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This book provides an interdisciplinary overview of the role of gardens in cities throughout different historical periods. It shows that, thanks to various forms of spatial and social organisation, gardens are part of the material urban landscape, biodiversity, symbolic and social shape, and assets of our cities, and are increasingly becoming valued as an 'order' to follow. Gardens have long been part of the development of cities, serving different purposes through the ages: shaping neighborhoods to promote health or hygiene, introducing aesthetic or biological elements, gathering the citizens around a social purpose, and providing food and diversity in times of crisis. Highlighting examples that can serve as the basis for comparisons, the chapters offer a brief panorama of experiences and models of gardens in the city - in the European context and in various periods of history - while also discussing issues related to garden cities, urban agriculture and community gardens. The contributors are university staff from various disciplines in the human and life sciences, in discourse with other academics but also with practitioners who are interested in experiences with urban gardens and in promoting an awareness of their spatial, social and 'philosophical' goals throughout history. The book will appeal to urban geographers, sociologists and historians, but also to urban ecologists dealing with ecosystem services, biodiversity and sustainable development in cities. From a more operational standpoint, landscape planners and architects are sure to find many of the projects enlightening and inspirational.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of pedology in Ireland. It describes the main soil types of the country, their functions, ecological use, and the conditions to which they were subjected associated with management over time. In addition, it presents a complete set of data, pictures and maps, including benchmark profiles. Factors involved in soil formation are also discussed, making use of new, unpublished data and elaborations. The book was produced with the support and sponsorship of Teagasc, The Agriculture and Food Development Authority, Ireland and the Irish Environmental Protection Agency.
This book offers a comprehensive and detailed summary of our knowledge and understanding of glaciers and sets them within a global environment context. The text explains the significance both of recent advances in glaciology, and of teh many research problms that remain to be solved. The accessible style adopted in the text facilitates a clear understanding of glaciers and the role they play in global issues such as environmental change, geoorphology and hydrology. The use of complex mathematics is avoided as the reader is introduced to important concepts and techniques in modern glaciology such as deforming beds, migrating ice-divides and stable isotope analysis. This is an essential reference book for sutdents, professional geologists and researchers and would be ideal for those who want either a rapid up-date or an introduction to the subject. The books' discussion of recent discoveries and of reserch issues for the future, supported by a thorough reference list, enables readers to pursue their own areas of particular interest.
This is the first comprehensive book on the rivers of the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta. This volume covers all aspects of this highly populated region including land conflicts and environmental impacts such as the Indo-Bangladesh conflict over sharing of trans-boundary water. This book addresses the topic from a highly interdisciplinary perspective covering areas of geography, geology, environment, history, archaeology, sociology and politics of the Bengal region. The book appeals to a wide range of audiences from India, Bangladesh and the international community. The style of presentation makes it easily suitable for students, researchers and interested laymen.
This book explains in a didactic way the basic concepts of spectral mixing, digital numbers and orbital sensors, and then presents the linear modelling technique of spectral mixing and the generation of fractional images. In addition to presenting a theoretical basis for spectral mixing, the book provides examples of practical applications such as projects for estimating and monitoring deforested areas in the Amazon. In its seven chapters, the book offers remote sensing techniques to understand the main concepts, methods, and limitations of spectral mixing for digital image processing. Chapter 1 addresses the basic concepts of spectral mixing, while chapters 2 and 3 discuss digital numbers and orbital sensors such as MODIS and Landsat MSS. Chapter 4 details the linear spectral mixing model, and chapter 5 talks about how to use this technique to create fraction images. Chapter 6 offers remote sensing applications of fraction images in deforestation monitoring, burned-area mapping, selective logging detection, and land-use/land-cover mapping. Chapter 7 gives some concluding thoughts on spectral mixing, and considers future uses in environmental remote sensing. This book will be of interest to students, teachers, and researchers using remote sensing for Earth observation and environmental modelling.
This book presents a geographical survey of the Netherlands, reviewing recent and historic developments that made the nation. It is a relatively wealthy country and the Dutch belong to the happiest and healthiest on earth. But these qualities are not evenly spread over the country. The urban agglomeration of Randstad Holland in the west hosts most of the nation's capital and young, well-educated people whereas older and less-educated people are concentrated in the peripheral areas in the north, east and south. Interactions between physical and human geographical aspects of the Netherlands are described quite extensively. Its position on one of Europe's most prominent deltas, its abundance of energy resources and the course of history have all contributed to its present national position and international networks. But early and recent Dutch have also shaped this country. They reclaimed lakes and shallow seas, protected the lowlands against floods, re-allotted land parcels and designed and developed urban areas. Besides its focus on water-related topics, the book also covers social and cultural aspects. The book also discusses future challenges and offers scenarios for solutions. This is a book for those interested in a wide variety of recent aspects of the geography of the Netherlands described in a historical context. It appeals to students and researchers of many disciplines in geography, urban and landscape planning, water management, history and cultural studies.
Were you looking for the book with access to MasteringGeography? This product is the book alone and does NOT come with access to MasteringGeography. Buy the book and access card package to save money on this resource. Continuing Tom L. McKnight's well-known thematic focus on landscape appreciation, Darrel Hess offers a broad survey of all of the physical processes and spatial patterns that create Earth's physical landscape. McKnight's Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation provides a clear writing style, superior art program, and abundant pedagogy to appeal to a wide variety of students. This new edition offers a truly meaningful integration of visualization, technology, the latest applied science, and new pedagogy, providing essential tools and opportunities to teach and engage students in these processes and patterns.
Notwithstanding the importance of modern technology, fieldwork remains vital, not least through helping to inspire and educate the next generation. Fieldwork has the ingredients of intellectual curiosity, passion, rigour and engagement with the outdoor world - to name just a few. You may be simply noting what you see around you, making detailed records, or carrying out an experiment; all of this and much more amounts to fieldwork. Being curious, you think about the world around you, and through patient observation develop and test ideas. Forty contributors capture the excitement and importance of fieldwork through a wide variety of examples, from urban graffiti to the Great Barrier Reef. Outdoor learning is for life: people have the greatest respect and care for their world when they have first-hand experience of it. The Editors are donating all royalties due to them to the environmental charity, The Field Studies Council, to support student fieldwork at the Council's field centres.
Originally published in 1988 Deforestation examines deforestation as a major environmental and development problem. It examines the issues of forests being cut in tropical and mountain areas, and how acid rain, pollution and disease wreak havoc in temperate zones. Some of the worst effects of deforestation have been changes in the world's climate system, erosion and flooding, desertification, wood short-ages and the disappearance of some floral and fauna species. This book challenges the belief that deforestation is due to entirely rapid population growth and agricultural expansion and emphasises the effects of commercial exploitation and poor planning and management. In concludes with a programme for reforestation using agro-forestry, appropriate cottage industries, improved international programmes, local land reforms and community participation.
Originally published in 1990, The Biogeography of the British Isles is devoted to the biogeography of the British Isles and surrounding shelf seas. Bringing together a wealth of diverse information, it is thoroughly referenced and well illustrated, and will be invaluable to students of geography, environmental science, ecology, botany, and zoology. The book traces the development of British biogeography over the last two centuries, examining key topics such as ecosystems, habitats, and niches in the context of plant and animal distribution. The book gives a detailed account of the development of biogeographical mapping and recording systems, and describes modern-day distributions, both in the countryside and in urban areas against the backcloth of human activities.
Originally published in 1975 Terrestrial Environments covers the zoogeography and ecology of the main terrestrial environments of the world, including fresh water habitats with emphasis on their fauna. The book also explores climate and vegetation in so far as they affect animal life. Finally, the selective influence of the environment on its fauna is discussed and, conversely, the influence of regulation, a synthesis of these interrelations. Morphological adaptations of the animals inhabiting various types of terrestrial environments are considered in relation to locomotion, feeding, and escape from enemies. Physiological adaptations are also mentioned briefly, and the adaptative importunate of diurnal and seasonal rhythms is stressed.
This book documents the rich and spectacular heritage of the Australian continent over the last 4400 million years. Now in its third edition, The Geology of Australia provides a comprehensive overview of Australia's geology, landscapes and Earth resources. Beginning with the Precambrian rocks that hold clues to the origins of life and the development of an oxygenated atmosphere, it goes on to cover the warm seas, volcanism and episodes of mountain building that formed the eastern third of the Australian continent. This illuminating history details the breakup of the supercontinents Rodinia and Gondwana, the times of previous glaciations, the development of climates and landscapes in modern Australia, and the creation of the continental shelves and coastlines. This third edition features two new chapters on geological time and Paleozoic orogenic rock systems and mountain building, and new and updated illustrations and full-colour images.
This book addresses the various challenges in achieving sustainable groundwater development, management, and planning in semi-arid regions, with a focus on India, and discusses advanced remote sensing and GIS techniques for the estimation and management of groundwater resources. The book is timely as there is a need for a better understanding of the various tools and methods required to efficiently and sustainably meet the growing demand for clean surface and groundwater in developing countries, and how these tools can be combined with other strategies in a multi-disciplinary fashion to achieve this goal in water-scarce regions. To wit, the book combines remote sensing and GIS techniques, runoff modeling, aquifer mapping, land use and land cover analyses, evapotranspiration estimation, crop coefficients, and water policy approaches. This will be of use to academics, policymakers, social scientists, and professionals involved in the various aspects of sustainable groundwater development, planning, and management.
This volume presents a collection of articles which offer different perspectives for archaeological pottery studies, regarding the understanding of pre-Hispanic social practices in Quebrada de Humahuaca, Argentina. The aim of this volume is to contribute to Quebrada de Humahuaca archaeological knowledge and its inclusion in current discussions about Andean and worldwide history of pottery production. In 2003, Quebrada de Humahuaca was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Numerous tracks, roads and settlements testify to its pre-Hispanic and post pre-Hispanic history from pre-ceramic to colonial times. Due to its strategic position Quebrada de Humahuaca has been colonized by both the Inca and the Spaniards. It also has been a stage for many battles of the Argentine War of Independence. The richness and abundance of ceramic material evidence in the landscape of the Quebrada de Humahuaca has provided archaeologists information about human behaviour and social practices both in every and ritual activities. Quebrada de Humahuaca, in the province of Jujuy (the northernmost sector of Argentina) is one of the most widely recognized archaeological zones and one of the most widely studied. Through extensive excavations of the most conspicuous settlements, archaeologists managed to characterize these pre-Hispanic agricultural societies and construct chronologies of northwestern Argentina, and to elaborate models of trans-Andean population dynamics.
Did you know that there are more than 60 active volcanoes in Europe today? Or that the longest-existing lava lake is in Ethiopia? Or that Mount Stromboli off the coast of Italy has been in almost continuous eruption for the past 2000 years? Illustrated with 200 spectacular photographs, Volcano is a fascinating visual journey around the globe, selecting the most striking live and extinct volcanoes from Alaska to Antarctica, from Tanzania to Tasmania, from Kamchatka in Russia's far east to Indonesia and the Philippines. Alongside famous volcanoes such as Mount Etna in Sicily, Mount Vesuvius on the Italian mainland and Mount St Helens in Washington State, the book features many lesser known but equally interesting volcanoes across all the continents. Each entry is accompanied with a fascinating caption explaining not only the geological forces at work, but also how the volcano has shaped the history of the surrounding areas across millennia. Presented in a landscape format and with more than 190 outstanding colour photographs of around 100 entries, Volcano is a stunning collection of images.
In the quarter-century since his first book, Killing the Hidden Waters, was published in 1977, Charles Bowden has become one of the premier writers on the American environment, rousing a generation of readers to both the wonder and the tragedy of humanity's relationship with the land. Revisiting his earliest work with a new introduction, "What I Learned Watching the Wells Go Down," Bowden looks back at his first effort to awaken people to the costs and limits of using natural resources through a simple and obvious example-water. He drives home the point that years of droughts, rationing, and even water wars have done nothing to slake the insatiable consumption of water in the American West. Even more timely now than in 1977, Killing the Hidden Waters remains, in Edward Abbey's words, "the best all-around summary I've read yet, anywhere, of how our greed-driven, ever-expanding urban-industrial empire is consuming, wasting, poisoning, and destroying not only the resource basis of its own existence, but also the vital, sustaining basis of life everywhere."
This volume provides a textbook and reference work on the physical and biotic landscapes of Southern Africa. It examines the links between these environments and the ways in which they have been, are and will likely be subject to change. It covers the geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use across a range of landscapes, including mountains, coasts, savannah, drylands and wetlands, and identifies the impacts of current and potential climate change and other factors on these environments. The geographical focus is on the region defined by Namibia, South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Swaziland. Illustrated throughout in full colour, the book will serve as a reference volume for researchers and environmental professionals internationally, as well as a textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate-level students of geography, ecology and environmental studies in Southern Africa.
First published in 1966 these collected papers, written by the distinguished and visionary climatologist Hubert H. Lamb, describe how climates come about and give a history of climatic changes from the last ice-age to the 1960s.
First published in 1988, this is a reissue of a groundbreaking collection of essays written by Hubert Lamb, one of the world's foremost experts on weather and climate and a uniquely authoritative voice in the history of climatology. Hubert Lamb is able to provide a mature assessment of the effect of weather on people, and vice versa. His is a uniquely authoritative voice in the current debates about today's environment and the prospects for the future.
After a general introduction the book is divided into three parts. The first part consists of a chronological series of portraits of climate and its impact on human affairs and the environment. These extend from the warm climates of the geological past to the current drought in Africa. There are several studies of the last few centuries and, in particular, of the various effects of the so-called ?little Ice Age?. The second part is concerned with the causes and mechanisms of climate and weather changes, including chapters discussing Christmas weather, fronts and volcanoes. In the final part Hubert Lamb looks to the future, and attempts to put into perspective some of the pessimistic forecasts currently available. The text, which is consistently authoritative but always readable, is augmented by numerous maps, diagrams and photographs.
Physical Geography: The Basics is a concise and engaging introduction to the interactions, systems and processes that have shaped, and continue to shape, the physical world around us. This book introduces five key aspects of the study of physical geography:
The book features diagrams, maps and a glossary to aid understanding of key ideas and suggestions for further reading to allow readers to develop their interest in the subject a " making Physical Geography: The Basics the ideal starting point for anyone new to the study of geography and the environment.
As climate disruption intensifies the world over, Californians are finding solutions across a diversity of communities and landscapes. Though climate change is a global existential threat, we cannot wait for nation-states to solve the problem when there are actions we can take now to protect our own communities. In Climate Stewardship: Taking Collective Action to Protect California, readers are invited on a journey to discover that all life is interconnected and shaped by climate and to learn how communities can help tackle climate change. Climate Stewardship shares stories from everyday people and shows how their actions enhance the resilience of communities and ecosystems across ten distinct bioregions. Climate science that justifies these actions is woven throughout, making it easy to learn about Earth's complex systems. The authors interpret and communicate these stories in a way that is enjoyable, inspiring, and even amusing. California is uniquely positioned to develop and implement novel solutions to widespread climate challenges, owing to the state's remarkable biogeographic diversity and robust public science programs. Produced in collaboration with the UC California Naturalist Program, Climate Stewardship focuses on regenerative approaches to energy, agriculture, and land and water use across forested, agricultural, and urban landscapes. The authors' hopeful and encouraging tone aims to help readers develop a sense that they, too, can act now to make meaningful change in their communities.
For Introductory Physical Geography Courses Among the most highly regarded in physical geography, Robert Christopherson's bestselling texts are known for their meticulous attention to detail, currency, accuracy, and rich integration of climate change science. Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography, Ninth Edition is uniquely organized to present Earth systems topics as they naturally occur: atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. This interconnected and organic systems-based approach is highlighted in the strong pedagogical tools, structured learning path, and up-to-date information found in the text. This new edition presents bold new features that cultivate an active learning environment both in and outside the classroom. The Ninth Edition can be made available with MasteringGeography(TM), the most effective and widely used online tutorial, homework, and assessment system for the sciences. Note: You are purchasing a standalone product; MasteringGeography does not come packaged with this content. MasteringGeography is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.MasteringGeography will provide an interactive and engaging learning experience for your students. Here's how: *Personalize learning with MasteringGeography: MasteringGeography provides students with engaging and interactive experiences that coach them through introductory physical geography with specific wrong-answer feedback, hints, and a wide variety of educationally effective content. *Leverage strong pedagogical tools and a structured active learning path: The text reinforces central hallmark physical geography themes of Earth systems, human-Earth relations, and global climate change by providing a consistent framework for mastering chapter concepts. *Teach with current and relevant content. An emphasis on currency provides students with compelling reasons for learning physical geography.
The book informs about agricultural landscapes, their features, functions and regulatory mechanisms. It characterizes agricultural production systems, trends of their development, and their impacts on the landscape. Agricultural landscapes are multifunctional systems, coupled with all nexus problems of the 21th century. This has led to serious discrepancies between agriculture and environment, and between urban and rural population. The mission, key topics and methods of research in order to understanding, monitoring and controlling processes in rural landscapes is being explained. Studies of international expert teams, many of them from Russia, demonstrate approaches towards both improving agricultural productivity and sustainability, and enhancing ecosystem services of agricultural landscapes. Scientists of different disciplines, decision makers, farmers and further informed people dealing with the evolvement of thriving rural landscapes are the primary audience of this book.
The American landscape is an extremely complex terrain born from a history of collective and individual experiences. These created environments, which all may be called metropolitan landscapes, constantly challenge students and professionals in the fields of architecture, design and planning to consider new ways of making lively public places. This book brings together varied voices in urban design theory and practice to explore new ways of understanding place and our position in it.
This is the only textbook that fully supports the OxfordAQA International A Level Physical Geography specification (9635), for first teaching from September 2018. It enables students to develop a broad knowledge and understanding of a wide range of physical geography topics, such as living with hazards and ecosystems under stress, and encourages them to link learning to real-life with relevant, up-to-date examples and case studies from around the world. It also hones the map work, enquiry and data analysis skills required for university study with focused practice, whilst a dedicated fieldwork chapter helps students to develop competence and confidence in practical, mathematical and problem-solving skills. Includes one print textbook and one online textbook. The online textbook license can be accessed on a wide range of devices and is valid until [31st December 2027], for use by one student or teacher. Your first login will be sent to you in the mail on a printed access card.
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