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This book gives a comprehensive view of the strengths and limits of the interdisciplinary methods that work together to form the geohistorical approach to geographical and geological sciences. The geohistorical approach can be synthetically defined as a multi- and interdisciplinary approach that uses techniques and perspectives, mainly from geography, history, and natural sciences, to examine topics that inform the space-time knowledge of environment, territory, and landscape. The boundary between the application of physical and human science methods is large and hazy. This volume exists at this boundary and offers an approach that utilizes both historical data (from both physical and human records) and GIScience (e.g. GIS, cartography, GPS, remote sensing) to investigate the evolution of the environment, territory and landscape through both space and time. The first objective of this volume is to define the term geohistorical approach. An entire chapter focuses on a review of the main disciplines that connect geography and history, a review of the terms environment, territory, and landscape as objects of study of this approach, and the definition and importance of the geohistorical approach. The second goal is to describe the methods used in the geohistorical approach. Eight chapters present the key methods also using examples of applications from the international context, offering an awareness of the potentials, limitations and accuracy of each method, with particular focus on the integration of methods. The third goal is to provide case studies to demonstrate the use and integration of geohistorical methods from both original material and published research. A final chapter is dedicated to an interdisciplinary case study from the Venetian Plain (Italy), providing an example of the integration of almost all methods described in the book.
This book provides an up-to-date introduction to the fundamental methods related to planning and human services delivery. These methods aid planners in answering crucial questions about human activities within a given community. This book brings the pillars of planning methods together in an introductory text targeted towards senior level undergraduate and graduate students. Planning professionals will also find this book an invaluable reference.
This book presents outstanding chapter contributions on the Nasca culture in a variety of artistic expressions such as architecture, geoglyphs, ceramics, music, and textiles. The approach, based on the integration of science with archaeology and anthropology, sheds new light on the Nasca civilization. In particular the multidisciplinary character of the contributions and earth observation technologies provide new information on geoglyphs, the monumental ceremonial architecture of Cahuachi, and the adaptation strategies in the Nasca desert by means of sophisticated and effective aqueduct systems. Finally, archaeological looting and vandalism are covered. This book will be of interest to students, archaeologists, historians, scholars of Andean civilizations, scientists in physical anthropology, remote sensing, geophysics, and cultural heritage management.
Offering a thought provoking theoretical conversation around ecological crisis and natural resource extraction, this book suggests that we are on a trajectory geared towards total extractivism guided by the mythological Worldeater. The authors discuss why and how we have come to live in this catastrophic predicament, rooting the present in an original perspective that animates the forces of global techno-capitalist development. They argue that the Worldeater helps us make sense of the insatiable forces that transform, convert and consume the world. The book combines this unique approach with detailed academic review of critical agrarian studies and political ecology, the militarization of nature and the conventional and 'green' extraction nexus. It seeks radical reflection on the role people play in the construction and perpetuation of these crises, and concludes with some suggestions on how to tackle them.
This book offers an overview of recent scientific and professional literature on urban greening and urban ecology, focusing on diverse disciplines such as landscape architecture, geography, urban ecology, urban climatology, biodiversity conservation, urban governance, architecture and urban hydrology. It includes contributions in which academics, public policy experts and practitioners share their considerable knowledge on the multi-faceted aspects of greening cities. The greening of cities has witnessed a global resurgence over the past two decades and has made a significant contribution to urban liveability and sustainability, as well as increasing resilience. As urban greening efforts continue to expand, it is useful to promote recent advances in our understanding of various aspects of planning, design and management of urban greenery, but at the same time, it is also important to realize that there are important gaps in our knowledge and that further research is needed. The book is organized in three main parts: concepts, functions and forms of urban greening. The first part examines the historical roots of greening cities and how the burgeoning field of urban ecology can contribute useful principles and strategies to guide the planning, design and management of urban greening. The second part shifts the focus to the diverse range of services - the functions - provided by urban greening, such as those related to urban climate, urban biodiversity, human health, and community building. The final part explores conventional, often neglected, but important forms of urban greenery such as urban woodlands and urban farms, as well as relatively recent forms of urban greenery like those integrated with buildings and waterways. It offers a ready reference resource for researchers, practitioners and policy-makers to grasp the critical issues and trigger further studies and applications in the quest for high-performance green cities.
This book conceptualizes community nutrition resilience as a critical area that is currently lacking the attention it requires from both the public and private sectors. The book spotlights Greater Miami's resilience efforts, both responding to slowly developing challenges such as immigration, environmental deterioration, and the wealth distribution gap, as well as sudden disasters such as hurricanes or flooding driven by climate change. Drawing on existing literature as well as interviews with professionals working in the field, the author makes recommendations on how to incorporate food systems into urban resilience planning, how to prioritize resilience on urban food agendas, and how to strengthen food system resilience through public, private, and third sector level engagement. She also highlights how the availability of and access to nutritious food impact the health, performance, and well-being of communities in the region, thus making a strong case for the prioritization of this growing issue.
Describing the natural state of eight important lakes in Asia and the human impact on these lake ecosystems, this book offers a valuable reference guide. Over the past several decades the Aral Sea, Dead Sea, Lake Balkhash and other major lakes in Asia have undergone significant changes with regard to their size, water level, chemical composition, and flora and fauna. Most of these changes resulted from the loss of water from tributaries (now used for irrigation farming) or increasing consumption in local industries and households. However, significant human impacts may have begun as early as 2000 years ago. In addition to the three lakes mentioned above, Lake Sevan (Armenia), the Caspian Sea (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan), Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan), and Lake Lop Nur (China) are discussed as the most prominent examples of changing lake ecosystems. In contrast, an example of an almost pristine lake ecosystem is included with the report on Lake Uvs Nuur (Mongolia). For each lake, the book summarizes its origin and early geological history, and reconstructs its natural state and variability on the basis of proxy records from drilled or exposed lake sediments that have accumulated since the last ice age. The frequently observed reductions in lake level and size during most recent decades led often to significant environmental impacts in the respective lake catchments including vegetation deterioration, soil erosion and badland formation, soil salinization or the formation of sinkholes.
This open access book focuses on the meanings, agendas, as well as the local and global implications of bioeconomy and bioenergy policies in and across South America, Asia and Europe. It explores how a transition away from a fossil and towards a bio-based economic order alters, reinforces and challenges socio-ecological inequalities. The volume presents a historically informed and empirically rich discussion of bioeconomy developments with a particular focus on bio-based energy. A series of conceptual discussions and case studies with a multidisciplinary background in the social sciences illuminate how the deployment of biomass sources from the agricultural and forestry sectors affect societal changes concerning knowledge production, land and labour relations, political participation and international trade. How can a global perspective on socio-ecological inequalities contribute to a complex and critical understanding of bioeconomy? Who participates in the negotiation of specific bioeconomy policies and who does not? Who determines the agenda? To what extent does the bioeconomy affect existing socio-ecological inequalities in rural areas? What are the implications of the bioeconomy for existing relations of extraction and inequalities across regions? The volume is an invitation to reflect upon these questions and more, at a time when the need for an ecological and socially just transition away from a carbon intensive economy is becoming increasingly pressing.
resents the state of knowledge on soil biodiversity, the threats to it, and the solutions that soil biodiversity can provide to problems in different fields, including agriculture, nutrition and pharmaceuticals
This book presents the microscopic and macroscopic bark structure of more than 180 different tree and shrub species from Europe, Asia and North America. It is the first compendium to demonstrate the anatomical variability in bark since almost 70 years (Holdheide 1951). The introductory chapter explains with high-quality microphotographs the anatomical traits most important for identification and ecological interpretation of barks, and the monographic part demonstrates in text and pictures the species-specific patterns. The species treatments are grouped by their main biomes. Each species description first characterizes the macroscopic aspects with its main form, features and habitat with text and pictures of the whole plant and the barks in a young and old stage. This is followed by the microscopical description of each species. The microscopic photographs are based on double-stained slides, revealing the quality and distribution of unlignified and lignified tissues in low and high magnification. The book fills a scientific gap: Archeologists and soil scientists want to identify prehistoric and historical remnants. Ecophysiologists are interested in the distribution of conducting and non-conducting tissues in the phloem and xylem along the stem axis and the internal longevity of cells. Ecologists get information about internal defense mechanisms and technologists are enabled to recognize indicators relevant in biophysics and technology.
The second-longest European river after the Volga, the Danube is one of the world's most important rivers in terms of its geographical and historical significance. In recent history, it has served as a major international waterway and numerous cities, including four capitals, have been founded on its banks. The 2826km-long Danube has a watershed measuring 801,093 km2 that is now shared between 19 countries, from its source in the Black Forest to the Black Sea, into which it pumps an average of 827 km3 of water a year. This book describes and explains key landscape values interactions (geographical, cultural and natural heritage). It also identifies the threats and various types of human impact affecting this system in all the countries of the Danube River Basin, based on the investigations and perspectives of a team of experienced naturalists, and in the context of the early 21st century, in which the human-nature relationship is still far from balanced. These studies demonstrate how biodiversity, conservation and ecological studies can help us successfully promote mutual cooperation and combine our efforts to address problems as a responsible continent.
In this comprehensive Handbook, scholars from across the globe explore the relationships between workers and nature in the context of the environmental crises. They provide an invaluable overview of a fast-growing research field that bridges the social and natural sciences. Chapters provide detailed perspectives of environmental labour studies, environmental struggles of workers, indigenous peoples, farmers and commoners in the Global South and North. The relations within and between organisations that hinder or promote environmental strategies are analysed, including the relations between workers and environmental organisations, NGOs, feminist and community movements.
This thesis includes a wealth of cave maps, as well as photos of the caves and karst morphologies. At the heart of the thesis is the important discovery of a flank margin cave with speleothem hiatuses and fossil invertebrate associations. The analysis of the structural and karst morphological elements surveyed in the main explored caves in Monti di Capo San Vito has made it possible to identify both the state of control of the processes of karstification in tectonic phases during the Plio-Pleistocene upliftings and the kinematic character of some karstified structures, linked at two speleogenetic phases. Furthermore, the surveying of karst forms on the relict sea-cliffs and particularly the exceptional discovery and dating of marine and continental incrustations in the Rumena cave, has yielded essential advances in our knowledge of past climatic events and eustatic level changes in the Mediterranean, as well as their influence on the evolution of the coastal belt.
This open access book is the first comprehensive overview of maritime or marine spatial planning. Countries across the globe are beginning to implement maritime spatial plans; however the authors of this collection have identified several key questions that are emerging from this growing body of MSP experience. How can maritime spatial planning deal with a complex and dynamic environment such as the sea? How can MSP be embedded in multiple levels of governance across regional and national borders - and how far does the environment benefit from this new approach? This book actively engages with the problems encapsulated in these questions, and explores possible solutions. Situated at the intersection between theory and practice, the volume draws together several strands of interdisciplinary research, reflecting on the history of MSP as well as examining current practice and looking towards the future. The authors and contributors examine MSP from disciplines as diverse as geography, urban planning, political science, natural science, sociology and education; reflecting the growing critical engagement with MSP in many academic fields. This innovative and pioneering volume will be of interest and value to students and scholars of maritime spatial planning, as well as planners and practitioners.
This volume comprises an outstanding variety of chapters on Earth Observation based time series analyses, undertaken to reveal past and current land surface dynamics for large areas. What exactly are time series of Earth Observation data? Which sensors are available to generate real time series? How can they be processed to reveal their valuable hidden information? Which challenges are encountered on the way and which pre-processing is needed? And last but not least: which processes can be observed? How are large regions of our planet changing over time and which dynamics and trends are visible? These and many other questions are answered within this book "Remote Sensing Time Series Analyses - Revealing Land Surface Dynamics". Internationally renowned experts from Europe, the USA and China present their exciting findings based on the exploitation of satellite data archives from well-known sensors such as AVHRR, MODIS, Landsat, ENVISAT, ERS and METOP amongst others. Selected review and methods chapters provide a good overview over time series processing and the recent advances in the optical and radar domain. A fine selection of application chapters addresses multi-class land cover and land use change at national to continental scale, the derivation of patterns of vegetation phenology, biomass assessments, investigations on snow cover duration and recent dynamics, as well as urban sprawl observed over time.
In August 2007 a Russian flag was planted under the North Pole during a scientific expedition triggering speculation about a new scramble for resources beneath the thawing ice. But is there really a global grab for Polar territory and resources? Or are these activities vastly exaggerated? In this rich and wide-ranging book, Klaus Dodds and Mark Nuttall look behind the headlines and hyperbole to reveal a complex picture of the so-called scramble for the poles. Whilst anxieties over the potential for conflict and the destruction of what is often perceived as the world's last wildernesses have come to dominate Polar debates and are, to some extent, justified, their study also highlights longer historical and geographical patterns and processes of human activity in these remote territories. Over the past century, Polar landscapes have been probed, drilled, fished, tested on and dug up, as their indigenous populations have struggled to protect their rights and interests. No longer remote places, or themselves 'poles apart' from one another, the contemporary geopolitics of the Polar regions has lessons for us all as we confront a warming world where access to resources is a concern for states, big and small.
This book discusses land degradation in India using statistical tools such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Regression Analysis (RA), and uses statistical analyses and graphical representations of the causal relationship between land degradation and land productivity to determine linkages with deforestation, climate change and agricultural productivity. While most studies of land degradation in India focus on economic outcomes and physical processes at macro and micro levels, this study addresses land degradation at the meso-level to fill in this gap and provide up-to-date information on often overlooked factors associated with land degradation issues using the latest available data. Districts in the study were selected by land degradation intensity, forming an index of the severity of land degradation in the area, with a focus on gullied lands, soil salinity/alkalinity and open and dense scrubs as indicators. Though the study areas are in India, researchers, policy makers and students around the world will be able to learn from these inputs regarding land degradation to address various challenges associated with sustainable land management and agricultural productivity.
The Niger River Basin is a transboundary basin covering nine riparian countries to the Niger River that are increasingly putting pressure on the available water resources as their populations expand. Yet, the nine countries are also among the poorest in the world and adequate exploitation of the water of the basin could be part of a broader strategy for poverty reduction in these countries. Major challenges to that end are the lacking water infrastructure and growing vulnerability to extreme weather hazards as the climate changes. In that context, a better understanding of the state of water resources in the basin is a crucial departure point for any measures towards the sustainable use of water. The Water Accounting Plus (WA+) system designed by IHE Delft with its partners FAO and IWMI has been applied to gain full insights into the state of the water resources in the basin
This highly practical handbook is an exhaustive treatment of
eddy covariance measurement that will be of keen interest to
scientists who are not necessarily specialists in micrometeorology.
The chapters cover measuring fluxes using eddy covariance
technique, from the tower installation and system dimensioning to
data collection, correction and analysis.
Since the 1970s and particularly the works of Tuxen (1978) and Gehu & Rivas-Martinez (1981), dynamico-catenal phytosociology has facilitated the integration of vegetation dynamics by more precisely describing the trajectories of vegetation series. A national habitat mapping program (CarHAB), launched by France's Ministry of Ecology, aims to map the vegetation and vegetation series of metropolitan France at a scale of 1: 25,000 by 2025. In this context, Corsica has been selected as a pilot region, due to its unique characteristics regarding Mediterranean and alticole vegetation. This book describes in detail the vegetation series and geoseries (ecology, structure, dynamic trajectories, effects of anthropogenic factors on vegetation dynamics, catenal positioning in the landscape) of two Corsican sectors: Cap Corse and Biguglia pond. These two study sites were selected using two methods: * For Cap Corse, the typology and mapping are based on an inductive approach, which seeks to understand the dynamics of vegetation by drawing on the mature, substitutional, pioneering and anthropogenic associations likely to exist within a tessellar envelope. These various dynamic stages characterize "the vegetation series" (sigmetum or synassociation), the fundamental unit of symphytosociology (Gehu 2006; Biondi 2011). The aim of symphytosociology is, therefore, to define the vegetation series; in other words, it seeks to identify the repetitive combinations of syntaxa under homogeneous ecological conditions. * For Biguglia pond, the typology and mapping are based on a deductive approach, which combines (under SIG) the ecological descriptor maps with the vegetation mapping, in order to reveal the tesselas and the natural potential vegetation that underlies them. Thanks to the improvement of GIS techniques, this approach has been frequently used to characterize plant landscapes from vegetation to vegetation geoseries since the 2000s, with applications to the conservation management of natural and semi-natural environments.
A good understanding of the status quo is necessary for the success of efforts to develop and maintain nature in built space. Accordingly, this book conducts an environmental scan of the context of these efforts in global perspective. In particular, it develops and employs a novel environmental scanning model (ESM) designed to rigorously analyze the political, economic, social, technological, ecological, cultural and historical (PESTECH) contexts of initiatives to promote biodiversity in the built environment. The focus is on four specific substantive areas of environmental policy, namely forestry, water, food, and energy. The units of analysis roughly correspond with the major United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) regions of the world, including sub-Saharan Africa, Middle-East and North Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Western Europe, North America, and Latin America and the Caribbean.
This book describes the algorithms, validation and preliminary analysis of the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) products, a long-term, high-quality dataset that is now freely available worldwide to government organizations and agencies, scientific research institutions, students and members of the general public.
The GLASS products include leaf area index, broadband albedo, broadband emissivity, downward shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation. The first three GLASS products cover 1981 to 2012 with 1km and 5km spatial resolutions and 8-day temporal resolution, and the last two GLASS products span 2008 to 2010 with 3-hour temporal resolution and 5km spatial resolution. These GLASS products are unique. The first three are spatially continuous and cover the longest period of time among all current similar satellite products. The other two products are the highest spatial-resolution global radiation products from satellite observations that are currently available.
These products can be downloaded from Beijing Normal University at http: //glass-product.bnu.edu.cn/and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility at http: //www.glcf.umd.edu/
The GLASS productsare the outcome of a key research project entitled Generation & Applications of Global Products of Essential Land Variables, supported by funding from the High-Tech Research and Development Program of China and involving dozens of institutions and nearly one hundred scientists and researchers.Following an introduction, the book contains five chapters corresponding to these five GLASS products: background, algorithm, quality control and validation, preliminary analysis and applications. It discusses the long-term environmental changes detected from the GLASS products and other data sources at both global and local scales and also provides detailed analysis of regional hotspots where environmental changes are mainly associated with climate change, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.
The book is based primarily on a set of published journal papers about these five GLASS products and includes updated information. Since these products have now begun to be widely used, this bookis an essential reference document. It is also a very helpful resource to anyone interested in satellite remote sensing and its applications."
This book argues that legal geography provides new insights into contemporary conservation challenges. Despite unprecedented efforts, we are facing an extinction crisis, and in situ protected area programs are falling short. This book discusses the protected area phenomenon and calls for changes to current approaches, informed by legal geography -an inter-disciplinary area focused on the intertwined people-place-law dynamics that enable, or disable, effective management practices. The book examines two protected area types: World Heritage Sites, where places of 'outstanding universal value' are protected for all humanity, and Ramsar protected wetland sites, one of the first global environmental protection initiatives. Using case studies from the Australasian region (Australia, the Pacific and Southeast Asia), it reveals how current approaches can be improved by taking into account the people-place-law nexus embedded in legal geography research.
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