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Ageless is a guide to the science driving biology's biggest story: why we get old, and how we can stop it. 'An absolute tour de force' Aubrey de Grey, Chief Science Officer, SENS Research Foundation 'An immensely important book' Professor Lewis Dartnell, author of Origins Ageing - not cancer, not heart disease - is the world's leading cause of death and suffering. We accept as inevitable that as we get older our bodies and minds begin to deteriorate, and we are increasingly likely to be struck by dementia or disease. Ageing is so deeply ingrained in human experience that we never think to ask: is it necessary? Biologists, on the other hand, have been investigating that question for years. Ageless introduces us to the cutting-edge research that is paving the way for a revolution in medicine. It takes us inside the laboratories where scientists are studying every aspect of the body - DNA, mitochondria, stem cells, our immune systems, even longevity genes that have helped animals to a tenfold increase in lifespan - all in an effort to forestall or reverse our decline. Computational biologist Andrew Steele explains what is happening as we age and practical ways we can help slow down the process. He reveals how understanding the scientific implications of ageing could lead to the greatest discovery in the history of medicine - one that has the potential to improve billions of lives, save trillions of dollars, and transform the human condition.
The Nobel laureate Otto Warburg was widely regarded as one of the most important biochemists of the twentieth century. A Jewish homosexual living openly with his partner, he was also among the most despised figures in the Third Reich. Yet top Nazi officials-perhaps even Hitler himself-dreaded cancer and protected Warburg in the hope he could cure it. Using new archival sources and interviews with current cancer authorities, Sam Apple depicts a relentless figure, hungry for fame, who pursued his research even as the world around him disintegrated. Remarkably, Warburg's theory about the metabolic origins of cancer has been revived in our own time, as scientists investigate the dangers of sugar and the link between obesity and cancer. Ravenous is a book for readers of Alan Turing and The Emperor of All Maladies: a tale of scientific discovery, personal peril, and the race to end a disastrous disease.
Developmental biology is seemingly well understood, with development widely accepted as being a series of programmed changes through which an egg turns into an adult organism, or a seed matures into a plant. However, the picture is much more complex than that: is it all genetically controlled or does environment have an influence? Is the final adult stage the target of development and everything else just a build-up to that point? Are developmental strategies the same in plants as in animals? How do we consider development in single-celled organisms? In this concise, engaging volume, Alessandro Minelli, a leading developmental biologist, addresses these key questions. Using familiar examples and easy-to-follow arguments, he offers fresh alternatives to a number of preconceptions and stereotypes, awakening the reader to the disparity of developmental phenomena across all main branches of the tree of life.
Why do the best-known examples of evolutionary change involve the alteration of one kind of animal into another very similar one, like the evolution of a bigger beak in a bird? Wouldn't it be much more interesting to understand how beaks originated? Most people would agree, but until recently we didn't know much about such origins. That is now changing, with the growth of the interdisciplinary field evo-devo, which deals with the relationship between how embryos develop in the short term and how they (and the adults they grow into) evolve in the long term. One of the key questions is: can the origins of structures such as beaks, eyes, and shells be explained within a Darwinian framework? The answer seems to be yes, but only by expanding that framework. This book discusses the required expansion, and the current state of play regarding our understanding of evolutionary and developmental origins.
This new edition of a foundational text presents a contemporary review of cladistics, as applied to biological classification. It provides a comprehensive account of the past fifty years of discussion on the relationship between classification, phylogeny and evolution. It covers cladistics in the era of molecular data, detailing new advances and ideas that have emerged over the last twenty-five years. Written in an accessible style by internationally renowned authors in the field, readers are straightforwardly guided through fundamental principles and terminology. Simple worked examples and easy-to-understand diagrams also help readers navigate complex problems that have perplexed scientists for centuries. This practical guide is an essential addition for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in taxonomy, systematics, comparative biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology.
Among the offspring of humans and other animals are occasional individuals that are malformed in whole or in part. The most grossly abnormal of these have been referred to from ancient times as monsters, because their birth was thought to foretell doom; the less severely affected are usually known as anomalies. This volume aims to digdigs deeply into the cellular and molecular processes of embryonic development that go awry in such exceptional situations. It focuses on the physical mechanisms of how genes instruct cells to build anatomy, as well as the underlying forces of evolution that shaped these mechanisms over eons of geologic time. The narrative is framed in a historical perspective that should help students trying to make sense of these complex subjects. Each chapter is written in the style of a Sherlock Holmes story, starting with the clues and ending with a solution to the mystery.
An award-winning book that challenges the current wisdom of how cells work in a visionary, provocative, and accessible way... reads like a detective story. This highly praised book emphasises the role of cell water and the gel-like nature of the cell, building on these features to explore the mechanisms of communication, transport, contraction, division, and other essential cell functions. Lucidly written for the non-expert, the book is profound enough for biologists, chemists, physicists and engineers to devour.
Divided into two volumes the work offers a so far unmatched broad and at the same time deep knowledge on molecular and cellular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and offers comprehensive insight into clinical, therapeutic and technological aspects. This 1st Volume presents tumor entities of the ocular system, the thyroid organ, the oesophagus, gliomas, non-glial brain tumors, head and neck as well as lung cancer. In addition it also discusses in-depth potential novel molecular players and the role of stem cells as well as the endocannabinoid system in carcinogenesis, it furthermore explains tumor metabolism components and signaling pathways. Each of the chapters discusses potential therapeutic strategies and novel drug targets. The book addresses basic scientists and medical researchers interested in translational cancer research.
This handbook provides comprehensive reference information on the efficient production of secondary metabolites from plants by transgenesis and other genetic manipulation strategies. It reviews and summarizes selected important case studies in genetic methods applied to enhance the production of a given metabolite or a group of related or derived compounds. Readers will find reference information on a multitude of techniques and methods, including traditional breeding and screening; over-expression of genes encoding key enzymes; functional genomics approaches; metabolic engineering of the relevant biosynthetic pathways; indirect genetic approaches to improve metabolite production, including Agrobacterium mediated transformations. Furthermore, combinatorial biochemistry approaches to engineer secondary metabolic pathways are summarized, which can offer access to new structures or to the design of novel compounds. Since many commercially valuable substances are still extracted from plants, being largely inaccessible to efficient modern laboratory synthesis methods, this book provides a valuable resource of information for biotechnological approaches that can help to find alternative and more efficient methods for the production of natural secondary metabolites. Thus adjusted production methods, with the help of tailored plant systems, can potentially help to release the stress on plants, which are currently suffering from extensive human harvesting, and to conserve global biodiversity. Readers will find comprehensive reference information on plant genetic manipulation toward more efficient synthesis, accumulation and production of target secondary metabolites. The handbook will appeal to researchers and professionals, but also graduate students and scholars working in the fields of biotechnology, genetic engineering, medicinal plant research, pharmacy, and phytochemistry.
This book gives a comprehensive insight into platelet biogenesis, platelet signal transduction, involvement of platelets in disease, the use of diverse animal models for platelet research and future perspectives in regard to platelet production and gene therapy. Being written by international experts, the book is a concise state-of-the art work in the field of platelet biogenesis, biology and research. It represents an indispensable tool for research scientists in biomedicine, vascular biology, hematopoiesis and hemostasis and specifically for scientists in platelet research, as well as for clinicians in the field of hematology and transfusion medicine.
Together with Volume 1, this book provides an inclusive overview of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and offers comprehensive insights into related clinical and therapeutic aspects. This second volume complements the first by presenting and concisely explaining the carcinogenesis of various tumor entities such as non-melanoma skin cancers, bone and soft tissue tumors, pancreatic cancers, hepatocellular cancer and neuroendocrine tumors. As in volume one, each chapter illuminates the similarities and dissimilarities of changed signaling pathways in the different organ systems and depicts potential therapeutic strategies. The focus of volume two lies on the presentation of modern molecular biological techniques for diagnosis, as well as strategies for biomarker identification and validation. Furthermore, it discusses potential therapeutic targets and individualized treatment strategies, offering a valuable resource for all basic scientists and medical researchers interested in translational cancer research.
This book covers basic research topics such as the structure-function relationships of neuropilins and mechanisms of neuropilin-mediated signal transduction, details the most important roles of the neuropilins in developmental biology, and addresses their roles in various conditions such as cancer and various eye diseases. The two neuropilin genes encode scaffold receptors that can bind several different ligands, and also associate with many other receptors and modify their activity. Further, it has been confirmed that they play important roles in the shaping of major organs and tissues such as the nervous system and the vascular system, and that they can modulate immune responses. The book offers a helpful guide for biomedical researchers and all scientists active in the neurosciences, vascular and molecular biology, as well as developmental biology and immunology.
This book provides essential information on improving protein folding/stability, which is a result of the balance between the intra-molecular interactions of protein functional groups and their interactions with the solvent environment. The protein folding solvent environment mainly consists of salts, small molecule compounds, metabolites, molecular chaperones and other chemical species. Therefore, subtle change in the composition of the environment will alter the protein folding process. The importance of the solvent environment in protein folding is precisely due to the fact that various disease-causing proteopathies can be reversed by manipulating the solvent environment of the malfolded proteins. Hostile environmental stresses represent one of the basic causes of such challenges in protein folding or misfolding. Since cells commonly encounter extreme environmental fluctuations, it is crucial that they equip themselves with strategies to circumvent the hostile environmental conditions. Nature has developed many strategies to ensure that the complex and challenging protein folding reaction occurs with adequate efficiency and fidelity for the success of the organism. Among the strategies employed in a wide range of species and cell types is the elaboration of small organic molecules called osmolytes. Additionally, recent advances have also revealed that certain specific osmolytes might be key biomarkers of cancer, infectious diseases and vaccine flocculation. In fact, a large pool of data has been generated regarding their potential for the therapeutic intervention of neurodegenerative diseases and other metabolic disorders caused by protein aggregation or proteostasis failure. Reflecting the multiple applications of these small molecules in the health and other industries, this book combines contributions by respected leaders in the field and will help to inspire college students, basic researchers, and clinicians to translate these biological roles of osmolytes into clinical practice. It will also shed light on some important future prospects of osmolytes like their role as drug excipients and provide a deeper understanding of their mechanism of action in the prevention of neuro-degenerative diseases.
This multidisciplinary book provides up-to-date information on clinical approaches that combine stem or progenitor cells, biomaterials and scaffolds, growth factors, and other bioactive agents in order to offer improved treatment of urologic disorders including lower urinary tract dysfunction, urinary incontinence, neurogenic bladder, and erectile dysfunction. In providing clinicians and researchers with a broad perspective on the development of regenerative medicine technologies, it will assist in the dissemination of both regenerative medicine principles and a variety of exciting therapeutic options. After an opening section addressing current developments and future perspectives in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, fundamentals such as cell technologies, biomaterials, bioreactors, bioprinting, and decellularization are covered in detail. The remainder of the book is devoted to the description and evaluation of a range of cell and tissue applications, with individual chapters focusing on the kidney, bladder, urethra, urethral sphincter, and penis and testis.
This major reference work is a one-shot knowledge base on electroporation and the use of pulsed electric fields of high intensity and their use in biology, medicine, biotechnology, and food and environmental technologies. The Handbook offers a widespread and well-structured compilation of 156 chapters ranging from the foundations to applications in industry and hospital. It is edited and written by most prominent researchers in the field. With regular updates and growing in its volume it is suitable for academic readers and researchers regardless of their disciplinary expertise, and will also be accessible to students and serious general readers. The Handbook's 276 authors have established scholarly credentials and come from a wide range of disciplines. This is crucially important in a highly interdisciplinary field of electroporation and the use of pulsed electric fields of high intensity and its applications in different fields from medicine, biology, food processing, agriculture, process engineering, energy and environment. An Editorial Board of distinguished scholars from across the world has selected and reviewed the various chapters to ensure the highest quality of this Handbook. The book was edited by an international team of Section Editors: P. Thomas Vernier, Boris Rubinsky, Juergen Kolb, Damijan Miklavcic, Marie-Pierre Rols, Javier Raso, Richard Heller, Gregor Sersa, Dietrich Knorr, and Eugene Vorobiev.
This book discusses the two different cellular approaches that are pursued in regenerative medicine: cell therapy and tissue engineering. It examines in detail the therapeutic application of hematopoietic stem cells in marrow regeneration, multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also referred to as mesenchymal stromal cells. The interest in MSCs can be seen in more than 150 clinical trials, some of which have progressed to Phase III, despite the cells' limited differentiation potential. The book also explores how embryonic stem (ES) cells, being pluripotent in nature, can resolve some of the problems associated with adult stem cells, yet entail other challenges like risks of teratoma formation and immune rejection. A separate chapter deals with the role of noncoding RNAs in neuronal commitment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Chapters like "Cord blood banking in India and the global scenario"; "3D bioprinting of tissue" and others will make this book an extremely interesting read for all students, researchers and clinicians working in the area of regenerative medicine/stem cells. The book is broadly divided into two parts, the first of which is devoted to basic information on stem cells, and the second of which addresses potential clinical applications in the areas of hematology, cardiology, orthopedic and immune suppression, etc.
Very Short Introductions: Brilliant, Sharp, Inspiring From the simplest bacteria to humans, all living things are composed of cells of one type or another, all of which have fundamentally the same chemistry. This chemistry must provide mechanisms that allow cells to interact with the external world, a means to power the cell, machinery to carry out varied processes within the cell, a structure within which everything runs, and also governance through a web of interlocking chemical reactions. Biochemistry is the study of those reactions, the molecules that are created, manipulated, and destroyed as a result of them, and the massive macromolecules (such as DNA, cytoskeletons, proteins and carbohydrates) that form the chemical machinery and structures on which these biochemical reactions take place. It didn't take long for an understanding of the chemistry of life to turn into a desire to manipulate it. Drugs and therapies all aim to modify biochemical processes for good or ill: Penicillin, derived from mould, stops bacteria making their cell walls. Aspirin, with its origins in willow bark, inhibits enzymes involved in inflammatory responses. A few nanograms of botulinum toxin (botox), can kill by preventing the release of neurotransmitters from the ends of nerves and so leads to paralysis and death, or give a wrinkle free forehead (if administered in very tiny quantities).This Very Short Introduction discusses the key concepts of biochemistry, as well as the historical figures in the field and the molecules they studied, before considering the current science and innovations in the field, and the interaction between biochemistry, biotechnology, and synthetic biology. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This new edition provides the most advanced research using bioprobes on the chemical control of 1) cell cycle and differentiation, 2) epigenetics, 3) apoptosis and autophagy, and 4) immune response. The "bioprobe", first proposed in the first edition, has become an indispensable tool for chemical biology and has substantially assisted in the investigation of complex biochemical processes of cells. New areas of investigation such as stem cell research, epigenetic research, and autophagy research have rapidly advanced in the past 10 years. Including these new findings, this second edition supplies up-to-date information on the biochemical tools called bioprobes. Data on each bioprobe, such as chemical structure, origin, function, and references, are presented as one item in this volume. Readers will easily find useful information and will be able to determine the appropriate bioprobes to investigate cell functions. The information on bioprobes and their use in research makes this book a valuable source for researchers in diverse fields. Not only scientists in academia but also in the pharmaceutical industries will discover the most important information about small molecules useful for drug discovery.
This book reviews three-dimensional (3D) stem cell culture and proof of concept for organ regeneration. The chapters present studies based on developmental biology but not tissue engineering using bio-degradative scaffolds. The ultimate goal of regenerative therapy, the next generation of regenerative therapy, is to develop fully functioning bioengineered 3D organs that can replace lost or damaged organs following disease, injury, or aging. Next-generation regenerative therapy will consist of organ-replacement regenerative therapy, which aims to reproduce reciprocal epithelial and epithelial interactions and epithelial and mesenchymal interactions that occur during embryogenesis. The book then discusses the generation of several 3D functional organs and organoids such as brain, inner ear, tooth, hair, salivary glands, lacrimal glands, gastrointestinal organs, kidney, liver, and lung. This work will appeal to a wide readership such as medical scientists, developmental biologists, clinicians, and patients. The volume provides valuable information and ideas to form a next-generation field of science.
This pioneering book offers an introduction to photodynamic therapy, a promising new approach in the treatment of complex diseases like cancer and microbial infections in animals. Addressing all aspects, ranging from basics to clinical practice, it presents the history and fundamentals of photodynamic therapy for non-experts. It includes a collection of basic and clinical studies in cancer and infectious diseases, as well as illustrations of successful treatment procedures and future perspectives and innovative applications involving nanotechnology and advanced drug delivery. This valuable resource offers readers insights into how the therapy works and how to apply it effectively in daily practice.
This book is a compilation of various chapters contributed by a group of leading researchers from different countries and covering up to date information based on published reports and personal experience of authors in the field of cytogenetics. Beginning with the introduction of chromosome, the subsequent chapters on organization of genetic material, karyotype evolution, structural and numerical variations in chromosomes, B-chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations provide an in-depth knowledge and easy understanding of the subject matter. A special feature of the book is the inclusion of a series of chapters on various types of chromosomal aberrations and their impact on breeding behaviour and crop improvement. The possible mechanism, their consequences and role in genetic analysis has been emphasized in these chapters. A few chapters have also been dedicated on various techniques routinely used in the laboratory by students and researchers. Each chapter ends with an extensive bibliography so that the students and researchers may find it relevant to consult more literature on the subject than a book of this size can offer. The book is intended to fulfill the needs of undergraduate and post graduate students of botany, zoology and agriculture besides, teachers and researchers engaged in the field of genetics, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics. In general the readers will find each chapter of the book informative and easy to understand.
In three Volumes this mini book series presents current knowledge and new perspectives on cartilage as a specialized yet versatile tissue. This second volume is dedicated to basic pathologies of the two most common osteoarticular diseases affecting large segments of the Western population, osteoarthritis and chondrodysplasias. This book addresses Professors, researchers and PhD students who are interested in musculoskeletal and cartilage biology and pathobiology.
Many creatures use adhesive polymers and structures to attach to inert substrates, to each other, or to other organisms. This is the first major review that brings together research on many of the well-known biological adhesives dealing with bacteria, fungi, algae, and marine and terrestrial animals. As we learn more about their molecular and mechanical properties we begin to understand why they adhere so well and with this comes broad applications in areas such as medicine, dentistry, and biotechnology.
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