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Governing Arctic Seas introduces the concept of ecopolitical regions, using in-depth analyses of the Bering Strait and Barents Sea Regions to demonstrate how integrating the natural sciences, social sciences and Indigenous knowledge can reveal patterns, trends and processes as the basis for informed decisionmaking. This book draws on international, interdisciplinary and inclusive (holistic) perspectives to analyze governance mechanisms, built infrastructure and their coupling to achieve sustainability in biophysical regions subject to shared authority. Governing Arctic Seas is the first volume in a series of books on Informed Decisionmaking for Sustainability that apply, train and refine science diplomacy to address transboundary issues at scales ranging from local to global. For nations and peoples as well as those dealing with global concerns, this holistic process operates across a 'continuum of urgencies' from security time scales (mitigating risks of political, economic and cultural instabilities that are immediate) to sustainability time scales (balancing economic prosperity, environmental protection and societal well-being across generations). Informed decisionmaking is the apex goal, starting with questions that generate data as stages of research, integrating decisionmaking institutions to employ evidence to reveal options (without advocacy) that contribute to informed decisions. The first volumes in the series focus on the Arctic, revealing legal, economic, environmental and societal lessons with accelerating knowledge co-production to achieve progress with sustainability in this globally-relevant region that is undergoing an environmental state change in the sea and on land. Across all volumes, there is triangulation to integrate research, education and leadership as well as science, technology and innovation to elaborate the theory, methods and skills of informed decisionmaking to build common interests for the benefit of all on Earth.
This book explores the real-world consequences changing ideas and strategies have on effective climate governance. Its main focus is on why accountability matters - both for transformations and transitions in international climate change governance and how international support for environmentally responsible actions, and extending shared accountabilities, might strengthen climate governance globally. A main point of discussion is if and how better understanding of accountabilities and transformations in ecosystems dynamics, the capacities of organisms to adapt, migrate or otherwise respond to environmental or climatic changes, can improve climate governance mechanisms. Bringing together a diverse set of considerations from various fields of study, chapters examine responses to environmental transformations that occur during periods of climatic crisis, such as species depletion, industrialisation, de-industrialisation or urbanisation. Throughout, this book aims to further readers understanding of if or how accountable climate governance can reduce the risks of global political disorder and widespread conflict in the 21st century, arising from environmental transformations of depleted forests, re-routed waterways, coastlines impacted by sea level rises, changed rainfall patterns and industrial practices.
Volcanic eruptions are generally viewed as agents of destruction, yet they provide the parent materials from which some of the most productive soils in the world are formed. The high productivity results from a combination of unique physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. The importance and uniqueness of volcanic ash soils are exemplified by the recent establishment of the Andisol soil order in Soil Taxonomy. This book provides the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of volcanic ash soils in a single volume. It contains in-depth coverage of important topics including terminology, morphology, genesis, classification, mineralogy, chemistry, physical properties, productivity and utilization. A wealth of data (37 tables, 81 figures, and Appendix) mainly from the Tohoku University Andisol Data Base is used to illustrate major concepts. Twelve color plates provide a valuable visual-aid and complement the text description of the world-wide distribution for volcanic ash soils.
This volume will serve as a valuable reference for soil scientists, plant scientists, ecologists and geochemists interested in biogeochemical processes occurring in soils derived form volcanic ejecta.
Initial priorities for U.S. participation in the International
Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, declared by the United
Nations, are contained in this volume. It focuses on seven issues:
hazard and risk assessment; awareness and education; mitigation;
preparedness for emergency response; recovery and reconstruction;
prediction and warning; learning from disasters; and U.S.
Australia, situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, is rich in rainforest, deserts, and mountains. Geological wonders such as the Uluru, the Outback or the Great Barrier Reef characterize the country, as do the coastline of dream beaches and surfing paradises with offshore islands. This book shows in more than 500 pictures the uniqueness of the animal world above and under water along with the untouched nature and the cultural sides of the metropolises like Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, and Canberra.
One word binds us all: geography. We are all geographers, human beings who care about the places we think of as 'home' - our habitat. And yet we have lost touch with the connection between our actions and the state of the planet that we all share. We need a new narrative that restores the connections between humanity and the Earth. We are being confronted by a daily barrage of geographical stories on climate change, geopolitics, population growth, migration, dwindling resources, polluted oceans and natural hazards. These are planetary concerns affecting all people and all places. They are challenges which can be addressed through geography. In this short but powerful book, Nicholas Crane makes the compelling case that never has geography been so important. On this finite orb, with its battered habitat, sustained in dark space by a thin, life-giving atmosphere, we have reached a point in our collective geographical journey where knowledge is the best guarantor of the future. [NOTE: published in hardback as YOU ARE HERE]
This book deals with the introduction of a new type of "spatial measures" in flood governance. In contrast to traditional "safety measures" that aim to provide protection against floods by building structural flood defenses such as levees and flood walls, the goal of spatial measures is to reduce the exposure to flood risks by changing the spatial layout of flood-prone areas. By limiting developments and flood-proofing buildings in areas at risk to flooding, investments in structural flood defenses can be circumvented and vulnerabilities reduce. World-wide, spatial measures are gaining attractiveness as a response strategy to increasing flood risks caused by climate change and urbanization. The introduction of spatial measures in flood governance involves more than the simple development of new policies and laws. Research has demonstrated that the implementation of spatial measures can have huge implications for how costs and responsibilities are divided between different levels of governance and between public and private actors, changing the whole organization behind flood governance. Both for the effectiveness and for the legitimacy of spatial flood governance strategies, it is important that these distributive implications are well understood. This book describes the introduction of spatial measures in the context of two very different delta countries: the Netherlands and the United States. In the United States, a spatial flood governance strategy was already developed in de mid-20th century whereas in the Netherlands, a safety paradigm institutionalized over the course of the 20th century and spatial measures have only recently been introduced. By analyzing the science-policy interactions underlying the implementation of spatial measures in both countries, this book shows how under the influence of different types of experts (engineers in the Netherlands and social geographers in the United States) different spatial flood management strategies emerged with different distributive implications, each with its own challenges for effectiveness and legitimacy.
This handbook is recognition of the need to better integrate physical and human geography. It combines a collection of work and research within the new field of Critical Physical Geography, which gives critical attention to relations of social power with deep knowledge of a particular field of biophysical science. Critical Physical Geography research accords careful attention to biophysical landscapes and the power relations that have increasingly come to shape them, and to the politics of environmental science and the role of biophysical inquiry in promoting social and environmental justice. The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Physical Geography lays out the scope and guiding principles of Critical Physical Geography research. It presents a carefully selected set of empirical work, demonstrating the range and intellectual strength of existing integrative work in geography research. This handbook is the first of its kind to cover this emerging discipline and will be of significant interest to students and academics across the fields of geography, the environment and sustainability.
Since the 1980s, geography as an academic discipline has become more and more reflective, asking the key questions "what are we doing?" and "why are we doing it?" These questions have, so far, been more enthusiastically taken up by human geography rather than physical geography and this volume aims to redress that balance. Written and edited by an international group of physical geographers, this text comprises a collection of the writers' thoughts which reveal personal motivations and look at tensions in the worlds of meaning in which physical geography is involved. How are the meanings of the physical environment derived? Is the future of physical geography one where the only, or at least the dominant, meanings are framed in the contexts of environmental issues? Covering a diverse and lively selection of topics, the contributors of this book offer guides to the contemporary debates in the philosophy of physical geography, and introduce the reader to its wider cultural significance.
Although millions of Americans and international travelers take road trips through North America every year, most have no understanding of how the landscape came to be. North America's Natural Wonders provides everything these travelers need to understand the landscape. Written by a career geologist with decades of experience in the field, it guides readers through the most iconic, geologically significant scenery in North America and explains what they are seeing. Volume I focuses on western North America, including the Canadian Rockies, the Southwest, Great Basin, and Tetons-Yellowstone Country. The trips detailed in this volume include stops at the glaciers and mountains of Banff National Park, the Grand Canyon, numerous parks in Utah, and the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone. It also features lesser known but equally interesting geologic formations and how to access these sites. Volume II focuses on central and eastern North America, including the Appalachians of Virginia and West Virginia, the Colorado Rockies, Austin-Big Bend Country, and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. The trips detailed in this volume include stops at the Blue Ridge in Shenandoah National Park, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Big Bend National Park, Garden of the Gods and Pikes Peak, the Colorado Mineral Belt, Aspen and the Maroon Bells, giant salt-cored uplifts of the La Popa Basin, Mexico, and many others. It also features lesser known but equally interesting geologic formations and how to access these sites. This detailed guide will help the curious layman, the rock hound, the geology student, and the professional geologist understand what they are seeing when they look at a roadcut, quarry, or landscape. A full understanding of natural formations will enhance the traveler's experience beyond simple sightseeing.
This edited collection of works by leading climate scientists and philosophers introduces readers to issues in the foundations, evaluation, confirmation, and application of climate models. It engages with important topics directly affecting public policy, including the role of doubt, the use of satellite data, and the robustness of models. Climate Modelling provides an early and significant contribution to the burgeoning Philosophy of Climate Science field that will help to shape our understanding of these topics in both philosophy and the wider scientific context. It offers insight into the reasons we should believe what climate models say about the world but addresses the issues that inform how reliable and well-confirmed these models are. This book will be of interest to students of climate science, philosophy of science, and of particular relevance to policy makers who depend on the models that forecast future states of the climate and ocean in order to make public policy decisions.
This book provides an interdisciplinary overview of the role of gardens in cities throughout different historical periods. It shows that, thanks to various forms of spatial and social organisation, gardens are part of the material urban landscape, biodiversity, symbolic and social shape, and assets of our cities, and are increasingly becoming valued as an 'order' to follow. Gardens have long been part of the development of cities, serving different purposes through the ages: shaping neighborhoods to promote health or hygiene, introducing aesthetic or biological elements, gathering the citizens around a social purpose, and providing food and diversity in times of crisis. Highlighting examples that can serve as the basis for comparisons, the chapters offer a brief panorama of experiences and models of gardens in the city - in the European context and in various periods of history - while also discussing issues related to garden cities, urban agriculture and community gardens. The contributors are university staff from various disciplines in the human and life sciences, in discourse with other academics but also with practitioners who are interested in experiences with urban gardens and in promoting an awareness of their spatial, social and 'philosophical' goals throughout history. The book will appeal to urban geographers, sociologists and historians, but also to urban ecologists dealing with ecosystem services, biodiversity and sustainable development in cities. From a more operational standpoint, landscape planners and architects are sure to find many of the projects enlightening and inspirational.
This monograph explores traditional farming communities in French-speaking areas of the western Alps for the period 1500-1914 and how they endured in such an environment despite the many problems and risks which it posed for their subsistence and welfare. Using an extensive amount of archival material drawn from the relevant regional archives, the book presents a great deal of fresh data. Its central theme is how such communities responded to the opportunities and challenges presented by the highly variegated environment of their setting. The view taken is that their strategies of exploitation stressed diversity and flexibility, mapping the highly varied ecologies and resource opportunities of their setting into these strategies by spreading livelihood and risk as widely as possible. This interpretative framework is developed across all the book's themes: landholding, arable and livestock sectors, use of the commons and, finally, how communities coped with climate-based risks. The book appeals to geographers, historians, environmental scientists and everyone interested in traditional farming communities and their long-term challenges.
This authoritative new text provides a thorough, updated account of glaciers and ice sheets as monitors and indicators of environmental change. It examines the record of environmental change within glaciers and ice sheets, and that of past environments left by retreating glaciers. These themes are examined within the context of environmental change in general and global climate change in particular. Methods of using palaeoenvironmental records are assessed and the implications for future environmental change are discussed. Evidence from glacier ice left in the landscape or within the geological record, provides one of the most important sources of information on environmental change. 'Glaciers and Environmental Change' is a comprehensive account of glaciers andice sheets as monitors and indictaors of environmental change. Based on the latest research, this book consolidates a diverse range of data and explains their applications. it also assesses methods of using palaeoenvironmental records. This authoritative new text examines not only the records of environmental change within glaciers but also that of past environments left by retreating glaciers. These themes are examined within the context of contemporary debates in environmental change and the volume also seeks to draw conclusions concernign past, present and future climatic change in relation to glaciers.
This book draws on the author's professional experience and expertise in humid and arid regions to familiarize readers with the basic scientific philosophy and methods regarding floods and their impacts on human life and property. The basis of each model, algorithm and calculation methodology is presented, together with logical and analytical strategies. Global warming and climate change trends are addressed, while flood risk assessments, vulnerability, preventive and mitigation procedures are explained systematically, helping readers apply them in a rational and effective manner. Lastly, real-world project applications are highlighted in each section, ensuring readers grasp not only the theoretical aspects but also their concrete implementation.
Written in accordance with the Teacher Training Association and DfEE guidelines, this text is intended to become a course reference. The author examines all modules which need to be studied in teacher training programmes and takes account of the Labour government's plans for teacher education.
Soil and Water Contamination, Second Edition gives a structured overview of transport and fate processes of environmental contaminants. Dealing with all topics essential for understanding and predicting contaminant patterns in soil, groundwater and surface water, it contributes to the formation of a solid basis for adequate soil and water pollution control and integrated catchment management. A unique feature of this work is that it does not treat water and soil pollution as independent processes, but as components of an integrated whole. The core of this geoscientific approach is divided into four parts: Introduction to the basics of soil and water contamination, such as the fundamentals of environmental pollution and chemistry and the basic properties of soil, groundwater and surface water. Source, role, and behaviour of substances in soil and water, treating natural and anthropogenic sources of nutrients, heavy metals, radionuclides and organic pollutants as well as emerging substances of concern, their physico-chemical characteristics, behaviour, and toxicity. Transport and fate of substances in soil and water, focusing on processes of transport, exchange and transformations like advection, dispersion, adsorption kinetics and biochemical decay. Special attention is paid to the mathematical description and modelling of these processes. Patterns of substances in soil and water, explaining spatial and temporal patterns of pollutants in soil, groundwater, and surface water, illustrated by recent case studies from fundamental and applied research. This comprehensive, successful textbook, now in its second edition, has been conscientiously updated and extended and includes many case studies, examples and exercises sections, providing undergraduate and graduate students in the Earth and Environmental Sciences with all the material necessary for the study of soil and water contamination. In addition, it can serve as a useful source of info
This book, first published under the title "Urban Geography - A First Approach" serves as an introduction to the field of urban geography and offers a balance between studies of systems of cities on the one hand and specific cities on the other. It is designed to provide a broad introduction to the study of urban geography as part of a discipline which has experienced rapid change in the past two decades and also to demonstrate ways in which geographers have become far more involved in the more general interdisciplinary field of urban studies.
This book addresses contemporary geographical issues in the Mediterranean Basin from a perspective that recognizes the physical characteristics and cultural interactions which link the different Mediterranean states as a recognisable geographic entity. Sixteen chapters each deal with a major geographical issue currently facing the Mediterranean, each providing an invaluable summary of the extensive but widely dispersed literature relating to Mediterranean issues. Particular emphasis is placed on the interaction between society and environment in terms of environmental management, differential regional development and its associated political, demographic, cultural and economic tensions.
"Get your head into the clouds with Aerial Geology." --The New York Times Book Review Aerial Geology is an up-in-the-sky exploration of North America's 100 most spectacular geological formations. Crisscrossing the continent from the Aleutian Islands in Alaska to the Great Salt Lake in Utah, Mary Caperton Morton brings you on a fantastic tour, sharing aerial and satellite photography, explanations on how each site was formed, and details on what makes each landform noteworthy. Maps and diagrams help illustrate the geological processes and help clarify scientific concepts. Fact-filled, curious, and way more fun than the geology you remember from grade school, Aerial Geology is a must-have for the insatiably curious, armchair geologists, million-mile travelers, and anyone who has stared out the window of a plane and wondered what was below.
This book is a sociological account of the historical trajectory of feed-in tariffs (FITs) as an instrument for the promotion of renewable energy in Europe. Chapters analyse the emergence and transformations of feed-in tariffs as part of the policy arsenal developed to encourage the creation of markets for RES-E in Europe. The authors explore evolving conceptions of renewable energy policy at the intersection between environmental objectives, technological change and the ambition to liberalise the internal electricity market. They draw conclusions on the relationships between markets and policy-making as it is instituted in the European Union, and on the interplay between the implementation of a European vision on energy and national politics. Distinctive in both its approach and its methods the books aim is not to discuss the design of feed-in tariffs and their evolution, nor is it to assess their efficiency or fairness. Instead, the authors seek to understand what makes feed-in tariffs what they are, and how this has changed over time.
This book explores how the world community will respond to the unfolding humanitarian crisis caused by climate change. It recognises climate change as the greatest threat to human development in the 21st century, bringing with it: flooding, drought, extreme temperatures, health crises, threats to human security and severe harm to economic development. The Climate Change Crisis addresses climate change and its impact as a major threat for countries around the world. Through a collection of interviews with leading environmentalists and exploration into new innovations that can offer hope and protection for billions of people, this book presents an interdisciplinary approach towards understanding the paramount health and development challenges of climate change. This timely and informative book cuts across several disciplines, including human rights, public policy, international relations, national refugee policy, and migration studies.
This book looks at the evolution of rural settlement in Scotland from the Mesolithic period through to the improving movement of the 18th and 19th centuries. The main emphasis is on changes in society and technology, but the book also considers how the development of the physical landscape laid the foundation for such changes. The author strikes a balance between general perspectives (including relevant contextual materials such as the political structures) and local studies, with much emphasis on individual sites. Lack of documentation prior to the 10th century places particular importance on the archaeological evidence, but imaginative interpretation of this evidence has led to a major re-evaluation. Ideas emphasizing continuity of settlement and local adaptation are replacing older 'invasionist' theories emphasizing Celtic war lords and broch-building pirates.
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