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This book answers the call for New Urbanization, and proposes a "5+9+6" national spatial layout plan for the urbanization of the 770 major cities in China. This macro pattern is based on a few major metropolises at the center, and other cities supporting and benefitting from these metropolises to form a pyramid-like urban hierarchical system. The book also presents a comprehensive regionalization plan for China's New Urbanization and strategic approaches to improving the quality of this New Urbanization. Currently, China is aggressively promoting a so-called New Urbanization, which has been regarded as one of the primary ways to build a moderately prosperous society, to address critical issues related to agriculture, rural regions and farmers, to expand domestic demand and promote industrial innovation, and to realize the China Dream. From a systematic perspective and using recently released urban data, the authors analyze the current status of New Urbanization in China and also investigate the various potential problems and obstacles to its concrete implementation. Based on the analyses and investigations, the authors propose strategic directions, paths and basic principles for China's New Urbanization. In addition, they clearly identify the three different modes of New Urbanization, namely, the general mode, differentiated mode, and gradual mode. Today, many scholars argue that China's urban regions are experiencing a highly unsustainable mode of development. Chinese cities are heavily burdened by the so-called "urban diseases," which are characterized e.g. by congested traffic, polluted water and air, and a lack of open and green spaces. Traditional urbanization, which primarily focuses on economic development, must be fundamentally reformed. New Urbanization, which focuses on integrated economic development, social integration and space/environmental sustainability, or simply put, on the quality of urbanization, has been called for to provide a potential "cure" for these urban diseases. Due to the vastness of China's population and its rapidly growing economic, political and cultural relationships with the rest of the world, the book demonstrates that the success of this New Urbanization is critical not only to the future of urban China, but also the future of urbanization worldwide. The book offers a valuable reference work for all researchers, graduate student and policy makers interested in China's urban development.
One of the most important issues in current debates on climate change is sea level rise. Hardly a day goes by when there is not a newspaper article, TV or radio presentation on the topic. Nearly half of the world's population live on or near the coast, so there is real concern about the impact that future sea level rise may have. Yet media predictions of future changes tend to be depicted in a sensationalist manner and quite often the explanations of the science of sea level change bear little relation to reality. This book details the history of scientific discoveries that have explained the patterns of sea level change that have taken place across the Earth in the past. Alastair Dawson introduces the many complex processes, some of which are not well-known, that influence patterns and rates of relative sea level change. Using this knowledge, the reader is much better placed to form a clearer perspective on what the future is likely to have in store for sea levels on Earth.Alastair Dawson first addresses some of the most important misconceptions about the topic of sea level change. He then explains the principal causes of sea level change focusing on the key issues of vertical land movements and changes in global ocean volume. He explores the key areas of science that we need to understand in order to evaluate competing assertions of how sea level is likely to change in the future. He also shows how, remarkably, the melting history of the last great ice sheets on Earth is still playing an important part in contributing to present patterns of sea level change. The book concludes with a consideration of the rates and patterns of sea level change that have occurred over the last century and demonstrates how satellite technology is presently contributing new ways of understanding of present patterns of change.
This book argues that sustainable development, based on sustained growth, has led us to an impasse. In response, Agroecology brings back and utilises notions of eco-development and co-evolution with nature as a refreshing paradigm. It also proposes a further shift in mindset with the notion of being within, or looking at agroecology as a way to reconnect and rebuild relationships and movement within farming systems and beyond. Rather than linear technical fixes, it considers the critical nodes of tension, the inflection points, or acupoints, which can trigger a transition towards greater harmony and well-being. The book also draws from a concrete example of agroecology by examining a pilot project in Mozambique testing new approaches to investments and peasant farming that will inspire farming communities, researchers, policy makers and development organizations alike, to build greater autonomy and self-determination.
The book provides a comprehensive overview of the hydrology of the Nile River, especially the ecohydrological degradation and challenges the basin is facing, the impact of climate change on water availability and the transboundary water management issues. The book includes analysis and approaches that will help provide different insights into the hydrology of this complex basin, which covers 11 countries and is home to over 300 million people. The need for water-sharing agreements that reflect the current situations of riparian countries and are based on equitable water- sharing principles is stressed in many chapters.This book explores water resource availability and quality and their trends in the basin, soil erosion and watershed degradation at different scales, water and health, land use and climate change impact, transboundary issues and water management, dams, reservoirs and lakes. The link between watershed and river water quantity and quality is discussed pointing out the importance of watershed protection for better water resource management, water accessibility, institutional set-up and policy, water demand and management. The book also presents the water sharing sticking points in relation to historical treaties and the emerging water demands of the upstream riparian countries. The need for collaboration and identification of common ground to resolve the transboundary water management issues and secure a win-win is also indicated.
Here, published in facsimile for the first time since the eighteenth century, are John Kirby's extremely rare large-scale Suffolk maps of 1736 and 1737 and the 1735 edition of his road-book The Suffolk Traveller, the earliest single-county roadbook. Those who subscribed for the 1736 map received the 1735 Traveller gratis. The maps of 1764 and 1766 which his sons published after his death are also provided, the former decorated with twelve engravings of castles and abbeys in the county.The earliest maps were the result of a survey of the whole county which Kirby carried out, with some help from Nathaniel Bacon, between 1732 and 1734. Although it is easy to point to inaccuracies, the hand-coloured maps are highly decorative and correct many of the errors common on earlier Suffolk maps in county atlases. The heraldry on the one-inch maps and the named owners and occupiers of the larger estates provide the basis for new select directories of the county in the mid 1730s and mid-1760s. This work of Suffolk topography includes a biography of John Kirby himself and a full account of the travails of publishing his maps and book. Contributions by JENNY JAMES.
This book focuses on geochemical behavior and ancient records of the specific biomarker levoglucosan in Tibetan glaciers, Based on samples from the Zangsegangri (ZSGR) ice cores obtained from the central Tibetan Plateau, it presents annually resolved levoglucosan records and fire changes over the past 430 years. It also discusses the interaction between fire, climate change, and human activities. This is the first effort to reconstruct annual resolution fire records in Tibetan ice, providing crucial information and substantially improved analytical methods toward a better understanding of past fire changes.
This book examines how crop diversification strategies can help to ensure sustainable agricultural development across different land-size categories, with a focus on Malda District in West Bengal, India. Using Malda as the study area, a region with nearly 4 million people, the book assesses the extent, pattern, factors and future of crop diversification and its contribution to the development of agriculture in Malda and in India as a whole. The work presents data from 1995-2015 concerning changing cropping patterns at various land-size distributions, and analyzes the information over the twenty year period to understand the link between crop diversification and agricultural development, in order to combat major agricultural issues and make suitable policy recommendations at micro (rural) and macro (urban) levels of agricultural planning. The study is a unique contribution to the field of agricultural geography, and will be of use to students and researchers, as well as government organizations, city/community planners and agriculture managers.
The Landforms and Landscapes of France provides an informative and attractive overview of the most scenic landscapes of France. The geodiversity of France is emphasized, for example the glacial landscapes of the Mont-Blanc Massif, the volcanoes of the French Massif Central, the chalk cliffs and sand dunes of the Atlantic coast, the granitic landscapes of Corsica or the lagoons and coral reefs of French Polynesia. The objectives are to provide the reader with an enjoyable and informative description of the selected sites within their regional geographical and geological settings; to offer an up-to-date survey of the evolution of France's landscape; and to give additional information on the cultural value of the selected sites wherever appropriate (prehistoric paintings, legends related to sites, famous vineyards, etc.). The book is a richly illustrated reference work that makes accessible for the first time a wealth of information currently scattered among many national and regional journals. It will be of benefit to earth scientists, environmental scientists, tourism geographers and conservationists
Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Cold Regions Development, held in Anchorage, Alaska, June 2-5, 2013. Sponsored by the Technical Council on Cold Regions Engineering and the Alaska Section of ASCE in cooperation with the International Association for Cold Regions Development Studies (IACORDS). This collection contains 79 peer-reviewed papers that bring together the current state of knowledge on a variety of topics and techniques in research, planning, design, engineering, construction, and operations in the cold regions of the world. Topics include: cold regions construction education and sociocultural considerations environmental contaminants frozen ground and permafrost geomatics and arctic issues oil, gas, and energy issues pavement performance ports, coastal, and hydraulic engineering runways and airfields snow and ice management structures and foundations sustainable technologies and asset management, and water and wastewater systems This proceedings will be of interest to engineers, scientists, and government officials.
This book presents the most recent innovations, trends, concerns and practical challenges, and solutions in the field of water resources for arid areas. It gathers outstanding contributions presented at the International Water Conference on Water Resources in Arid Areas (IWC 2016), which was held in Muscat, Oman in March 2016. The individual papers discuss challenges and solutions to alleviate water resource scarcity in arid areas, including water resources management, the introduction of modern irrigation systems, natural groundwater recharge, construction of dams for artificial recharge, use of treated wastewater, and desalination technologies. As such, the book provides a platform for the exchange of recent advances in water resources science and research, which are essential to improving the critical water situation
The signs are there: our coastal cities are increasingly susceptible to flooding as the climate changes. Charleston, South Carolina, is no exception, and is one of the American cities most vulnerable to rising sea levels. Lowcountry at High Tide is the first book to deal with the topographic evolution of Charleston, its history of flooding from the seventeenth century to the present, and the efforts made to keep its populace high and dry, as well as safe and healthy.For centuries residents have made many attempts, both public and private, to manipulate the landscape of the low-lying peninsula on which Charleston sits, surrounded by wetlands, to maximize drainage, and thus buildable land and to facilitate sanitation. Christina Butler uses three hundred years of archival records to show not only the alterations to the landscape past and present, but also the impact those efforts have had on the residents at various socio-economic levels throughout its history. Wide-ranging and thorough, Lowcountry at High Tide goes beyond the documentation of reclamation and filling and offers a look into the life and the history of Charleston and how its people have been affected by its unique environment, as well as examining the responses of the city over time to the needs of the populace. Butler considers interdisciplinary topics from engineering to public health, infrastructure to class struggle, and urban planning to civic responsibility in a study that is not only invaluable to the people of Charleston, but for any coastal city grappling with environmental change. Illustrated with historical maps, plats, and photographs and organized chronologically and thematically within chapters, Lowcountry at High Tide offers a unique look at how Charleston has kept--and may continue to keep--the ocean at bay.
The book is written in the backdrop of the environmental impacts of and future requirements from the natural environment for rapid economic growth that has characterized recent economic history of China and India, especially over the past few decades. The environmental impacts of such rapid economic changes have been, more frequently than otherwise, degrading in character. Environmental impacts of economic activities create degraded natural ecosystems by over utilization of nature's provisioning ecosystem services (from Himalaya to the Ocean), as well, by the use of the natural environment as sink for dumping of unmarketable products or unused inputs of economic activities. Such processes affect wide range of ecosystem processes on which the natural environment including human population depend on. Critical perspectives cast by various chapters in this book draw attention to the various ways in which space and power interact to produce diverse geographies of sustainability in a globalizing world. They also address the questions such as who decides what kind of a spatial arrangement of political power is needed for sustaining the environment. Who stands to gain (or lose) what, when, where, and why from certain geographical areas being demarcated as ecologically unique, fragile and vulnerable environments? Whose needs and values are being catered to by a given ecosystem service? What is the scope for critical inquiry into the ways in which the environment is imagined, represented and resisted in both geopolitical struggles and everyday life? The book provides insights to both academics from diverse disciplines and policy makers, civil society actors interested in mutual exchange of knowledge between China and India.
For safe operations in the Arctic, it is critical to understand the natural conditions and to learn from the experiences of ice pilots who have worked there. In the context of planning the PetroArctic project, accounts of seagoing activities in the Russian Arctic Seas that ersulted in accidents have been gathered and are now made available in this bilingual (Russian-English) volume. Here especially, the physical environment and navigation issues for the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi seas are described. Fully half of the book describes accidents induced by heavy ice conditions since 1900: 94 accidents are carefully reported and classified. Among these, the accidents involve shipwrecks, forced drift (ice jet as special case), overwintering, and various types of vessel damage. Most accounts include details such as distinguishing features, behavior of the crew, photos, and maps, which reveal ice conditions, date, location, and vessels involved (for each of four seas). The book will be useful to scientists, industrial planners and a wide audience interested in the Arctic Seas.
The Juan Fernandez Archipelago is located in the Pacific Ocean west of Chile at 33 Degrees S latitude. Robinson Crusoe Island is 667 km from the continent and approximately four million years old; Alejandro Selkirk Island is an additional 181 km west and only one million years old. The natural impacts of subsidence and erosion have shaped the landscapes of these islands, resulting in progressive changes to their subtropical vegetation. The older island has undergone more substantial changes, due to both natural causes and human impacts. After the discovery of Robinson Crusoe Island in 1574, people began cutting down forests for lumber to construct boats and homes, for firewood, and to make room for pastures. Domesticated plants and animals were introduced, some of which have since become feral or invasive, causing damage to the local vegetation. The wealth of historical records on these activities provides a detailed chronicle of how human beings use their environment for survival in a new ecosystem. This book offers an excellent case study on the impacts that people can have on the resources of an oceanic island.
This book proves, through empirical research, that indigenous and traditional agricultural communities have experienced severe climate change impacts, and have developed corresponding livelihood strategies to strengthen their resilience in a variable climate. With a focus on indigenous minority farming communities in the developing region of South-Western Zimbabwe, the study presents both qualitative and quantitative approaches of data analysis to assess sustainability problems amid climate change and climate variability challenges, and proposes potential solutions. In eight chapters, the book expands on the scarce availability of community-based research on climate change and variability in Zimbabwe. The book is meant for college and university students and stakeholders involved in development work in rural minority farmer communities, especially in climate change prone regions of Africa and other developing countries who have very few options of adaptation and mitigation.
This book introduces systematically the cryospheric science, covering the formation, development, evolution, and research methods of each component of the cryosphere, the interaction between the cryosphere and the other spheres of the climate system and the anthroposphere, and the hot topics of social and economic sustainable development and geopolitics. The authors are world-renowned experts and scientists working in the related fields. They have a deep understanding and accurate grasp of the basic theory, evolution mechanism, and international frontiers of the cryosphere, as well as rich teaching experience, which makes this book suitable also as textbook for graduate students. It is also the first book that introduces the knowledge of cryospheric science systematically. In addition to theoretical knowledge, the book also introduces field work and experimental analysis. It should be of interests for the scholars and graduate student working in the fields of geography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, atmosphere, ecology, environment, oceanography, and regional economic and social sustainable development.
This updated and revised edition of a widely acclaimed and
successful text for undergraduates examines topology of recent
compact surfaces through the development of simple ideas in plane
geometry. Containing over 171 diagrams, the approach allows for a
straightforward treatment of its subject area. It is particularly
attractive for its wealth of applications and variety of
interactions with branches of mathematics, linked with surface
topology, graph theory, group theory, vector field theory, and
plane Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry.
This coloring and activity book for children explores the historic Nez Perce National Historic Trail which winds through Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. The Nez Perce, or Nimiipoo, are the native people who lived in an area of the interior Northwest stretching from the Bitterroot Mountains in the east, to the Blue Mountains in the west. Using matching games, puzzles, and other activities, Along the Nez Perce Trail introduces young people to the natural world through the language and concepts of the Nimiipoo.
First published in 1854, and here reproduced in fine facsimile, John Reynell Morell's guide to French North Africa now serves as a unique historical source work.Originally intended as a practical guide to the region, this was the book no self-respecting Victorian traveller would fail to pack, along with his rifle and sola topi. As stated in the Preface: 'Imbued with the spirit of the times, the author has endeavoured impartially to collect, compare, and condense as many useful facts as possible in this volume.' But beyond the facts come fascinating pen-portraits of the inhabitants of Algeria, their customs, beliefs and daily lives. Much useful information is provided on the effects of French colonisation which have left an indelible trace upon the culture of that area. Few countries have contained such an admixture of race and religion, and this account helps bring to life the vibrancy of that age. Add to this the author's insatiable quest for the unusual, and we are left with an intriguing description of mid-nineteenth-century Algeria, and an invaluable reference for historical study.
Governing Arctic Seas introduces the concept of ecopolitical regions, using in-depth analyses of the Bering Strait and Barents Sea Regions to demonstrate how integrating the natural sciences, social sciences and Indigenous knowledge can reveal patterns, trends and processes as the basis for informed decisionmaking. This book draws on international, interdisciplinary and inclusive (holistic) perspectives to analyze governance mechanisms, built infrastructure and their coupling to achieve sustainability in biophysical regions subject to shared authority. Governing Arctic Seas is the first volume in a series of books on Informed Decisionmaking for Sustainability that apply, train and refine science diplomacy to address transboundary issues at scales ranging from local to global. For nations and peoples as well as those dealing with global concerns, this holistic process operates across a 'continuum of urgencies' from security time scales (mitigating risks of political, economic and cultural instabilities that are immediate) to sustainability time scales (balancing economic prosperity, environmental protection and societal well-being across generations). Informed decisionmaking is the apex goal, starting with questions that generate data as stages of research, integrating decisionmaking institutions to employ evidence to reveal options (without advocacy) that contribute to informed decisions. The first volumes in the series focus on the Arctic, revealing legal, economic, environmental and societal lessons with accelerating knowledge co-production to achieve progress with sustainability in this globally-relevant region that is undergoing an environmental state change in the sea and on land. Across all volumes, there is triangulation to integrate research, education and leadership as well as science, technology and innovation to elaborate the theory, methods and skills of informed decisionmaking to build common interests for the benefit of all on Earth.
This book presents the polycentric and multiscale view of landscape which has been developed in Russia within a framework of physical geography since the early twentieth century. The authors develop the ideas of hierarchical organization of a landscape and strong relationships between abiotic and biotic components with equal attention to both vertical fluxes and lateral transfer. Three-dimensional representation of landscape involves strong emphasis on abiotic drivers of pattern development including relief, geological structures and runoff. The objective of this book is to demonstrate the multiplicity of models and multiscale approach to description and explanation of landscape pattern, functioning, dynamics, and evolution. The contributions deal with various hierarchical levels ranging from within-unit interior variability to between-units interaction at landscape level, as well as regional and supra-regional zonal patterns. Divided into 8 clear parts, the 28 chapters treat spatial pattern in one of the following aspects: indicator of actual matter and energy flows control over actual processes including disturbance expansion as well as determinant of future development indicator of genesis and prerequisite for future trends driver for short-term dynamics of processes response to climatic and anthropogenic influences factor of settlement network and land use adaptation at various historical epochs framework for actual land use spatial arrangement. This contributed volume is written for researchers and students in the field of landscape ecology, physical geography, environmental impact assessment, and ecological planning.
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