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Responding to the developments of the past 20 years, Les Kirkup has thoroughly updated his popular book on experimental methods, while retaining the extensive coverage and practical advice from the first edition. Many topics from that edition remain, including keeping a record of work, how to deal with measurement uncertainties, understanding the statistical basis of data analysis and reporting the results of experiments. However, with new technologies influencing how experiments are devised, carried out, analyzed, presented and reported, this new edition reflects the digital changes which have taken place and the increased emphasis on the importance of communication skills in reporting results. Bringing together key elements of experimental methods into one coherent book, it is perfect for students seeking guidance with their experimental work, including how to acquire, analyse and present data. Exercises, worked examples and end-of-chapter problems are provided throughout the book to reinforce fundamental principles.
Production equipment for microelectronics, MEMS, and nanotechnology cannot function without vibration isolation. Process plant, power generation machinery, oil, gas, and petrochemical equipment are all subject to vibration. This vibration causes a range of problems and headaches for the engineer that can lead to failure of equipment, downtime, and extra maintenance costs. Isolating vibration and ameliorating it is vital. This valuable and well written text provides a comprehensive treatment of the principles of design and means for realization of passive vibration isolation systems for real life objects. A special emphasis is given to effective techniques and methods that are not yet widely used in the practice of vibration isolation in industry. It is written with practitioners in mind and many of the problems addressed and the solutions presented are relevant not only to the isolation of stationary sensitive equipment but also to civil engineering and transport applications. The contents include: Inertia and geometric properties of typical machines and other mechanical devices; Dynamics of single degreeof freedom vibration isolation system; Vibration isolation system under random excitation; Isolation of vibration sensitive objects; Vibration isolation systems -isolation requirements for vibration producing objects; Engine and machinery mounting in vehicles; Elasto damping materials (EDM); High damping metals; Material selection for vibration isolators; Vibration isolators with metal flexible elements; High angular stiffness and anisotropic vibration isolation systems; Pneumatic isolators; and Power transmission couplings.
The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operation, and maintenance Data quality assessment Methods to use measured data to estimate irradiance for any surface With a broad range of content that will benefit students and more experienced readers alike, this resource serves as a primer and technical reference that presents the basic terminology and fundamentals for resource assessment. It explores the history of solar radiation instruments and addresses direct normal, global, diffuse, and tilted measurements, as well as the characteristics of instruments used for these measurements. The authors consider methods of assessing the uncertainty of solar measurements and then cover albedo, infrared, net, and spectral irradiance measurements and instrumentation. The book devotes a section to other meteorological instruments, and another to the basics for installing and operating a solar monitoring station. Appendices include information on solar resource assessment modeling and satellite-derived irradiance, along with other useful material. This book's authors are experts who each have more than 30 years of experience developing and operating multiple measurement stations, working with industry to improve radiometry, and conducting various research projects.
Nonlinear Filtering covers linear and nonlinear filtering in a comprehensive manner, with appropriate theoretic and practical development. Aspects of modeling, estimation, recursive filtering, linear filtering, and nonlinear filtering are presented with appropriate and sufficient mathematics. A modeling-control-system approach is used when applicable, and detailed practical applications are presented to elucidate the analysis and filtering concepts. MATLAB routines are included, and examples from a wide range of engineering applications - including aerospace, automated manufacturing, robotics, and advanced control systems - are referenced throughout the text.
Both the demographics and lack of resources in the health and well-being industry are increasingly forcing us to find alternative solutions for individualized health and social care. In an effort to address this issue, smart technologies present enormous potential in solving this challenge. This book strives to enhance communication and collaboration between technology and health and social care sectors. The reader will receive an extensive overview of the possibilities of various technologies in care sectors (including ICT, electronics, automation, and sensor technology) written by experts from various countries. It will prove extremely useful for engineers developing well-being related systems, software, or other devices that can be used by professionals working with people with specialist needs, well-being and health service providers, educators teaching related courses, and upper level undergraduate students and graduate student studying related topics. The technology focus of the book is widespread and addresses elderly care and hospitals, in addition to solutions for various user groups, devices, and technologies. Beyond serving as a resource for nurses and people working in care sector, the book is also meant to give guidelines for engineers developing person-centered systems by exploring the integration of these technologies into service systems.
Covering all aspects of the subject, Signal Recovery from Noise in Electronic Instrumentation, Second Edition examines the interference involved with instruments that employ electronic techniques to measure physical quantities, including random fluctuations from thermal or background sources and systematic signal drift or offset. In the case of random noise, the book fully analyzes 1/f as well as white noise. It also discusses the theory and practice of baseline correction, low-pass filtering, multiple time averaging, and phase-sensitive detection. The author explores the best way of measuring the amplitude or the time of occurrence of a signal of known shape. New to this edition are an additional chapter, frequency measurement, and tutorial questions with answers to test understanding of the subject matter. This book will be indispensable to advanced electronics undergraduates, nonspecialist postgraduates using electronic instrumentation, and applied scientists.
The course of Machine Elements or Machine Design is one of the most fundamental that students take. It focuses on single components of machines in isolation, but does not frame them in the context of broader assemblies. Existing textbooks used for these courses likewise give very little attention to assemblies, and to the order in which the various machine elements are presented. These texts also contain a considerable amount of supplemental materials that are prerequisites for the course, but are not actually taught in the course. The result is that the books are bloated (often about 1,000 pages or more), and quite expensive. Over Michael Spektor's illustrious career in industry and academia, he has searched for a better resource from which to teach his students, and a way to improve current texts to better reflect the proper structure of how machine elements are presented, and introduce the calculations and design considerations necessary for creating assemblies. The result is this textbook, which is the first text available to students of the course Machine Design (also called Machine Elements) that truly prepares them to meet industry challenges by accelerating their introduction to solving real-life engineering programs. Machine Design Elements and Assemblies methodically describes the material in a way that broadens and deepens the engineering knowledge related to the design of mechanical systems, in a much more concise, less expensive package. FEATURES: The sequence used in the book allows students to address not just the design peculiarities of a single element, but also the design considerations of an assembly. Each chapter involves an element that supports the previous chapter, creating a simple assembly, and more and more complex assembly as the student delves further into the book. This resembles the work of actual engineers in practice. Examples and problems solved in each chapter support this structure as well, resembling typical real-life projects in industry. An affiliated website boasts hundreds of additional examples and problems for students and instructors.
Completely revised and reorganized while retaining the approachable style of the first edition, Infrared Detectors, Second Edition addresses the latest developments in the science and technology of infrared (IR) detection. Antoni Rogalski, an internationally recognized pioneer in the field, covers the comprehensive range of subjects necessary to understand modern IR detector theory and technology. He presents each topic with a brief summary of historical background followed by summary of principles underlying performance, an overview of properties, and analysis of the state of the art. Divided into four sections, the book covers fundaments of IR detection, IR thermal detectors, IR photon detectors, and focal plane arrays. It begins with a tutorial introduction to essential of different types of IR detectors and systems. The author explores the theory and technology of different thermal detectors and then moves on to the theory and technology of photon detectors. He concludes his treatment with a discussion of IR focal plane arrays where relations between performance of detector array and infrared system quality are considered. New to the Second Edition: Fundamentals of IR detection, radiometry, and flux-transfer issues needed for IR detector and system analysis Major achievements and trends in the development of IR detectors Novel uncooled detectors such as cantilever, antenna, and optically coupled detectors Type II superlattice detectors Quantum dot IR detectors Terahertz (THz) arrays and new generation of IR detectors, so-called third generation detectors The author accomplishes the difficult task of making the information accessible to a wide readership. A comprehensive analysis of the latest developments in IR detector technology and basic insight into the fundamental processes important to evolving detection techniques, the book provides the most complete and up-to-date resource of its kind, including a summary of useful data, guide to the literature, and overview of applications.
Fundamental to the control of mechatronic devices, the servomechanism applies feedback from the device in question to regulate its position, velocity, or some other physical attribute. Successful mastery of servo control requires an understanding of a wide range of engineering disciplines, making it difficult and time-consuming to master it all-and even harder to find an all-encompassing guide that shows you how. DC Servos: Application and Design with MATLAB (R) is designed and written with this problem in mind. It breaks down the practical knowledge required from the various branches of applied science-electrical and mechanical engineering, analog electronics, mechanics, control theory, digital electronics, embedded computing, and firmware design-into a cohesive and usable framework. Today, DC servos are working around the world in countless applications-CD players, ink-jet printers, robots, machining centers, vending machines, eyeglass manufacturing machines, home appliances, and automotive seat positioners, just to name a few. This book balances coverage of theoretical and practical aspects of application and design of DC servomechanisms. It also provides detailed coverage of feedback transducers, particularly the application of optical encoders to real systems. It covers how to use the MATLAB (R) Control System Toolbox specifically for servo design, to make the design process faster and more interactive. It also presents two complete, bench-tested reference designs that can be duplicated using readily available parts, so you can build your own servo and see it in action. Author Stephen M. Tobin is an expert in motion control and electro-optical instrumentation and a respected consultant in the medical device and manufacturing automation communities. In order to instill confidence in the engineers, scientists, students, and hobbyists designing the ever more complex machines of the 21st century, Tobin guides the reader on a short journey through "servo school," imparting his lifelong passion for motion control along the way.
The Instrument and Automation Engineers' Handbook (IAEH) is the #1 process automation handbook in the world. Volume one of the Fifth Edition, Measurement and Safety, covers safety sensors and the detectors of physical properties. Measurement and Safety is an invaluable resource that: * Describes the detectors used in the measurement of process variables * Offers application- and method-specific guidance for choosing the best measurement device * Provides tables of detector capabilities and other practical information at a glance * Contains detailed descriptions of domestic and overseas products, their features, capabilities, and suppliers, including suppliers' web addresses Complete with 163 alphabetized chapters and a thorough index for quick access to specific information, Measurement and Safety is a must-have reference for instrument and automation engineers working in the chemical, oil/gas, pharmaceutical, pollution, energy, plastics, paper, wastewater, food, etc. industries. About the eBook The most important new feature of the IAEH, Fifth Edition is its availability as an eBook. The eBook provides the same content as the print edition, with the addition of thousands of web addresses so that readers can reach suppliers or reference books and articles on the hundreds of topics covered in the handbook. This feature includes a complete bidders' list that allows readers to issue their specifications for competitive bids from any or all potential product suppliers.
A significant and convenient approach to detection and analysis of biological, environmental and agricultural items is the harnessing of features in widely available smartphones to create field-deployable scientific instruments, allowing measurements to be made onsite and in real-time. This book will cover a number of self-contained smartphone instruments with the particular focus on spectroscopic-based measurements. Measurement and analysis on precision of such low-cost instrumentations are provided to compare with more expensive commercial equipment. This book also discusses some limitations, possible recommendations and scopes for further instrumentations using smartphones and other smart devices. Particularly, the opportunity to integrate the devices into the global Internet-of-Things (IoT) platform will be discussed. Researchers and instrumentation designers in optical and photonic sensing, smart and IoT-based sensing, biological and environmental analysts, agricultural, and food quality researchers (and public health authorities) will find this book useful as reference. Students in science and engineering disciplines for teaching and educational purposes will also find this book useful as a secondary textbook.
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This book is a compilation of selected papers from the 3rd International Symposium on Software Reliability, Industrial Safety, Cyber Security and Physical Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, held in Harbin, China on 15th-17th August 2018. The symposium discussed the status quo, technical advances and development direction of digital instrument control technology, software reliability, information security and physical protection in the process of nuclear power development. Offering technical insights and know from leading experts, this book is a valuable resource for both practitioners and academics working in the field of nuclear instrumentation, control systems and other safety-critical systems, as well as nuclear power plant managers, public officials, and regulatory authorities.
Going beyond the traditional field of robotics to include other mobile vehicles, Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems describes important theoretical concepts, techniques, approaches, and applications that can be used to build truly mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS). It offers a comprehensive treatment of robotics and MIAS, as well as related disciplines, helping readers understand the subject from a system-theoretic and practical point of view. Organized into three sections, the book progresses from conceptual foundations to MIAS and robotics systems and then examines allied technologies. With an emphasis on recent research and developments, experts from various fields cover key aspects of this rapidly emerging area, including:
Where relevant, concepts and theories are illustrated with block/flow diagrams and numerical simulations in MATLAB . An integrated exploration of the theory and practice of MIAS and robotics, this is a valuable reference and recipe book for research and industry.
This book offers professionals and students a comprehensive overview of GPS signal acquisitions, measurements, and algorithms for estimation of dynamic programming, quality control, and filtering methods. This book discusses in-depth GPS signal transmissions, transmission procedures and calculation algorithms, using GPS positioning location data for empirical research to elucidate various dimensions of spatial phenomenon which is different from previously published books. This book also focuses on how to conduct empirical research with GPS collected data to contribute discipline theory and concepts in different domains. The book is divided into three parts. Part I introduces debates about measurements of GPS signal structure, including acquisition time, validity based on various tested GPS units, quality control of real-time positioning, data characteristics of probed density, average time, and signal disturbance of message distribution such as noise and inaccuracy positioning. Part II describes applications of GPS positioning data for monitoring analysis, movement analysis, spatial analysis and clustering analysis. Part III presents GPS sources of error and biases by discussing the technology of positioning location for underwater positioning, and clarifying the accuracy of digital maps to positioning systems for vehicle positioning. This book brings together a team of leading experts who perform a creative and empirical research of Global Positioning Systems. The book aims to share all the latest advances in systems, methods and application of GPS positioning with the readers. The topics in this book cover an integrated overview of GPS conceptions, an in-depth realisation of advanced application, and the emerging trends in GPS research.
This book provides sensible, practical assistance on pressure equipment. European Pressure Equipment has been written using the day-to-day practical experience of pressure vessel users, manufacturers and suppliers for specifiers, and users of pressure equipment. It has been compiled to provide practical information about all aspects of design, selection and use. The book is aimed at everyone who has technical problems as well as those wanting to know more about pressure equipment and the Pressure Equipment Directive (PED), and also those who want to know who supplies what, and from where in Europe. Aimed at users of pressure vessels in industries such as the power, oil, petrochemical, chemical, pharmaceutical, food, utility and other industries, and also those involved in the specifying and purchasing of pressure vessels and ancillary equipment. The book will of course be of considerable use to designers and manufacturers. Content include: General - Legislation and standards - Specification of pressure vessels - Design - Manufacture - Inspection and testing - Installation, maintenance and in-service inspection - Units and conversions and materials data - Useful terms translated - Classification guide to manufacturers and suppliers - Reference index
The second edition of a bestseller, Design Controls for the Medical Device Industry provides a comprehensive review of the latest design control requirements, as well as proven tools and techniques to ensure your company's design control program evolves in accordance with current industry practice. The text assists in the development of an effective design control program that not only satisfies the US FDA Quality System Regulation (QSR) and ISO 9001 and 13485 standards, but also meets today's third-party auditor/investigator expectations and saves you valuable time and money. The author's continual participation in FDA QSR inspections and Notified Body ISO audits is reflected in updates to all chapters and appendices of the book, now bursting at the seams with: New coverage of ISO 9001 and 13485 design control requirements More real-world examples from the medical device industry Additional detail for greater understanding and clarity Fresh templates for practical implementation Extensive references for further study The book addresses design control elements such as design planning, input, output, review, verification, validation, change, transfer, and history, as well as risk management inclusive of human factors and usability, biocompatibility, the FDA Quality System Inspection Technique (QSIT) for design controls, and medical device regulations and classes in the US, Canada, and Europe.
The goal of the book is to provide basic and advanced knowledge of design, analysis, and circuit implementation for electronic instrumentation and clarify how to get the best out of the analog, digital, and computer circuitry design steps. The reader will learn the physical fundamentals guiding the electrical and mechanical devices that allow for a modern automation and control system, which are widely comprised of computers, electronic instrumentation, communication loops, smart grids, and digital circuitry. It includes practical and technical data on electronic instrumentation with respect to efficiency, maximum power, and applications. Additionally, the text discusses fuzzy logic and neural networks and how they can be used in practice for electronic instrumentation of distributed generation, smart grids, and power systems.
The Instrument and Automation Engineers' Handbook (IAEH) is the #1 process automation handbook in the world. Volume two of the Fifth Edition, Analysis and Analyzers, describes the measurement of such analytical properties as composition. Analysis and Analyzers is an invaluable resource that describes the availability, features, capabilities, and selection of analyzers used for determining the quality and compositions of liquid, gas, and solid products in many processing industries. It is the first time that a separate volume is devoted to analyzers in the IAEH. This is because, by converting the handbook into an international one, the coverage of analyzers has almost doubled since the last edition. Analysis and Analyzers: Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various process analyzer designs Offers application- and method-specific guidance for choosing the best analyzer Provides tables of analyzer capabilities and other practical information at a glance Contains detailed descriptions of domestic and overseas products, their features, capabilities, and suppliers, including suppliers' web addresses Complete with 82 alphabetized chapters and a thorough index for quick access to specific information, Analysis and Analyzers is a must-have reference for instrument and automation engineers working in the chemical, oil/gas, pharmaceutical, pollution, energy, plastics, paper, wastewater, food, etc. industries. About the eBook The most important new feature of the IAEH, Fifth Edition is its availability as an eBook. The eBook provides the same content as the print edition, with the addition of thousands of web addresses so that readers can reach suppliers or reference books and articles on the hundreds of topics covered in the handbook. This feature includes a complete bidders' list that allows readers to issue their specifications for competitive bids from any or all potential product suppliers.
Upconversion denotes the process of absorption of two or more photons followed by the emission of one photon with more energy than the individual energies of each of the previously absorbed photons. The manifold applications for upconverter materials range from bioimaging via theranostics to lasers. This work is concerned with upconversion in materials based on rare-earth ions in regard to the harvesting of solar energy. Due to upconversion the otherwise unused sub-band-gap photons in the solar spectrum can be utilized to increase the efficiency of solar cells. This work adds substantial progress to model, make, and measure upconverter materials and upconverter solar cell devices. In particular, core-shell upconverter nanocrystals as well as microcrystalline upconverter materials were investigated concerning their upconversion quantum yield as a function various parameters. Furthermore, upconverter solar cell devices were characterized especially using the radiation from a solar simulator and from the sun in an outdoor experiment. Record values were reached for the efficiency enhancement in a silicon solar cell due to upconversion of sub-band-gap photons.
Introduction to PCM Telemetering Systems, Third Edition summarizes the techniques and terminology used in sending data and control information between users and the instruments that collect and process the data. Fully revised, it gives an overall systems introduction to the relevant topics in three primary areas: system interfaces; data transport, timing, and synchronization; and data transmission techniques. Integrating relevant information about the process at all levels from the user interface down to the transmission channel, this will also include how designers apply relevant industry and government standards at each level in this process. Homework problems are included at the end of each chapter.
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