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With the rapid increase of world population, the global water shortage is set to be the major crises of the twenty-first century; that is, population dynamics (growth, age distribution, urbanization and migration) create pressures on freshwater resources due to the increased water demands and pollution. Moreover, water resources management faces a new uncertainty- i.e. the potential for longer-term and more persistent climate change nowadays, which, in coming years, may significantly affect the availability of supply and patterns of water demand. This book mainly focuses on the impact of climate change and human activities on water quality and water resources in Asia Countries. It begins by describing the characteristics of water related disasters in the world. Then, the book analyzes the changes of floods and associated socio-economic damages for whole China over the last century, and assesses water quality and pollution source for the Yangtze River Basin, suggesting water-related disasters would become more intense, longer lasting, and/or more frequent in a future warmer climate. Then, after investigating spatiotemporal trends and causes of water quality and water quality incidents (Chapter 4) and precipitation extreme events (Chapter 5) in Japan, subsequent two chapters mainly evaluate the climate and human impacts on precipitation variations, water quality and water resources in the Hokkaido area. The final chapter comprehensively analyzes climate change impacts on water resources in the Aral Sea Basin, and then estimate the water requirements and water deficits for irrigation, future agricultural yields of seven major crops, and land and water productivity in four provinces of Turkmenistan considering climate change, population growth, and three socio-economic development scenarios. All results obtained from this book may provide a means to reduce water quality incidents and mitigate future negative impacts by adapting water management. Furthermore, the improved methods for water quality modeling in data scarce regions are transferable to other study areas and applicable in future research.
This book provides a critical examination of contemporary approaches to environmental regulation in the UK and the European Union. It also explores how regulation has evolved in response to a number of factors, including industrial development and improved scientific knowledge, while considering the radical next steps that need to be taken in response to existing challenges. Developments in Environmental Regulation draws its focus on the effects of risk-based approaches to the environmental regulation of business and industry, including its impact on sustainable economic growth. The book also considers the challenges and potential opportunities that surround the UK's withdrawl, or 'Brexit', from the European Union. This edited collection has been written by a group of highly experienced regulatory specialists whose insightful perspectives on key areas of environmental regulation are situated at the core of this work. This book will appeal to students and academics, policy-makers and environmental practitioners interested in understanding how environmental policy and regulation is applied and how it can be adapted to its political context.
This book discusses a range of planning and management issues related to building urban resiliency. It covers such topics as urban, environmental, and transportation planning, historical preservation, emergency relief and management, geographic information systems (GIS) and other technological applications. The book includes case studies of several cities and districts in China, including Shanghai, and a number of cities in the United States of America. Urban resiliency in the face of uncertainty is a priority for planning and governance in communities worldwide. In China, which has suffered many of the world's most devastating floods, earthquakes, and typhoons, preparing for the threat of disaster has long been an important planning objective. Recent calamities, such as the 2008 Winter Storms, the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, and the 2012 Beijing Floods have only made planning for resiliency more urgent. As planners work to prepare for such events, interdisciplinary collaboration becomes increasingly important. Planners need the tools and insights offered by other fields, including both the natural and social sciences. At the same time, these interdisciplinary relationships help shape the identity of urban-rural planning in its new role as one of China's primary academic disciplines. Thus, the nexus between planning and science is critically important in building resilient cities in China, and the Chinese planning experience can serve as an example to and benefit countries around the world.
This volume provides a theoretically and empirically-grounded study of the significance of landscape in the experience of Christian pilgrimage across different denominations and its intersection with cultural heritage and tourism. The book focuses on pilgrimages to Meteora (Greece), Subiaco (Italy) and the Isle of Man. These are each sites of scenic beauty that boast a rich heritage associated respectively to Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Ecumenical/ Protestant denominations. The study discusses different Christian theologies, practices and perspectives on the nature and the purpose of pilgrimage in these traditions. It draws on participant experiential accounts, archival research, and interviews with clergy, laity and local stakeholders. Special attention is paid to the themes of sacred space and practice, aesthetics, mobilities, embodiment and performance, emotional geographies, theology, cultural heritage, consumption and commodification, and the pilgrim-tourist continuum.
This book features research on historical land use and land cover in the Amur River Basin, which are important not only for residents there but also for those affected by its material and water cycles. Land use and land cover are affected by natural and human interactions over long and short timescales. The authors address historical changes in the land cover analysis of the Amur. The Amur region of Russia, land cover change analysis of the Amur, wetland, and flooding of the Amur provide evidence of land cover change. Changes of wetland and floodplain sedimentation processes demonstrate the influences of land cover change on fluvial environment, which are discussed with geomorphology. Water chemistry is showing the physical dimension of the geography of the Amur. The development process of timber harvesting in the Khabarovsk area and land use dynamics in the twentieth century are important evidence of development. The Amur poses an essential question: how can we manage a transboundary watershed without disturbing terrestrial and marine ecosystems for future generations? This book provides essential information for geographers about this relatively unknown region.
In its first English-language edition, this book introduces the many-faceted interactions of animal populations with their habitats. From soil fauna, ants and termites to small and large herbivores, burrowing mammals and birds, the author presents a comprehensive analysis of animals and ecosystems that is as broad and varied as all nature. Chapter 2 addresses the functional role of animals in landscape ecosystems, emphasizing fluxes of energy and matter within and between ecosystems, and the effects of animals on qualitative and structural habitat change. Discussion includes chapters on the role of animal population density and the impacts of native herbivores on vegetation and habitats from the tropics to the polar regions. Cyclic mass outbreaks of species such as the larch bud moth in Switzerland, the mountain pine beetle and the African red-billed weaver bird are described and analyzed. Other chapters discuss Zoochory - the dispersal of seeds by ants, mammals and birds - and the influence of burrowing animals on soil development and geomorphology. Consideration extends to the impact of feral domestic animals. Chapter 5 focuses on problems resulting from introduction of alien animals and from re-introduction of animal species to their original habitats, discusses the effects on ecosystems of burrowing, digging and trampling by animals. The author also addresses keystone species such as kangaroo rats, termites and beavers. Chapter 6 addresses the role of animals in landscape management and nature conservation, with chapters on the impact of newcomer species such as animals introduced into Australia, New Zealand and Europe, and the consequences of reintroduction of species to original habitat. It also discusses the carrying capacity of natural habit, public attitudes toward conversation and more. The final section ponders the effects of climate on interactions between animals and their habitats.
The humid tropics contain some of the world's richest, most
diverse, most important and most threatened environments. This book
draws on recent work by geographers, biologists, ecologists,
geologists and climatologists to present a complete and integrated
appraisal of the natural environment of all the humid tropical
regions of the world.
Habitat loss and degradation are perceived to be one of the main factors threatening biodiversity through detrimental effects on species and populations. These processes reduce habitat availability, increase isolation and generate patchy environments, which reduces species richness, population genetic diversity, and modifies community structure. The loss of biodiversity associated with habitat alteration is particularly problematic in forest habitats, because forests are one of the most species-rich habitat types. The conservation implications have become greater with evidence that climate change may exacerbate and speed up ongoing processes. This book focuses on topics that include niche restriction and conservatism in a neotropical psittacine; consequences for distribution patterns of specialist fauna; and paths to habitat loss in European Atlantic heathlands.
'Extraordinary... A fascinating and intelligent book.' Sunday Times New islands are being built at an unprecedented rate whether for tourism or territorial ambition, while many islands are disappearing or fragmenting because of rising sea levels. It is a strange planetary spectacle, creating an ever-changing map which even Google Earth struggles to keep pace with. In The Age of Islands, explorer and geographer Alastair Bonnett takes the reader on a compelling and thought-provoking tour of the world's newest, most fragile and beautiful islands and reveals what, he argues, is one of the great dramas of our time. From a 'crannog', an ancient artificial island in a Scottish loch, to the militarized artificial islands China is building in the South China Sea; from the disappearing islands that remain the home of native Central Americans to the ritzy new islands of Dubai; from Hong Kong and the Isles of Scilly to islands far away and near: all have urgent stories to tell.
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation is by far the most striking
phenomenon caused by the interplay of ocean and atmosphere. It can
be explained neither in strictly oceanographic nor strictly
meteorological terms. This volume provides a brief history of the
subject, summarizes the oceanographic and meteorological
observations and theories, and discusses the recent advances in
computer modeling studies of the phenomenon.
Submarine mass movements are a hidden geohazard with large destructive potential for submarine installations and coastal areas. This hazard and associated risk is growing in proportion with increasing population of coastal urban agglomerations, industrial infrastructure, and coastal tourism. Also, the intensified use of the seafloor for natural resource production, and deep sea cables constitutes an increasing risk. Submarine slides may alter the coastline and bear a high tsunamogenic potential. There is a potential link of submarine mass wasting with climate change, as submarine landslides can uncover and release large amounts greenhouse gases, mainly methane, that are now stored in marine sediments. The factors that govern the stability of submarine slopes against failure, the processes that lead to slope collapses and the collapse processes by themselves need to be better understood in order to foresee and prepare society for potentially hazardous events. This book volume consists of a collection of cutting edge scientific research by international experts in the field, covering geological, geophysical, engineering and environmental aspects of submarine slope failures. The focus is on understanding the full spectrum of challenges presented by this major coastal and offshore geohazard.
This book is a comprehensive resource for climate change impacts and scenarios on cross-cutting issues in Bangladesh and other tropical low-lying countries in Asia. The book promotes mitigation and adaptation strategies for learning and innovation to tackle climate change impacts, reduce inequality, as well as include changes in food, energy, health, education, and social protection policies in Bangladesh and Asian low-lying countries. Through several case studies, this book provides a powerful framework for identifying management tools and their applications in environment and governance including; climate change and natural hazards, climate change and energy framework, gender inequality and capacity building, and community participants and the actions needed to protect them. The aim of this book is to provide information to scientists, practitioners, academics, and government and non-government policy-makers to help them better understand the particularities of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies for cross-cutting issues in Bangladesh.
A detailed account of the geology shown on the complementary 1: 50 000 (or earlier 1: 63 360) geological map(s)
Although millions of Americans and international travelers take road trips through North America every year, most have no understanding of how the landscape came to be. North America's Natural Wonders provides everything these travelers need to understand the landscape. Written by a career geologist with decades of experience in the field, it guides readers through the most iconic, geologically significant scenery in North America and explains what they are seeing. Volume I focuses on western North America, including the Canadian Rockies, the Southwest, Great Basin, and Tetons-Yellowstone Country. The trips detailed in this volume include stops at the glaciers and mountains of Banff National Park, the Grand Canyon, numerous parks in Utah, and the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone. It also features lesser known but equally interesting geologic formations and how to access these sites. Volume II focuses on central and eastern North America, including the Appalachians of Virginia and West Virginia, the Colorado Rockies, Austin-Big Bend Country, and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. The trips detailed in this volume include stops at the Blue Ridge in Shenandoah National Park, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Big Bend National Park, Garden of the Gods and Pikes Peak, the Colorado Mineral Belt, Aspen and the Maroon Bells, giant salt-cored uplifts of the La Popa Basin, Mexico, and many others. It also features lesser known but equally interesting geologic formations and how to access these sites. This detailed guide will help the curious layman, the rock hound, the geology student, and the professional geologist understand what they are seeing when they look at a roadcut, quarry, or landscape. A full understanding of natural formations will enhance the traveler's experience beyond simple sightseeing.
Dokuchaev carried out most of his research in Ukraine. His student and friend, Volodymyr Vernadsky, went on to create trans-disciplinary environmental sciences and the concept of Earth as a living organism, famously taken up by James Lovelock. That spring of ideas still flows and the researches captured in this volume are relevant to present-day problems, and not only in Ukraine. Soils have always been under stress but, in the Anthropocene, mankind is in the driving seat. As a sequel to Soil Science Working for a Living: Applications of soil science to present-day problems, we consider issues of policy as well as soil genesis, attributes and functions in various environments, natural and man-made. We consider human impacts on the soil cover through its use and misuse, highlight methods of research and assessment of soil quality, and the threats of soil degradation. The distinguished contributors also describe and propose various options for evaluation and remediation of degraded soils, drawing on the latest methods of modelling and cartography as well as long-term field experiments and long experience. The book will be invaluable to researchers and practitioners in soil science including graduate and post-graduate education, academics and professionals.
Cengage Learning's FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY brings course concepts to life with interactive learning, study, and exam preparation tools along with market leading text content for introductory physical geography courses. Whether you use a traditional printed text or all digital FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CourseMate alternative, it's never been easier to better understand the relationship between humans and physical geography, and how one impacts the other.
Focusing specifically on the management of karst environments, this volume draws together the world's leading karst experts to provide a vital source for the study and management of this unique physical setting. Although karst landscapes cover 12% of the Earth's terrain and provide 25% of the world's drinking water, the resource management of karst environments has only previously received indirect attention. Through a comprehensive approach, Karst Management focuses on engineering issues associated with surface karst such as quarries, dams, and agriculture, subsurface topics such as the management of groundwater, show caves, cave biota, and geo-archaeology projects. Chapters that focus on karst as an integrated system look at IUCN World Heritage sites, national parks, policy and regulation, measuring systematic disturbance, information management, and public environmental education. The text incorporates the most up-to-date research from leading karst scientists. This volume provides important perspectives for university students, educators, geoengineers, resource managers, and planners who are interested in or work with this unique physical landscape.
A systematic, unifying approach to the dynamics of the ocean and atmosphere is given in this book, with emphasis on the larger-scale motions (from a few kilometers to global scale). The foundations of the subject (the equations of state and dynamical equations) are covered in some detail, so that students with training in mathematics should find it a self-contained text. Knowledge of fluid mechanics is helpful but not essential. Simple mathematical models are used to demonstrate the fundamental dynamical principles with plentiful illustrations from field and laboratory.
This book interrogates the impact of tourism on local lives and environments along the southern Pacific Coast of Nicaragua. Nicaragua has turned to tourism to earn needed foreign exchange and to provide jobs. The unplanned boom, however, has come with costs to local environments. Using an in-depth case study of the community of Gigante and nearby tourism developments, the chapters delve into the impact of recent unregulated booms in tourism on groundwater, household water security, local economies, culture, land ownership, and artisanal fisheries.
Presented in an accessible, user-friendly format, this atlas sets out all the major features revealed during one of the largest ever deep-sea mapping campaigns. A unique insight into the morphology of the seabed along the continental margin of the North-East Atlantic, it reveals for the first time many features that have hitherto been hidden beneath the waves. It is organised both thematically and by region, with the sea floor and its biological hotspots - areas of high biodiversity such as seamounts - shown at a resolution not possible before. The atlas presents everything from submarine canyons to coral carbonate mounds, using digital terrain models generated from multibeam data and photographs taken from unmanned deep-water vehicles (ROVs).
The full-colour imagery includes digital three-dimensional seabed maps as well as the photographs, with concise text descriptions and topic boxes used to highlight and explain the geological, biological and hydrographical features, in addition to their importance and context in the deep-sea realm. Alongside the wealth of background information and topic boxes on special highlights, extensive on-line resources link the reader to full data sets and GIS locations, while suggestions for further reading point to ongoing research highlights. This is a fascinating resource that will be of use to anyone involved in off-shore and underwater activities, whether scientific or commercial.
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