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This book provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of Arctic ice shelves, ice islands and related features. Ice shelves are permanent areas of ice which float on the ocean surface while attached to the coast, and typically occur in very cold environments where perennial sea ice builds up to great thickness, and/or where glaciers flow off the land and are preserved on the ocean surface. These landscape features are relatively poorly studied in the Arctic, yet they are potentially highly sensitive indicators of climate change because they respond to changes in atmospheric, oceanic and glaciological conditions. Recent fracturing and breakup events of ice shelves in the Canadian High Arctic have attracted significant scientific and public attention, and produced large ice islands which may pose a risk to Arctic shipping and offshore infrastructure. Much has been published about Antarctic ice shelves, but to date there has not been a dedicated book about Arctic ice shelves or ice islands. This book fills that gap.
Physical Geology Today combines a deep integration of plate tectonics with an emphasis on conceptual understanding in order to paint an integrated picture of how Earth works. Damian Nance and Brendan Murphy blend clear engaging prose with hundreds of meticulously crafted illustrations to tell a clear and accessible geologic story that introduces the right amount of terminology at the right time.
Aimed at those at the forefront of social ecological thinking, this book presents a practice-oriented process to navigate the complex, interdisciplinary challenges of our time. The book brings together insights from the social sciences and beyond to introduce readers to 'adaptive doing' - a continuous and iterative process of experiential learning that provides an accessible structure and process for integrating a range of knowledge and practices. As part of the 'adaptive doing' learning cycle, the authors argue for a common platform, symbolically called 'the agora', where multiple ways of understanding can be discussed. In this space, participants can work from practice and narratives, toward meaning, knowledge formation and practice change. The book demonstrates three reframing tools for social ecological practice that provide readers with multiple ways of holistically entering the social ecological domain and expanding their perspectives with a view to changing practice. 'Adaptive doing' is presented as a catalyst for a new generation of social ecological research, in which participants honour their disciplinary foundations while being ready to collaborate within each new system, and each new engagement: being able to act now, for social ecological recognition and change.
Marine Paleobiodiversity presents a concise history, development and current status of paleobiodiversity research, thus forming a reference work for beginners, graduates and postgraduates, who are interested in this subject and intend venture into serious research. This book provides a link-reference between text book and highly-specialized journal articles, and so will be valuable for a wide audience of geologists and climatologists.
This book investigates the fundamental role that tropical bioproductivity - or more specifically net primary productivity - has played in shaping the global geographies of food, finance, governance and people. The book examines the basic astronomical and thermal properties of our planet to illustrate the dynamic nature of the tropics and how the region resides at the very heart of global energetics, driving the environmental flows that shape planetary climate and bioproductivity. The author explores how the region's relatively small, but hyper-productive, land area provided the groundswell for the economic, social, political and demographic changes that fuelled empires, European colonialism and nation-building. Also covered are discussions on how the critical intake of capital needed to fuel the industrial and technological revolutions driving modern globalization was first expropriated from the tropics by harnessing the region's natural productivity and biological crop diversity and then transforming it into tradeable commodities using the inhabitants' labour and knowledge. With modern tropical nations accounting for the bulk of people living in poverty and registering some of the highest income disparities, the author presents cross-cutting evidence showing that their histories and the persistence of expropriating institutions have fostered anocratic tendencies, poor governance, unorthodox financial flows and mass migration. Tropical Bioproductivity cuts across vast geographies, topics and histories to deliver a readable narrative that links people, places and events with the environmental mechanics of our planet. It will be of interest to students and researchers in the areas of environmental studies, economics, history, agriculture, anthropology and geography.
A BBC Radio 4 'Book of the Week'. Flooding has always threatened the rainy, wind-swept islands of the United Kingdom, but it is becoming more frequent and more severe. Combining travel writing and reportage with readings of history, literature and myth, Edward Platt explores the way floods have shaped the physical landscape of Britain and left their mark on its inhabitants. During the course of two years, which coincided with the record-breaking floods of the winter of 2013-14, Platt travelled around the country, visiting places that had flooded and meeting the people affected. He visited flooded villages and towns and expanses of marsh and Fen threatened by the winter storms, and travelled along the edge of the drowned plain that used to connect Britain to continental Europe. He met people struggling to stop their houses falling into the sea and others whose homes had been engulfed. He investigated disasters natural and man-made, and heard about the conflicting attitudes towards those charged with preventing them. The Great Flood dramatizes the experience of being flooded and considers what will happen as the planet warms and the waters rise, illuminating the reality behind the statistics and headlines that we all too often ignore.
This book provides case studies and general views of the main processes involved in the ecosystem shifts occurring in the high mountains and analyses the implications for nature conservation. Case studies from the Pyrenees are preponderant, with a comprehensive set of mountain ranges surrounded by highly populated lowland areas also being considered. The introductory and closing chapters will summarise the main challenges that nature conservation may face in mountain areas under the environmental shifting conditions. Further chapters put forward approaches from environmental geography, functional ecology, biogeography, and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Organisms from microbes to large carnivores, and ecosystems from lakes to forest will be considered. This interdisciplinary book will appeal to researchers in mountain ecosystems, students and nature professionals. This book is open access under a CC BY license.
Every fall, spectacular orange and black clouds of monarch butterflies fill the skies as they migrate from across North America to Central Mexico. West Coast populations make a similar though much shorter trip to coastal California. The National Wildlife Federation calls the monarch migration "one of the greatest natural phenomena in the insect world." Not long ago, monarchs numbered in the billions, but in the last 20 years their population has dropped by 90%, due to habitat loss from pesticides, modern farming practices, urban development and other human activity. An estimated one million acres of habitat are lost each year. But today, an army of citizen scientists, students and gardeners is engaged in restoring this beloved pollinator's habitat - the wildflowers and milkweed and feeding corridors - so that one of nature's most beautiful creatures will still be there for generations to come. And it starts in our own backyards. The Monarch showcases this magnificent butterfly with eye-popping photos, fun facts about a monarch's life cycle, and things to know about the vital role that pollinators play in our ecosystem. Monarch enthusiast and nature blogger Kylee Baumle provides "action" projects for all ages, from planting milkweed and wildflowers to making butterfly watering stations...to volunteer activism.
This image atlas and reference book is written in simple language that can be understood by a broad audience. The work comprehensively explains the geomorphological forms of high mountains using many examples like glacial erosion forms and deposits such as moraines and gravel terraces, which are illustrated with numerous photographs. Landslide landscapes, volcanoes, weathering, and erosion are other examples discussed. These examples are from across the world, including the Himalayas, the Alps, the Andes, and the Southern Alps of New Zealand. This work is useful for laymen who are interested in geosciences, especially high-mountain landforms, as well as for students and teachers of earth sciences.
Containing over 3,100 entries on all aspects of both human and physical geography, this best-selling dictionary is the most authoritative single-volume reference work of its kind. It includes coverage of cartography, surveying, meteorology, climatology, ecology, population, industry, and development. Worked examples and diagrams are provided for many entries, including 15 new illustrations. All existing entries have been fully revised and updated for this new edition, and there is now expanded coverage of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and glacial geomorphology, as well as the inclusion of more international examples within definitions, broadening its coverage considerably. The dictionary includes more than 400 new entries, including economies of scope, marginalization, rurality, and tax havens and offshore financial centres. Recommended web links are suggested for many entries, accessible and kept up to date via the Dictionary of Geography companion website. Packed with clear, concise, and authoritative information, this A-Z reference is an essential companion for all students and teachers of geography.
This book is a comprehensive resource for climate change impacts and scenarios on cross-cutting issues in Bangladesh and other tropical low-lying countries in Asia. The book promotes mitigation and adaptation strategies for learning and innovation to tackle climate change impacts, reduce inequality, as well as include changes in food, energy, health, education, and social protection policies in Bangladesh and Asian low-lying countries. Through several case studies, this book provides a powerful framework for identifying management tools and their applications in environment and governance including; climate change and natural hazards, climate change and energy framework, gender inequality and capacity building, and community participants and the actions needed to protect them. The aim of this book is to provide information to scientists, practitioners, academics, and government and non-government policy-makers to help them better understand the particularities of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies for cross-cutting issues in Bangladesh.
The signs are there: our coastal cities are increasingly susceptible to flooding as the climate changes. Charleston, South Carolina, is no exception, and is one of the American cities most vulnerable to rising sea levels. Lowcountry at High Tide is the first book to deal with the topographic evolution of Charleston, its history of flooding from the seventeenth century to the present, and the efforts made to keep its populace high and dry, as well as safe and healthy.For centuries residents have made many attempts, both public and private, to manipulate the landscape of the low-lying peninsula on which Charleston sits, surrounded by wetlands, to maximize drainage, and thus buildable land and to facilitate sanitation. Christina Butler uses three hundred years of archival records to show not only the alterations to the landscape past and present, but also the impact those efforts have had on the residents at various socio-economic levels throughout its history. Wide-ranging and thorough, Lowcountry at High Tide goes beyond the documentation of reclamation and filling and offers a look into the life and the history of Charleston and how its people have been affected by its unique environment, as well as examining the responses of the city over time to the needs of the populace. Butler considers interdisciplinary topics from engineering to public health, infrastructure to class struggle, and urban planning to civic responsibility in a study that is not only invaluable to the people of Charleston, but for any coastal city grappling with environmental change. Illustrated with historical maps, plats, and photographs and organized chronologically and thematically within chapters, Lowcountry at High Tide offers a unique look at how Charleston has kept--and may continue to keep--the ocean at bay.
The book provides a comprehensive overview of the hydrology of the Nile River, especially the ecohydrological degradation and challenges the basin is facing, the impact of climate change on water availability and the transboundary water management issues. The book includes analysis and approaches that will help provide different insights into the hydrology of this complex basin, which covers 11 countries and is home to over 300 million people. The need for water-sharing agreements that reflect the current situations of riparian countries and are based on equitable water- sharing principles is stressed in many chapters.This book explores water resource availability and quality and their trends in the basin, soil erosion and watershed degradation at different scales, water and health, land use and climate change impact, transboundary issues and water management, dams, reservoirs and lakes. The link between watershed and river water quantity and quality is discussed pointing out the importance of watershed protection for better water resource management, water accessibility, institutional set-up and policy, water demand and management. The book also presents the water sharing sticking points in relation to historical treaties and the emerging water demands of the upstream riparian countries. The need for collaboration and identification of common ground to resolve the transboundary water management issues and secure a win-win is also indicated.
Here, published in facsimile for the first time since the eighteenth century, are John Kirby's extremely rare large-scale Suffolk maps of 1736 and 1737 and the 1735 edition of his road-book The Suffolk Traveller, the earliest single-county roadbook. Those who subscribed for the 1736 map received the 1735 Traveller gratis. The maps of 1764 and 1766 which his sons published after his death are also provided, the former decorated with twelve engravings of castles and abbeys in the county.The earliest maps were the result of a survey of the whole county which Kirby carried out, with some help from Nathaniel Bacon, between 1732 and 1734. Although it is easy to point to inaccuracies, the hand-coloured maps are highly decorative and correct many of the errors common on earlier Suffolk maps in county atlases. The heraldry on the one-inch maps and the named owners and occupiers of the larger estates provide the basis for new select directories of the county in the mid 1730s and mid-1760s. This work of Suffolk topography includes a biography of John Kirby himself and a full account of the travails of publishing his maps and book. Contributions by JENNY JAMES.
This book argues that sustainable development, based on sustained growth, has led us to an impasse. In response, Agroecology brings back and utilises notions of eco-development and co-evolution with nature as a refreshing paradigm. It also proposes a further shift in mindset with the notion of being within, or looking at agroecology as a way to reconnect and rebuild relationships and movement within farming systems and beyond. Rather than linear technical fixes, it considers the critical nodes of tension, the inflection points, or acupoints, which can trigger a transition towards greater harmony and well-being. The book also draws from a concrete example of agroecology by examining a pilot project in Mozambique testing new approaches to investments and peasant farming that will inspire farming communities, researchers, policy makers and development organizations alike, to build greater autonomy and self-determination.
Globalization is not a new phenomenon, but it is posing new challenges to humans and natural ecosystems in the 21st century. From climate change to increasingly mobile human populations to the global economy, the relationship between humans and their environment is being modified in ways that will have long-term impacts on ecological health, biodiversity, ecosystem goods and services, population vulnerability, and sustainability. These changes and challenges are perhaps nowhere more evident than in island ecosystems. Buffeted by rising ocean temperatures, extreme weather events, sea-level rise, climate change, tourism, population migration, invasive species, and resource limitations, islands represent both the greatest vulnerability to globalization and also the greatest scientific opportunity to study the significance of global changes on ecosystem processes, human-environment interactions, conservation, environmental policy, and island sustainability. In this book, we study islands through the lens of Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) and the multi-scale and multi-thematic drivers of change. In addition to assessing the key processes that shape and re-shape island ecosystems and their land cover/land use changes, the book highlights measurement and assessment methods to characterize patterns and trajectories of change and models to examine the social-ecological drivers of change on islands. For instance, chapters report on the results of a meta-analysis to examine trends in published literature on islands, a satellite image time-series to track changes in urbanization, social surveys to support household analyses, field sampling to represent the state of resources and their limitations on islands, and dynamic systems models to link socio-economic data to LCLUC patterns. The authors report on a diversity of islands, conditions, and circumstances that affect LCLUC patterns and processes, often informed through perspectives rooted, for instance, in conservation, demography, ecology, economics, geography, policy, and sociology.
The Landforms and Landscapes of France provides an informative and attractive overview of the most scenic landscapes of France. The geodiversity of France is emphasized, for example the glacial landscapes of the Mont-Blanc Massif, the volcanoes of the French Massif Central, the chalk cliffs and sand dunes of the Atlantic coast, the granitic landscapes of Corsica or the lagoons and coral reefs of French Polynesia. The objectives are to provide the reader with an enjoyable and informative description of the selected sites within their regional geographical and geological settings; to offer an up-to-date survey of the evolution of France's landscape; and to give additional information on the cultural value of the selected sites wherever appropriate (prehistoric paintings, legends related to sites, famous vineyards, etc.). The book is a richly illustrated reference work that makes accessible for the first time a wealth of information currently scattered among many national and regional journals. It will be of benefit to earth scientists, environmental scientists, tourism geographers and conservationists
Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Cold Regions Development, held in Anchorage, Alaska, June 2-5, 2013. Sponsored by the Technical Council on Cold Regions Engineering and the Alaska Section of ASCE in cooperation with the International Association for Cold Regions Development Studies (IACORDS). This collection contains 79 peer-reviewed papers that bring together the current state of knowledge on a variety of topics and techniques in research, planning, design, engineering, construction, and operations in the cold regions of the world. Topics include: cold regions construction education and sociocultural considerations environmental contaminants frozen ground and permafrost geomatics and arctic issues oil, gas, and energy issues pavement performance ports, coastal, and hydraulic engineering runways and airfields snow and ice management structures and foundations sustainable technologies and asset management, and water and wastewater systems This proceedings will be of interest to engineers, scientists, and government officials.
This book presents the most recent innovations, trends, concerns and practical challenges, and solutions in the field of water resources for arid areas. It gathers outstanding contributions presented at the International Water Conference on Water Resources in Arid Areas (IWC 2016), which was held in Muscat, Oman in March 2016. The individual papers discuss challenges and solutions to alleviate water resource scarcity in arid areas, including water resources management, the introduction of modern irrigation systems, natural groundwater recharge, construction of dams for artificial recharge, use of treated wastewater, and desalination technologies. As such, the book provides a platform for the exchange of recent advances in water resources science and research, which are essential to improving the critical water situation
The book is written in the backdrop of the environmental impacts of and future requirements from the natural environment for rapid economic growth that has characterized recent economic history of China and India, especially over the past few decades. The environmental impacts of such rapid economic changes have been, more frequently than otherwise, degrading in character. Environmental impacts of economic activities create degraded natural ecosystems by over utilization of nature's provisioning ecosystem services (from Himalaya to the Ocean), as well, by the use of the natural environment as sink for dumping of unmarketable products or unused inputs of economic activities. Such processes affect wide range of ecosystem processes on which the natural environment including human population depend on. Critical perspectives cast by various chapters in this book draw attention to the various ways in which space and power interact to produce diverse geographies of sustainability in a globalizing world. They also address the questions such as who decides what kind of a spatial arrangement of political power is needed for sustaining the environment. Who stands to gain (or lose) what, when, where, and why from certain geographical areas being demarcated as ecologically unique, fragile and vulnerable environments? Whose needs and values are being catered to by a given ecosystem service? What is the scope for critical inquiry into the ways in which the environment is imagined, represented and resisted in both geopolitical struggles and everyday life? The book provides insights to both academics from diverse disciplines and policy makers, civil society actors interested in mutual exchange of knowledge between China and India.
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