied by historical profiles charting the development of the field. Theory and experiment are closely linked, with descriptions of experimental techniques used at CERN accompanied by detail on the physics of the Large Hadron Collider and the strong and weak forces that dominate proton collisions. Recent experimental results are featured, including the discovery of the Higgs boson. Equations are supported by physical interpretations, and end-of-chapter problems are based on datasets from a range of particle physics experiments including dark matter, neutrino, and collider experiments. A solutions manual for instructors is available online. Additional features include worked examples throughout, a detailed glossary of key terms, appendices covering essential background material, and extensive references and further reading to aid self-study, making this an invaluable resource for advanced undergraduates in physics.
A physicist's efforts to understand the enigma that is quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is one of the glories of our age. The theory lies at the heart of modern society. Quantum mechanics is one of our most valuable forecasters-a "great predictor." It has immeasurably altered our conception of the natural world. Its philosophical implications are earthshaking. But quantum mechanics steadfastly refuses to speak of many things; it deals in probabilities rather than giving explicit descriptions. It never explains. Einstein, one of its creators, considered the theory incomplete. Even now, many years after the creation of quantum mechanics, physicists continue to argue about it. Astrophysicist George Greenstein has been both fascinated and confused by quantum mechanics for his entire career. In this book, he describes, engagingly and accessibly, his efforts to understand the enigma that is quantum mechanics. The fastest route to the insight into the ultimate nature of reality revealed by quantum mechanics, Greenstein writes, is through Bell's Theorem, which concerns reality at the quantum level; and Bell's 1964 discovery drives Greenstein's quest. Greenstein recounts a scientific odyssey that begins with Einstein, continues with Bell, and culminates with today's push to develop an industry of quantum machines. Along the way, he discusses spin, entanglement, experimental metaphysics, and quantum teleportation, often with easy-to-grasp analogies. We have known for decades that the world of the quantum was strange, but, Greenstein says, not until John Bell came along did we know just how strange.
Fundamental does for physics what Tim's first book, Elemental, does for chemistry: it demystifies the topic in his trademark humorous, engaging style, including the most recent developments in the field. At the start of the twentieth century, science appeared complete and the laws of nature were almost all discovered, but then we woke a sleeping giant - we discovered quantum mechanics. In the quantum realm, objects can be in two places at once. It's a place where time travel is not only possible, but necessary. It's a place where cause and effect can happen in reverse and observing something changes its state. From parallel universes to antimatter, quantum mechanics has revealed that when you get right down to it, the laws of nature are insane. The scientist J. B. S. Haldane once said, 'Reality is not only stranger than we imagine . . . it's stranger than we can imagine.' Never is this more true than with quantum mechanics; our best, most recent attempt to make sense of the fundamental laws of nature. Fundamental is a comprehensive beginner's guide to quantum mechanics, explaining not only the weirdness of the subject but the experiments that proved it to be true. Using a humorous and light-hearted approach, Fundamental tells the story of how the most brilliant minds in science grappled with seemingly impossible ideas and gave us everything from microchips to particle accelerators. Fundamental gives clear explanations of all the quantum phenomena known to modern science, without requiring an understanding of complex mathematics; tells the eccentric stories of the scientists who made these shattering discoveries and what they used them for; explains how quantum field theory (a topic not covered in detail by any other popular-science book) gave rise to particle physics and why the Higgs boson isn't the end of the story.
Quantum Theory contains the seminal works of quantum theory from the early years of the 20th Century, representing breakthroughs in science that radically altered the landscape of modern knowledge: Quantum Theory of Line-Spectra by Niels Bohr and The Origin and Development of the Quantum Theory by Max Planck. FLAME TREE's Great Works That Shape Our World is a new series of definitive books drawing on ancient, medieval and modern writing. Created to entertain, inform and enrich the new series brings infinite variety to refresh the mind, presented in beautiful editions for the modern market. Each book features a new, accessible introduction placing the book in context both as part of the new series, and its special contribution to the advancement of human understanding. New Introductions specially written for these editions examine the significance of each work, their impact at time of publication, and their influence today.
A sophisticated and original introduction to the philosophy of quantum mechanics from one of the world (TM)s leading philosophers of physics In this book, Tim Maudlin, one of the world (TM)s leading philosophers of physics, offers a sophisticated, original introduction to the philosophy of quantum mechanics. The briefest, clearest, and most refined account of his influential approach to the subject, the book will be invaluable to all students of philosophy and physics. Quantum mechanics holds a unique place in the history of physics. It has produced the most accurate predictions of any scientific theory, but, more astonishing, there has never been any agreement about what the theory implies about physical reality. Maudlin argues that the very term oequantum theory is a misnomer. A proper physical theory should clearly describe what is there and what it does "yet standard textbooks present quantum mechanics as a predictive recipe in search of a physical theory. In contrast, Maudlin explores three proper theories that recover the quantum predictions: the indeterministic wavefunction collapse theory of Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber; the deterministic particle theory of deBroglie and Bohm; and the conceptually challenging Many Worlds theory of Everett. Each offers a radically different proposal for the nature of physical reality, but Maudlin shows that none of them are what they are generally taken to be.
In Our Mathematical Universe, Max Tegmark, one of the most original physicists at work today, leads us on an astonishing journey to explore the mysteries uncovered by cosmology and to discover the nature of reality Part-history of the cosmos, part-intellectual adventure, Our Mathematical Universe travels from the Big Bang to the distant future via parallel worlds, across every possible scale - from the sub-atomic to the intergalactic - showing how mathematics provides the answers to our questions about the world. Where do we come from? What makes the universe the way it is? In essence, why are we here? With dazzling clarity, Max Tegmark ponders these deep mysteries and allows us to grasp the most cutting-edge and mind-boggling theories of physics. What he proposes is an elegant and fascinating idea: that our physical world not only is described by mathematics, but that it is mathematics. 'Our Mathematical Universe is nothing if not impressive. Brilliantly argued and beautifully written, it is never less than thought-provoking about the greatest mysteries of our existence' - New York Times 'An amazing ride through the rich landscape of contemporary cosmology... Physics could do with more characters like Tegmark... an imaginative intellect and a charismatic presence' - Clive Cookson, Financial Times Max Tegmark is author or co-author of more than 200 technical papers, twelve of which have been cited more than 500 times. He has featured in dozens of science documentaries, and his work with the SDSS collaboration on galaxy clustering shared the first prize in Science magazine's "Breakthrough of the Year: 2003". He holds a Ph.D from the University of California, Berkeley, and is a physics professor at MIT.
Modern Quantum Mechanics is a classic graduate level textbook, covering the main quantum mechanics concepts in a clear, organized and engaging manner. The author, Jun John Sakurai, was a renowned theorist in particle theory. The second edition, revised by Jim Napolitano, introduces topics that extend the text's usefulness into the twenty-first century, such as advanced mathematical techniques associated with quantum mechanical calculations, while at the same time retaining classic developments such as neutron interferometer experiments, Feynman path integrals, correlation measurements, and Bell's inequality. A solution manual for instructors using this textbook can be downloaded from www.cambridge.org/9781108422413.
Every physicist agrees quantum mechanics is among humanity's finest scientific achievements. But ask what it means, and the result will be a brawl. For a century, most physicists have followed Niels Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation and dismissed questions about the reality underlying quantum physics as meaningless. A mishmash of solipsism and poor reasoning, Copenhagen endured, as Bohr's students vigorously protected his legacy, and the physics community favoured practical experiments over philosophical arguments. As a result, questioning the status quo long meant professional ruin. And yet, from the 1920s to today, physicists like John Bell, David Bohm, and Hugh Everett persisted in seeking the true meaning of quantum mechanics. What is Real? is the gripping story of this battle of ideas and the courageous scientists who dared to stand up for truth.
A brief introduction to gravity through Einstein (TM)s general theory of relativity Of the four fundamental forces of nature, gravity might be the least understood and yet the one with which we are most intimate. From the months each of us spent suspended in the womb anticipating birth to the moments when we wait for sleep to transport us to other realities, we are always aware of gravity. In On Gravity, physicist A. Zee combines profound depth with incisive accessibility to take us on an original and compelling tour of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Inspired by Einstein's audacious suggestion that spacetime could ripple, Zee begins with the stunning discovery of gravity waves. He goes on to explain how gravity can be understood in comparison to other classical field theories, presents the idea of curved spacetime and the action principle, and explores cutting-edge topics, including black holes and Hawking radiation. Zee travels as far as the theory reaches, leaving us with tantalizing hints of the utterly unknown, from the intransigence of quantum gravity to the mysteries of dark matter and energy. Concise and precise, and infused with Zee's signature warmth and freshness of style, On Gravity opens a unique pathway to comprehending relativity and gaining deep insight into gravity, spacetime, and the workings of the universe.
One of the most cited books in physics of all time, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information remains the best textbook in this exciting field of science. This 10th anniversary edition includes an introduction from the authors setting the work in context. This comprehensive textbook describes such remarkable effects as fast quantum algorithms, quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography and quantum error-correction. Quantum mechanics and computer science are introduced before moving on to describe what a quantum computer is, how it can be used to solve problems faster than 'classical' computers and its real-world implementation. It concludes with an in-depth treatment of quantum information. Containing a wealth of figures and exercises, this well-known textbook is ideal for courses on the subject, and will interest beginning graduate students and researchers in physics, computer science, mathematics, and electrical engineering.
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