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This book describes the observation of urban climates in Latin-American and their relationships with urban sprawl, the economic emergence of Latin American countries, social segregation, urban ecology, disasters and resilience. The chapters include contributions dealing with urban heat islands, local climate zones, thermal comfort, air pollution, extreme climate index, green infrastructure, health issues and adaptions based on the socio-economic background of urban areas. This book revises the role of urban planning and environmental governance, highlighting the singularities in climate adaptation policies in developing countries.
Written by leading academics, this book is an invaluable 'how to ...' guide to studying for a Geography degree. Written in a practical and conversational style, it offers important insights into how to succeed in the first year of your degree course, covering everything from how to succeed in assessments to how to decide where to live. Some of the information the book provides is academic and some of it is non-academic, as negotiating both is important in order to be successful in the first year of a Geography degree. Studying Geography at University is ideal for those in the early stages of applying to university. Each chapter offers hints and tips and gives practical real-world insights into becoming a successful geography student that will enrich applications, open days and visit days. It is also possible to dip into the chapter summaries, 'What Do Students Say?' and 'Top Tip' boxes only. Written by current students, from a range of institutions, these provide unique insights into the book's key points. Current students should also keep and refer to the book as an invaluable guide through the first few months of their degree. This guide is a must-read for anyone starting their studies in Human Geography, Physical Geography, Environmental Science or any other related subject at university.
This book approaches the challenges the Arctic has faced and is facing through a lens of opportunity. Through pinpointed examples from and dealing with the Circumpolar North, the Arctic is depicted as a region where people and peoples have managed to endure despite significant challenges at hand. This book treats the 'Arctic of disasters' as an innovated narrative and asks how the 'disaster pieces' of Arctic discourse interact with the ability of Arctic peoples, communities and regions to counter disaster, adversity, and doom. While not neglecting the scientifically established challenges associated with climate change and other (potentially) disastrous processes in the north, this book calls for a paradigm shift from perceiving the 'Arctic of disasters' to an 'Arctic of triumph'. Particular attention is therefore given to selected Arctic achievements that underline 'triumphant' developments in the north, even when Arctic triumph and disaster intersect.
Interest in the environment has never been greater and yet most of us have little knowledge of the 4 billion years of history that formed it. This book explains the principles of geology, geography and geomorphology, and shows how a basic understanding of geological timescales, plate tectonics and landforms can help you 'read' the great outdoors. This is a highly illustrated book with a very accessible text that beautifully illuminates the landscape around us.
This book is the outcome of the invited topics from various international experts in the field of groundwater resource evaluation, characterization, augmentation, restoration, modeling and management. It comprehensively deals with the resource evaluation through remote sensing (RS) along with GIS, resistivity tomography for identification of potential bore-holes in hard rock region, aquifer parameterization through pumping tests, interpolation of sparse spatial data through the theory of regionalized variables (Geostatistics) and augmentation of groundwater resource through aquifer storage and recovery method (ASR). Characterization of fractured medium parameters, identification of sources of Fluoride and Arsenic contamination and its remediation, groundwater modeling procedures to understand the flow and contaminant migration phenomenon, inverse modeling to evolve the parameters which are controlling the groundwater movement and mass transport and management aspects of the groundwater resources through community participation, and artificial recharge and remediation of contaminated aquifer system have also been brought out in this textbook. It is hoped that the book will be useful for students, young researchers, teachers and managers engaged in the assessment and management of groundwater.
Rivers are the great shapers of terrestrial landscapes. Very few points on Earth above sea level do not lie within a drainage basin. Even points distant from the nearest channel are likely to be influenced by that channel. Tectonic uplift raises rock thousands of meters above sea level. Precipitation falling on the uplifted terrain concentrates into channels that carry sediment downward to the oceans and influence the steepness of adjacent hill slopes by governing the rate at which the landscape incises. Rivers migrate laterally across lowlands, creating a complex topography of terraces, floodplain wetlands and channels. Subtle differences in elevation, grain size, and soil moisture across this topography control the movement of ground water and the distribution of plants and animals. Rivers in the Landscape, Second Edition, emphasizes general principles and conceptual models, as well as concrete examples of each topic drawn from the extensive literature on river process and form. The book is suitable for use as a course text or a general reference on rivers. Aimed at advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals looking for a concise summary of physical aspects of rivers, Rivers in the Landscape is designed to: emphasize the connectivity between rivers and the greater landscape by explicitly considering the interactions between rivers and tectonics, climate, biota, and human activities; provide a concise summary of the current state of knowledge for physical process and form in rivers; reflect the diversity of river environments, from mountainous, headwater channels to large, lowland, floodplain rivers and from the arctic to the tropics; reflect the diverse methods that scientists use to characterize and understand river process and form, including remote sensing, field measurements, physical experiments, and numerical simulations; reflect the increasing emphasis on quantification in fluvial geomorphology and the study of Earth surfaces in general; provide both an introduction to the classic, foundational papers on each topic, and a guide to the latest, particularly insightful and integrative references.
This open access book explores fishing livelihoods in the context of the wider contexts in which they are embedded. Drawing on case studies from across the Asia-Pacific region, the book highlights how fishing livelihoods are shaped by globalisation, social relationships and governance. The book concludes by showing how better understanding these relationships can contribute to governance for healthier ecosystems and social wellbeing. This is an open access book. This is an open access book.
This edited book summarizes numerous research studies on remote sensing and GIS of natural resource management for the Himalaya region done by Indian Institutions and Universities over the last decade. It gives an overview of hydrometeorological studies on Himalayan water resources and addresses concerns in the development of water resources in this region, which is dealing with an increased pressure in population, industrialization and economic development. While the source of some of the major rivers of India are found in the Himalayas, the glaciers and water bodies in the region are continuously shrinking leading to a depletion of water and deterioration of water quality. This is affecting a population of up to 2.5 billion people. The ecosystems have been under threat due to deforestation, loss of biodiversity, expansion of agriculture and settlement, overexploitation of natural resources, habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, mining, construction of roads and large dams, and unplanned tourism. Spaceborne remote sensing with its ability to provide synoptic and repetitive coverage has emerged as a powerful tool for assessment and monitoring of the Himalayan resources and phenomena. This work serves as a resource to students, researchers, scientists, professionals, and policy makers both in India and on a global level.
This monograph gives a comprehensive but in-depth analysis of the territorial development of Croatia and historical processes of significant spatial impact. It covers the millennial time span - from prehistory till the present, through relevant periods, e.g., prehistory, antiquity, Middle Ages, period of Ottoman progression and retreat, Post-Ottoman period of development of the Central European railway network, the period of South Slavic political associations (old and new Yugoslavia), and the post-Yugoslav period of independent Croatia. The book is highly illustrated with maps and figures. It is written by scholars from the region, based on the original research and the vast body of literature. It is one of the only books in English that interprets the overall development of the territory and cultural landscape of Croatia. Its scientific but comprehensive approach makes it of use to scholars, students and anyone interested in historical and geographical processes and features of Croatia and the Balkan region.
Plate tectonic collision, climate oscillation, glacial fluctuation, severe wind and water erosion - all have wrought dramatic change on the landscape of the Western Himalaya, one of the most dynamic and spectacular landscapes on Earth. Study of the region - from the Western Himalaya foothills and lowlands to the Arabian Sea - is of particular value to geology and geomorphology because of the size and frequency of events. That much of South Asia is relatively inaccessible has enhanced the significance of research in Pakistan and adjacent areas. "Himalaya to the Sea" focuses on the general evolution of landforms in Pakistan but is also a guide for predictive, protective and remedial measures to mitigate the natural hazards which plague the region and constrain development. The authors describe regional erosion and sedimentation within the context of topographical evolution; more specifically, they deal with neotectonics, past and present glaciation, general mountain geomorphology and process mechanics, past and present fluvial processes and landforms, wind blown deposits, age dates, soils, marine terraces and archaeology.
This volume provides a global treatment of historical and regional geomorphic work as it developed from the end of the 19th century - which saw the burgeoning of the eustatic theory, the concepts of isostasy and epeirogeny, and the first complete statements of the cycle of erosion and of polycyclic denudation chronology - to the hiatus of World War 2. The book is subdivided into global and Davisian influences and historical and regional geomorphology. It sets out to describe and analyze many of the developments which have given rise to the rich and varied subject-matter of contemporary geomorphology. This book is the third volume in the definitive series "The History of the Study of Landforms or the Development of Geomorphology". Volume 1 (1964) dealt with contributions to the field up to 1890. Volume 2 (1973) dealt with the concepts and contributions of William Morris Davis. Volume 3 treats historical and regional themes during the "classic" period of geomorphology, between 1890 and 1950. Volume 4, currently being prepared, will concentrate on studies of geomorphic processes and of quarternary geomorphology, carrying these thems on into the second half of the 20th century, which h
Since the 1970s and particularly the works of Tuxen (1978) and Gehu & Rivas-Martinez (1981), dynamico-catenal phytosociology has facilitated the integration of vegetation dynamics by more precisely describing the trajectories of vegetation series. A national habitat mapping program (CarHAB), launched by France's Ministry of Ecology, aims to map the vegetation and vegetation series of metropolitan France at a scale of 1: 25,000 by 2025. In this context, Corsica has been selected as a pilot region, due to its unique characteristics regarding Mediterranean and alticole vegetation. This book describes in detail the vegetation series and geoseries (ecology, structure, dynamic trajectories, effects of anthropogenic factors on vegetation dynamics, catenal positioning in the landscape) of two Corsican sectors: Cap Corse and Biguglia pond. These two study sites were selected using two methods: * For Cap Corse, the typology and mapping are based on an inductive approach, which seeks to understand the dynamics of vegetation by drawing on the mature, substitutional, pioneering and anthropogenic associations likely to exist within a tessellar envelope. These various dynamic stages characterize "the vegetation series" (sigmetum or synassociation), the fundamental unit of symphytosociology (Gehu 2006; Biondi 2011). The aim of symphytosociology is, therefore, to define the vegetation series; in other words, it seeks to identify the repetitive combinations of syntaxa under homogeneous ecological conditions. * For Biguglia pond, the typology and mapping are based on a deductive approach, which combines (under SIG) the ecological descriptor maps with the vegetation mapping, in order to reveal the tesselas and the natural potential vegetation that underlies them. Thanks to the improvement of GIS techniques, this approach has been frequently used to characterize plant landscapes from vegetation to vegetation geoseries since the 2000s, with applications to the conservation management of natural and semi-natural environments.
This book provides a profound geographical description and analysis of Central Asia. The authors take a synthetic approach in a period of critical transformation in the post-soviet time. The monograph analyzes comprehensively the physical and human geography as well as human-nature interactions of Central Asia with focus on Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Natural processes are described at a systemic scale, focusing on ecological impacts and consequences and contemporary human adaptations and organization. It also discusses in which ways the human organizations try to apply solutions for their needs such as security, territorial management and resources renewability, material and functional needs, identity elaborations, culture and communication. The Geography of Central Asia appeals to scientists and students of regional geography and interested academics from other areas such as social, political, economic and environmental studies within the context of Central Asia. The book is also a very useful resource for field trips into this area.
This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of the assessment and management of potentially dangerous infectious diseases, quarantined pests, invasive (alien) species, living modified organisms and biological weapons, from a multitude of perspectives. Issues of biosecurity have gained increasing attention over recent years but have often only been addressed from narrow disciplines and with a lack of integration of theoretical and practical approaches. The Routledge Handbook of Biosecurity and Invasive Species brings together both the natural sciences and the social sciences for a fully rounded perspective on biosecurity, shedding light on current national and international management frameworks with a mind to assessing possible future scenarios. With chapters focussing on a variety of ecosystems - including forests, islands, marine and coastal and agricultural land - as well as from the industrial scale to individual gardens, this handbook reviews the global state of invasions and vulnerabilities across a wide range of themes and critically analyses key threats and threatening activities, such as trade, travel, land development and climate change. Identifying invasive species and management techniques from a regional to international scale, this book will be a key reference text for a wide range of students and academics in ecology, agriculture, geography, human and animal health and interdisciplinary environmental and security studies.
This book is useful to those in water resources management and policy formulations, hydrologists, environmentalists, engineers and researchers. Exploiting advanced statistical techniques and the latest state-of-the-art multi-mission satellites, surface models and reanalysis products, this book provides the first comprehensive weighing of the changes in the Nile River Basin's (NRB: ~ 3,400,000 km2 ) stored waters' compartments, surface, soil moisture and groundwater, and their association to climate variability/change and anthropogenic impacts on the one hand. On the other hand, it argues on the need for equitable use of the NRB's waters by all 11 countries within its basin, and doing away with obsolete Nile treaties that were signed by Britain, Egypt and Sudan, which prohibit the use of the Nile by 8 upstream countries. With Ethiopia's construction of Africa's largest dam (GERD; Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) along the Blue Nile, which is expected to take several years to fill, the Nile is back on the news. Combined with Uganda's Nalubaale, Kiira and Bujagali dams on the White Nile, these human-induced impacts (i.e., damming), coupled with those of climate variability/change, are expected to exacerbate tension with the low stream countries (Egypt and Sudan) fearing the cut in theNile's total volume. Furthermore, the Nile river, arguably the world's longest river (6800 km), impacts on the livelihood of over 300 million people of 11 countries within its basin. This population is expected to double in the next twenty-five years, thereby putting extreme pressure on its water resources. An in-depth analysis of changes in the Nile's stored waters, therefore, is essential to inform its management and sustainable equitable use. Owing to its sheer size, however, obtaining in-situ data from "boots on the ground" is practically impossible, paving way to the space-based weighing of the Nile River Basin using a suite of high spatio-temporal remotely sensed and reanalysis products, as well as those of hydrological models. "Arguably, the Nile River is the most unique river in the world. It spans extremes of rainfall from being measured by meters to being measured by centimeters, from the humid tropics to the driest of deserts. Yet, thirsty people live throughout this basin and therefore the demands on its water resources are uneven. Knowing the water amounts throughout the entire Nile Basin is a critical step for governments and international treaties to avoid the "Tragedy of the Commons". Africa can embrace this future through the leadership of Prof. Awange and others like him who have devoted their careers to Africa's waters" -Doug Alsdorf, Ph.D., Professor of Geophysics at the Ohio State University (USA).
Written by a career geologist with decades of experience in the field, North America's Natural Wonders guides readers through the most iconic, geologically significant scenery in North America, points out features of interest, explains what they are seeing, and describes how these features came to be. Presented as classic excursions to some of the best-known natural wonders on the continent, Volume II focuses primarily on Central and Eastern North America, including the Appalachians, the Colorado Rockies, Austin-Big Bend Country, and the Sierra Madre. The trips detailed in this volume include stops at quintessential features, such as the Shenandoah Valley, Carlsbad Caverns, Big Bend National Park, and La Popa Basin of Nuevo Leon and Coahuila, Mexico, as well as many others. It also features discussions of lesser-known but equally interesting geologic formations and important information on accessing these sites. Features Clearly explains the geology of these regions with an emphasis on landscape formation Addresses issues of interest, such as fossils, earthquakes, mineral sites, mining, and oil fields Lavishly illustrated with numerous colorful maps and breathtaking geological landscapes and their various features These six self-guided tours explain to the curious layman, student, and geologist what they are seeing when they look at a roadcut or a quarry and enhances the experience far beyond simple sightseeing.
This book examines the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity accounting within an applied development content for Costa Rica. By doing so, it is possible to track changes as well as perhaps link these to overarching global issues, such as trade, globalization, and food security, among other emergent topics based findings stemming from this methodology. Based on a timeseries since 1961, it is possible to track cross-temporal changes of land-type categories (for crop land, grazing land, forest land, fishing ground, built-up land, and carbon) of the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity conveying whether a country is in ecological deficit and what may be contributing to such a trend
This book discusses the outcomes of more than ten years of research in the southern tracts of the Amazon region, and addresses the expansion of the agricultural frontier, consolidation of the agribusiness-based economy, and expansion of regional infrastructure (roads, dams, urban centres, etc). It combines extensive empirical evidence with the international literature on frontier-making and regional Amazonian development, and adopts a critical politico-geographical perspective that will benefit scholars in various other disciplines. This book is intended to push the current theoretical and methodological boundaries regarding the controversies and impacts of agribusiness in the region. A new international scientific network, led by the author, is investigating the broader context of the themes analysed here.
After the Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years' War in 1763, British America stretched from Hudson Bay to the Florida Keys, from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River, and across new islands in the West Indies. To better rule these vast dominions, Britain set out to map its new territories with unprecedented rigor and precision. Max Edelson's The New Map of Empire pictures the contested geography of the British Atlantic world and offers new explanations of the causes and consequences of Britain's imperial ambitions in the generation before the American Revolution. Under orders from King George III to reform the colonies, the Board of Trade dispatched surveyors to map far-flung frontiers, chart coastlines in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, sound Florida's rivers, parcel tropical islands into plantation tracts, and mark boundaries with indigenous nations across the continental interior. Scaled to military standards of resolution, the maps they produced sought to capture the essential attributes of colonial spaces-their natural capacities for agriculture, navigation, and commerce-and give British officials the knowledge they needed to take command over colonization from across the Atlantic. Britain's vision of imperial control threatened to displace colonists as meaningful agents of empire and diminished what they viewed as their greatest historical accomplishment: settling the New World. As London's mapmakers published these images of order in breathtaking American atlases, Continental and British forces were already engaged in a violent contest over who would control the real spaces they represented. Accompanying Edelson's innovative spatial history of British America are online visualizations of more than 250 original maps, plans, and charts.
This two-volume work discusses environmental health, the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health, and addresses key issues at the global and local scales. The work offers an overview of the methodologies and paradigms that define this burgeoning field, ranging from ecology to epidemiology, and from pollution to environmental psychology, and addresses a wide variety of global concerns including air quality, water and sanitation, food security, chemical/physical hazards, occupational health, disease control, and injuries. The authors intend to provide up-to-date information for environmental health professionals, and to provide a reference for students and consultants working at the interface between health and environmental sectors. Volume 2 covers the technological, legislative, and logistical solutions for coping with environmental health issues. The principles of environmental legislation are explained in national and international contexts, and assessments are mapped out to craft informed governance plans for health and environmental management. Mitigation measures are introduced to control wastewater and solid waste management and air and noise pollution, and adaptation strategies for emergency preparedness and disaster recovery are discussed.
This two-volume work discusses environmental health, the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health, and addresses key issues at the global and local scales. The work offers an overview of the methodologies and paradigms that define this burgeoning field, ranging from ecology to epidemiology, and from pollution to environmental psychology, and addresses a wide variety of global concerns including air quality, water and sanitation, food security, chemical/physical hazards, occupational health, disease control, and injuries. The authors intend to provide up-to-date information for environmental health professionals, and to provide a reference for students and consultants working at the interface between health and environmental sectors. Volume 1 focuses on discussing the fundamentals of physical, chemical, and biological sciences in an environmental health context, and introduces the key concepts that bridge environmental health and medical sciences to accurately inform both environmental and medical professionals. The book addresses different specializations in medical science that account for environmental health issues, and aims to reduce the knowledge gap among professionals on public health topics such as pollution impacts, occupational hazards, radiation exposure, natural disasters, and climate change.
This book provides a succinct but comprehensive presentation of key geomorphological locations and topics including information about geomorphological heritage and maps to visit the most important sites. Apart from often being remarkably scenic, landscapes reveal stories that often can be traced back in time tens of million years and include unique events. This is particularly true for Ethiopia where spectacular examples of different landforms are present. Its geomorphology varies from highlands, marked by high volcanoes and incised by deep river gorges, to the rift valley lakes endorheic systems and the below sea level lowlands with characteristic landscapes which are unique in the world. Landscapes and Landforms of Ethiopia highlights all these topics including essential information about geology and tectonic framework, past and present climate, hydrology, geographical regions and long-term geomorphological history. It is a highly informative book, providing insight for readers with an interest in geography and geomorphology.
This detailed exposition gives background and context to how modern biogeography has got to where it is now. For biogeographers and other researchers interested in biodiversity and the evolution of life on islands, Biogeology: Evolution in a Changing Landscape provides an overview of a large swathe of the globe encompassing Wallacea and the western Pacific. The book contains the full text of the original article explored in each chapter, presented as it appeared on publication. Key features: Holistic treatment, collecting together a series of important biogeographical papers into a single volume Authored by an expert who has spent nearly three decades actively involved in biogeography Describes and interprets a region of exceptional biodiversity and extreme endemism The only book to provide an integrated treatment of Wallacea, Melanesia, New Zealand, the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands and Antarctica Offers a critique of fashionable neo-dispersalist arguments, showing how these still suffer from the same weaknesses of the original Darwinian formulation. The chapters also include analysis of many major theoretical and philosophical issues of modern biogeographic theory, so that those interested in a more philosophical approach will find the book stimulating and thought-provoking.
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