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An Introduction to Geological Structures and Maps is a concise and accessible textbook providing simple structural terminology and map problems which introduce geological structures. It is a perfect introduction to mapping for students of geology, engineering geology and civil engineering.Each topic is explained and illustrated by figures, and exercises follow on successive maps. If students are unable to complete an exercise, they can read on to obtain more specific instructions on how theory may be used to solve the problem. An appendix at the end of the book provides the solutions.This new, eighth edition contains simplified introductory matter to make the subject as easy to grasp as possible. Colour photographs illustrating geological structures bring the subject to life and a new map from the British Geological Survey illustrates a real area. There is more on outcrop patterns, which will help students to think in 3D, and on structures and the relationship of topography to geological structure. Cliff sections have been added to reinforce the concept of apparent dip. The section on planetary geology has been more closely tied to igneous geology to aid understanding of the connection between the two. Finally, a new map on economic geology has been added for the benefit of engineering students.A geological glossary helps students to understand and memorise key terms and a new, colourful, text design enlivens the appearance of this popular book.
The third edition of this classic text, presents a broad-based study of the variations in the form and functioning of the biosphere at regional and global scale.
First published in 1985. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor and Francis, an informa company.
The world's coastlines represent a myriad of dynamic and constantly changing environments. Heavily settled and intensely used areas, they are of enormous importance to humans and understanding how they are shaped and change is crucial to our future.Introduction to Coastal Processes and Geomorphologybegins by discussing coastal systems and shows how these systems link to the processes examined in detail throughout the book. These include the morphodynamic paradigm, tides, waves and sediment transport. Later chapters explore fluvial deltas, estuaries, beaches and barriers, coastal sand dunes and geologically-influenced coasts such as cliffs, coral reefs and atolls. A new chapter addresses the forward-facing aspect of coastal morphodynamics, including the ways in which coasts respond to rapid climate changes such as present day global warming. Also new to this second edition is a chapter on future coasts which considers the wider effects of coastal change on other important aspects of coastal systems, including ecology, management, socio-cultural activities, built and natural heritage, and archaeology. Case studies using examples from around the world illustrate theory in practice and bring the subject to life. Each chapter starts by outlining the 'aims' and questions at the end allow you to track your progress.
Since publication of the first edition of this text, knowledge of groundwater has advanced and concern about the environment has increased. There have been major droughts and increasing worries over possible long-term water shortages, and suggestions that the climate is being changed by human activities. The second edition covers these topics as they relate to hydrogeology, and is presented in a style intended for the non-specialist reader, with technical terms and mathematical formulae kept to a minimum.;The chapter on water quality has been enlarged to provide more information on chemistry and micro-organisms, and a major new chapter focuses on pollution. The rest of the book has been updated, and contains more on legislation.
Through stories of diverse landscapes from around the world, this book captures human cultures and their land use practices in the environments they inhabit. The chapters cover topics from heritage in the 21st Century, appreciating and safeguarding values while facing challenges wrought by change. This title will lead readers through fascinating stories of landscapes and people. We learn of the physical and spiritual structure of rice terraces of the Honghe Mountains in China maintained by following a 1300 year sustainable practice of water allocation, while the colonial tea plantations of the Sri Lankan highlands are managed by Indian Tamils who now seek tourism as a means of additional income. Sustainable agricultural methods in the USA are being introduced to prevent landscape loss while in Australia a challenge confronting family farms is progressing to rural industrialisation. Challenges are further outlined in the mythical story of Finland's Saint Henrik pilgrimage and in the intangible Ui-won gardens of Korea. The huge challenge for Japan's landscapes is the legacy from fierce natural 21st Century disasters while in Australia's Dampier Archipelago, an avoidable yet brutal development on a unique Aboriginal rock sculptured landscape highlights serious concerns about heritage governance. These remarkable stories of landscapes and their management are inseparable from the communities that inhabit them. This book was originally published as a special issue of Landscape Research.
Mountain environments, once thought hostile, now attract major
economic investments for tourism, hydro-power and communication
routes. As change and technology works its way around the world,
the fight between ecology and dollars will doubtless escalate.
The 6th edition of Introducing Physical Geography is known for its clear writing, distinctive photos and illustrations and a strong supplements program. The text continues its tradition as a great book to help non-science readers visualize and understand earth processes and learn the basic language of physical geography. The new edition features a strengthened "Eye on Global Change" coverage and coverage of the geographer's tool box.
This open access book is a compilation of case studies that provide useful knowledge and lessons that derive from on-the-ground activities and contribute to policy recommendations, focusing on the relevance of social-ecological production landscapes and seascapes (SEPLS) to "transformative change." The concept of "transformative change" has been gaining more attention to deal with today's environmental and development problems, whereas both policy and scientific communities have been increasingly calling for transformative change toward sustainable society. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) has planned to start the so-called "assessment on transformative change" if approved by the IPBES plenary to be held in 2021. At present, the idea of transformative change, including its scope, methodologies, approaches and strategies, are yet to be clarified. By bringing together all of the different concerns and interests in the land/seascape, SEPLS approaches could provide practical and experience-based insights for understanding and gauging transformative change and identifying determinants of such change. This book explores how SEPLS management relates to the idea of transformative change to further the discussion of sustainable transitions in advancing sustainability science. The introductory chapter is followed by case study chapters offering real-world examples of transformative change as well as a synthesis chapter clarifying the relevance of the case study findings to policy and academic discussions. It will be of interest to scholars, policymakers and professionals in the fields related to sustainable development.
As coastal populations burgeon, problems of erosion, pollution and coastal change are becoming ever more serious and necessitate scientifically informed management strategies. This authoritative new study discusses the causes of, and possible solutions to, some of the more pressing problems at the coast, against a background of the natural geomorphological and ecological workings of coastal environments. A holistic approach to the understanding of coastal problems is suggested, which integrates geomorphology, ecology and society through a consideration of the basic processes at work. Coastal problems are caused by both human and natural impacts, often working in conjunction with each other; thus drawing on their wide experience of temperate and tropical coasts the authors consider all types of coastal problems, ranging from those produced entirely naturally to those where the human impact dominates. Extensive use is made of case studies drawn from around the world, from beach erosion along the Nigerian coast to the recovery of the Vietnamese mangroves from war damage. A major theme of the book is that, given recent downgrading of predictions of future sea level rise, it is the distinctive geomorphological, ecological and societal aspects of each coast which are the vital factors. 'Coastal Problems' brings together material vital to any attempts to understand and manage our coasts and will be of interest to all those concerned with the environment and its management.
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, Eleventh Edition, uses the combined expertise of three accomplished and respected geographers to show not only what constitutes physical geography but also the interrelationships between people and Earth's natural environment. The well-written text and excellent illustrations emphasize three essential themes to demonstrate the major roles of the discipline -- Geography as Physical Science, Geography as Spatial Science, and Geography as Environmental Science. With a strong focus on processes and the interrelationships among Earth's systems, this text guides you to an understanding and appreciation of how the various natural systems function and of how humans are an integral component of physical geography. Historically, this was the first Physical Geography textbook to take an environmental sustainability approach, and the authors continue to address the theme of human interactions with the environment.
Ranging from the poverty and exploding population of Bangladesh to the dazzling technology and aging population of Japan, from the two most populous states of India and China to the tiny states of Singapore and the Maldives and to the emptiness of Siberia, Asia contains perhaps the greatest diversity of physical environments, cultures and levels of development of any of the continents. Clearly illustrated with basic maps of the countries discussed, "The Changing Geography of Asia" presents a systematic review of 25 years of development - a guide to the physical, economic, social and political environments of contemporary Asia. This book should be of interest to introductory students in geography and development studies.
This book gives a comprehensive overview of all relevant elements in topography and their practical application. It elaborates on the classical representation of terrain on maps such as cartographic projections, together with their classification, scale, and geographical elements. It is richly illustrated with photographs, maps and figures, in which the theoretical explanations are clarified. Readers will become acquainted with the physical characteristics of the ground, i.e. tectonic and erosive shapes, the importance and classification of terrain, genetic (fluvial, abrasive, glacial, karst) and topographic types such as higher (mountains, hills, peaks) and lower terrain (valleys, fields). In addition, the book discusses cartometry and coordinate systems, orientation in space (geographic, topographic, tactical) including by means of maps, instruments and the night sky and elaborates new techniques and technologies such as aerial photogrammetric imagery, global navigation satellite systems and LiDAR. The book also includes methods for the practical execution of concrete measurement operations, such as determining position and movement on land with maps, compass and azimuth which makes it especially useful for practitioners and professionals, e.g., for landscape planning, military exercises, mountaineering, nature walks etc. As such it offers a valuable guide not only for undergraduate students but also for researchers in the fields of geography, geosciences, geodesy, ecology, forestry and related areas looking for an overview on topography. Uniquely, the book also features an extensive glossary of topographical terms.
New! A practical, easy-to-use reference for the design and analysis of groundwater pumping and slug tests Aquifer Testing: Design and Analysis of Pumping and Slug Tests is a complete design and analysis reference emphasizing practical solutions for engineers, scientists, consultants, and students knowledgeable in basic ground water theory. The book discusses such models as steady-state, transient flow with constant discharge, slug injection or withdrawal, and step discharge. This valuable book is an expansion on our best seller Groundwater Pumping Tests: Design and Analysis (Walton 1987). Part I contains general information about pumping tests, including how to design a pumping test, select an appropriate model, correct data, and analyze results. Part II is devoted to aquifer models and features hydrogeologic conditions, flow and geometry assumptions, governing differential equations, initial and boundary conditions, and analytical solutions for different models. BASIC coding for computer programs from which type curves may be developed and drawdown predicted are included in an appendix and on diskettes included in the book.
First published in 2007. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Unprecedented levels of wealth, technology and institutional capacity can forge a just, peaceful and ecologically resilient future. However, the authors argue, social polarization, geo-political conflict and environmental degradation are threatening the long-term well-being of humanity and the planet. Global Sustainability explores the alternative futures that could emerge from the resolution of these antagonisms. Based on extensive international and interdisciplinary research, the book identifies the perils of market-driven scenarios and considers the possibility of the failure of conventional approaches. It also, however, presents a vision of the possibility of a 'Great Transition' in which revised human values and development goals bring a new stage of civilization. It will be essential reading for all scholars and professionals interested in the future of the environment, international affairs, and sustainable development.
Education is a critical part of safety - and not getting lost, or knowing how to get found if you do, is one of the most important lessons. Simple techniques to navigate out of dangerous situations are the focus of this handy waterproof reference guide, along with basic compass use and travelling by simple bearings. Contents also cover navigation skills around obstacles, pacing beads, aiming off, and dead reckoning. Co-authored by noted survival expert and woodsman Dave Canterbury, this is one of a 10-part series on survival skills.
Science for Geography and Environment introduces students (and academics who need to brush up their knowledge!) to scientific principles in a lively and accessible way, allowing them to proceed through the text at their own pace. The book is structured thematically with a logical development of key topics, all linked by a comprehensive cross-referencing system. Concepts and principles will be grounded in everyday experience and exemplified by reference to geographical/environmental processes. The authors are also testing each stage of the text on their own students, thereby ensuring that student needs are given top priority in the book's development. Lively and relevant introduction to those scientific principles necessary to understand key processes occuring within the natural environment.
Fifty years ago, urban waterfronts were industrial, polluted, and diseased. Today, luxury homes and shops line riverbanks, harbours, and lakes across Europe and North America. The visual drama of physical reconstruction makes this transition look swift and decisive, but reimaging water is a slow process, punctuated by small cultural shifts and informal spatial seizures that change the meaning of wet urban spaces. In The Politics of Urban Water, Kimberley Kinder explores how active residents in Amsterdam deployed their cityscape when rallying around these concerns, turning space into a vehicle for social reform. While market dynamics certainly contributed to the transformation of Amsterdam's shorelines, squatters, partiers, artists, historians, environmentalists, tourists, reporters, and government officials also played crucial roles in bringing waterscapes to life. Their interventions pulled water in new directions, connecting it to political discussions about affordable housing, cultural tolerance, climate change, and national identity. Over time, these political valences have become embedded in laws, norms, symbols, markets, and landscapes, bringing rich undercurrents of friction to urban shores. Amsterdam's development serves as both an inspiration and a cautionary tale for cities across Europe and North America where rapid new growth creates similar pressures and anxieties.
Despite the fact that the vast majority of the earth's surface is made up of oceans, there has been surprisingly little work by geographers which critically examines the ocean-space and our knowledge and perceptions of it. This book employs a broad conceptual and methodological framework to analyse specific events that have contributed to the production of geographical knowledge about the ocean. These include, but are not limited to, Christopher Columbus' first transatlantic journey, the mapping of nonexistent islands, the establishment of transoceanic trade routes, the discovery of largescale water movements, the HMS Challenger expedition, the search for the elusive Terra Australis Incognita, the formulation of the theory of continental drift and the mapping of the seabed. Using a combination of original, empirical (archival, material and cartographic), and theoretical sources, this book uniquely brings together fascinating narratives throughout history to produce a representation and mapping of geographical oceanic knowledge. It questions how we know what we know about the oceans and how this knowledge is represented and mapped. The book then uses this representation and mapping as a way to coherently trace the evolution of oceanic spatial awareness. In recent years, particularly in historical geography, discovering and knowing the ocean-space has been a completely separate enterprise from discovering and colonising the lands beyond it. There has been such focus on studying colonised lands, yet the oceans between them have been neglected. This book gives the geographical ocean a voice to be acknowledged as a space where history, geography and indeed historical geography took place.
River Channel Management is the first book to deal comprehensively with recent revolutions in river channel management. It explores the multi-disciplinary nature of river channel management in relation to modern management techniques that bear the background of the entire drainage basin in mind, use channel restoration where appropriate, and are designed to be sustainable. River Channel Management is divided into five sections: A*The Introduction outlines the need for river channel management . A*Retrospective Review offers an overview of twentieth century engineering methods and the ways that river channel systems operate. A*Realisation explains how greater understanding of river channel adjustments, channel hazards and river basin planning created a context for twenty-first century management. A*Requirements for Management explains and examines environmental assessment, restoration-based approaches, and methods that work towards 'design with nature' A*Final Revision speculates about prospects for twenty-first century river channel management. River Channel Management is written for higher-level undergraduates and for postgraduates in geography, ecology, engineering, planning, geology and environmental science, for professionals involved in river channel management, and for staff in environmental agencies.
This book, first published in 1976 and in this second edition in 1988, combines an examination of the political, cultural and economic geography of the Middle East with a detailed study of the region's landscape features, natural resources, environmental conditions and ecological evolution. The Middle East, with its extremes of climate and terrain, has long fascinated those interested in the fine balance between man and his environment, and now its economic and political importance in world affairs has brought the region to the attention of everybody.
Big or small, islands and their inhabitant communities have long been the focus of intellectual enquiry, but in recent years a whole host of new academic institutes, journals, and conferences have devoted themselves to their study and research. And while early scholarly work mostly originated from those working in the natural sciences, and in Physical and Human Geography, Anthropology, and Archaeology, in the last twenty years or so serious research has also burgeoned under the rubric of, for example, Cultural Geography, Regional Development, Environmental Studies, Tourism, and Identity Studies. This new four-volume collection from Routledge meets the need for a comprehensive reference work to allow users to make better sense of this voluminous scholarly and practical literature. Indeed, the sheer scale-and range-of the research output makes this title especially welcome. Island Studies is fully indexed and has a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editors, which places the material in its intellectual context. It is an essential work of reference and is destined to be valued by scholars, advanced students, and policy-makers as a vital one-stop research resource.
First Published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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