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Reviews actual events and case studies that chronicle the evolution of safety precautions, the establishment of emergency planning requirements, and the design of advanced warning and control systems This authoritative reference/text analyzes health and hazard risk assessment in commercial, industrial, and refining industries-emphasizing legal requirements, emergency planning and response, safety equipment, process implementation, and occupational and environmental protection exposure guidelines. Presents applications and calculations for risk analysis of real systems, as well as numerous end-of-chapter examples and references Containing practical process diagrams for plant equipment, valves, piping, and control systems, Health, Safety, and Accident Management in the Chemical Process Industries covers laws for disaster planning by federal, state, and local governments the implementation of safeguards in chemical process design proper plant operation when using reactors, mass transfer units, heat exchangers, and ancillary devices the physical and chemical properties and health effects of chlorine, ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, sulfuric acid, and ethylene dose-response evaluation and risk characterization and more Offering system checklists as well as effective evacuation procedures, Health, Safety, and Accident Management in the Chemical Process Industries is an invaluable resource for chemical, industrial, manufacturing, and environmental engineers; public safety, human services, and health care managers and administrators; social workers; and public policy specialists; and an ideal text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
This work discusses the latest innovations in the manufacture of wood adhesives, and shows how to test their composition. Methods of varying parameters to obtain particular effects are explained, and background summaries of each class of adhesives are provided.
Bridging the gap between laboratory observations and industrial practices, this work presents detailed information on recombinant micro-organisms and their applications in industry and agriculture. All recombinant microbes, bacteria, yeasts and fungi are covered.
Showing how to apply the theoretical knowledge in practice, the one and only compilation of electrochemical experiments on the market now in a new edition. Maintaining its didactic approach, this successful textbook provides clear and easy-to-follow instructions for carrying out the experiments, illustrating the most important principles and applications in modern electrochemistry, while pointing out the potential dangers and risks involved. This second edition contains approximately 25% new material and 20 new experiments, many of which cover electrochemical energy conversion and storage as well as electrochemical equilibrium. With a foreword by R. Daniel Little.
This highly illustrated reference work covers the three principal types of surface technologies that best protect engineering devices and products: diffusion technologies, deposition technologies, and other less commonly acknowledged surface engineering (SE) techniques. Various applications are noted throughout the text and additionally whole chapters are devoted to specific SE applications across the automotive, gas turbine engine (GTE), metal machining, and biomedical implant sectors. Along with the benefits of SE, this volume also critically examines SE's limitations. Materials degradation pathways - those which can and those which cannot be mitigated by SE - are rigorously explained. Written from a scientific, materials engineering perspective, this concise text is supported by high-quality images and photo-micrographs which show how surfaces can be engineered to overcome the limits of conventionally produced materials, even in complex or hostile operating environments. This book is a useful resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as professional engineers.
Offering comprehensive coverage of this hot topic, this two-volume handbook and ready reference treats a wide range of important aspects, from synthesis and catalytic properties of carbon materials to their applications as metal-free catalysts in various important reactions and industrial processes. Following a look at recent advances in the development of carbon materials as carbon-based metal-free catalysts, subsequent sections deal with a mechanistic understanding for the molecular design of efficient carbon-based metal-free catalysts, with a special emphasis on heteroatom-doped carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite. Examples of important catalytic processes covered include clean energy conversion and storage, environmental protection, and synthetic chemistry. With contributions from world-leading scientists, this is an indispensable source of information for academic and industrial researchers in catalysis, green chemistry, electrochemistry, materials science, nanotechnology, energy technology, and chemical engineering, as well as graduates and scientists entering the field.
In April 2013, about 30 tons of ammonium nitrate fertiliser detonated during a fire at a facility in West, Texas, killing at least 14 people and damaging nearby schools, homes, and a nursing home. This incident raised concerns about the risks posed by similar facilities across the country. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) play a central role in protecting workers and communities from chemical accidents, and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) administers a chemical facility security program. This book addresses how many facilities have ammonium nitrate in the United States; how OSHA and EPA regulate and oversee facilities that have ammonium nitrate; and what approaches selected other countries have adopted for regulating and overseeing facilities with ammonium nitrate. It also focuses on some of the federal regulatory programs overseeing storage of ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia by retailers.
"Natural Products in the Chemical Industry" is not a conventional textbook, but rather an invitation to join an entertaining journey that takes you into the fascinating world of natural products. This book features diverse compound classes from a number of areas: colourants, fragrances and flavourings, amino acids, pharmaceuticals, hormones, vitamins and agrochemicals. Whether you are a teacher or a scholar, an undergraduate or graduate student, a professional chemist in industry or academia, or someone just interested in natural sciences, this book allows you to be inspired and entertained by facts and information along with enjoyable anecdotes, historical, economic, political, biological and social considerations. Experts in the field can have a pleasurable time cruising through captivating synthesis methods, which enable the generation of complex molecules on industrial scale.
. deals with the manufacturing of larger quantities of complex molecules (asymmetric and heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic structures, macrocycles and small rings)
. displays all reaction schemes in colour, which makes them easy to read
. highlights aesthetics and elegance in modern industrial organic chemistry"
Teaching the fundamental knowledge required for successful
dispersion of powders in a liquid, this book covers a host of
topics -- from recent advances to industrial applications.
Focusing on current and future uses of microbes as production organisms, this practice-oriented textbook complements traditional texts on microbiology and biotechnology. The editors have brought together leading researchers and professionals from the entire field of industrial microbiology and together they adopt a modern approach to a well-known subject. Following a brief introduction to the technology of microbial processes, the twelve most important application areas for microbial technology are described, from crude bulk chemicals to such highly refined biomolecules as enzymes and antibodies, to the use of microbes in the leaching of minerals and for the treatment of municipal and industrial waste. In line with their application-oriented topic, the authors focus on the "translation" of basic research into industrial processes and cite numerous successful examples. The result is a first-hand account of the state of the industry and the future potential for microbes in industrial processes. Interested students of biotechnology, bioengineering, microbiology and related disciplines will find this a highly useful and much consulted companion, while instructors can use the case studies and examples to add value to their teaching.
Featuring case studies and worked examples that illustrate key concepts in the text, this book contains guidelines for scaleup of laboratory and pilot plant results, methods to derive the correct reaction order, activation energy, or kinetic model from laboratory tests, and theories, correlations, and practical examples for 2- and 3-phase reaction systems, including bubble columns, slurry reactions, trickle-led reactors, and fluidized beds. A comprehensive reference, the book offers strategies to analyze and interpret kinetic data for homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, practical design procedures, rate equations, and analytical models for improved reactor performance.
This book provides readers with a one-stop entry into the chemistry of varied hybrids and applications, from a molecular synthetic standpoint
- Describes introduction and effect of organic structures on specific support components (carbon-based materials, proteins, metals, and polymers).- Chapters cover hot topics including nanodiamonds, nanocrystals, metal-organic frameworks, peptide bioconjugates, and chemoselective protein modification- Describes analytical techniques, with pros and cons, to validate synthetic strategies - Edited by internationally-recognized chemists from different backgrounds (synthetic polymer chemistry, inorganic surfaces and particles, and synthetic organic chemistry) to pull together diverse perspectives and approaches
The book describes the science and technology of formulation and manufacturing of non-nitroglycerine explosives with ammonium nitrate as the main ingredient. Based on the author's industry experience of more than thirty years, it provides an unparalleled treatment of one of the commercially most important classes of explosives and therefore stimulates further research and development efforts in the field of explosives for civil applications.
This long-awaited, revised and updated reference/text combines a thorough description of the origin and application of fundamental chemical kinetics through an assessment of realistic reactor problems with an expanded discussion of kinetics and its relation to chemical thermodynamics. Provides exercises of gradiating difficulty that range from simple applications of equations and concepts developed in the text to open-ended situations drawing on creative thinking Adds a host of worked-out illustrations and a notation list after each chapter, reinforcing important concepts Retaining the careful organization and logical progression of ideas that characterized the first edition, the Second Edition of Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design clarifies chain and polymerization reactions in greater depth contains new material on microbial and enzyme kinetics and adsorption-desorption theory streamlines the presentation of the derivations arising from the kinetic theory of gases addresses transport effect in catalytic reactions explains gas-solid noncatalytic reactions covers the development of two-phase reactor theory based on plug flow, mixing cell, and dispersion models introduces theory and design of fluid slurry and trickle beds examines catalyst deactivation phenomena, ion exchange, and chromatographic reactors and more Including over 1450 equations for developing rational chemical reactor designs and analysis models, the Second Edition of Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design is an excellent reference for chemical, mechanical, petroleum, plant, process, civil, and design engineers, and an ideal text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
Discusses the laboratory and industrial synthesis of nonionic surfactants. Furnishes exhaustive coverage of the most recent advances in nonionic surfactant organic chemistry. Analyzes a novel class of catalysts for the production of surfactants with highly narrow distributions.
Providing comprehensive, up-to-the minute discussions of all aspects that relate to the physical and chemical properties, manufacture, and industrial uses of biosurfactants, this important new reference offers first-hand accounts of biosurfactant research from leading biotechnology laboratories.It also introduces promising possible uses of biosurfactants in medicine, in environmental control, and for marine organisms supplying a comprehensive overview of production, this text - reviews the biosynthetic mechanisms for surfactants and their precursor molecules; examines immobilized biocatalyst, lipopeptide, and rhamnolipid production; highlights glycolipid biosynthesis; explicates genetic engineering of surface-active compounds and the biophysics of microbial surfactants; evaluates biological activities and microbial lipopolysaccharides; assesses the application of biosurfactants in environmental control; focuses on pulmonary surfactants; furnishes information on the economics of biosurfactants as a key to industrial applications. experts and containing more than 1430 literature citations, tables and figures, this book provides a resource for physical, surface, and colloid chemists; petrochemical, chemical, biochemical, petroleum, and pollution control engineers; pharmacologists; cosmetic scientists; food scientists; microbiologists; biotechnologists; and graduate-level and continuing education students in these discipline
Due to the consequences of globa l warming and significant greenhouse gas emissions, several ideas have been studied to reduce these emissions or to suggest solut ions for pollutant remov al. The most promising ideas are reduced consumption, waste recovery and waste treatment by biological systems. In this latter category, studies have demonstrated that the use of microalgae is a very promising solution for the biofixation of carbon dioxide. In fact, these micro-organisms are able to offset high levels of CO2 thanks to photosynthesis. Microalgae are also used in various fields (food industry, fertilizers, biofuel, etc.). To obtain a n optimal C O2 sequestration us ing micr oal gae, their cul tivatio n has to be c arried ou t in a f avorable e nvironment, corresponding to optimal operating conditions (temperature, nutrients, pH, light, etc.). Therefore, microalgae are grown in an enclosure, i.e. photobioreactors, which notably operate in continuous mode. This type of closed reactor notably enables us to reduce culture contamination, to improve CO2 transfer and to better control the cultivation system. This last point involves the regulation of concentrations (biomass, substrate or by-product) in addition to conventional regulations (pH, temperature). To do this, we have to establish a model of the system and to identify its parameters; to put in place estimators in order to rebuild variables that are not measured online (software sensor); and finally to implement a control law, in order to maintain the system in optimal conditions despite modeling errors and environmental disturbances that can have an influence on the system (pH variations, temperature, light, biofilm appearance, etc.).
This monograph describes cement clinker formation. It covers multicomponent systems, clinker phase structures and their reactions with water, hydrate composition and structure, as well as their physical properties. The mineral additions to cement are described as are their influence on cement-paste properties. Special cements are also discussed. The microstructure of concrete is then presented, and special emphasis is given to the role of the interfacial transition zone, and the corrosion processes in the light of cement-phase composition, mineral additions and w/c ratio. The admixtures' role in modern concrete technology is described with an emphasis on superplasticizer chemistry and its cement-paste rheological modification mechanism. Cement with atypical properties, such as calcium aluminate, white, low energy and expansive cements are characterized. The last part of the book is devoted to special types of concrete such as self compacting and to reactive powders.
Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the development of new functional materials in areas such as energy, catalysis and electronic materials. This revised edition of Basic Solid State Chemistry has been completely rewritten and expanded to present an up-to-date account of the essential topics and recent developments in this exciting field of inorganic chemistry. Each section commences with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing seamlessly to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. This new Student Edition includes the following updates and new features: * Expanded coverage of bonding in solids, including a new section on covalent bonding and more extensive treatment of metallic bonding. * Synthetic methods are covered extensively and new topics include microwave synthesis, combinatorial synthesis, mechano-synthesis, atomic layer deposition and spray pyrolysis. * Revised coverage of electrical, magnetic and optical properties, with additional material on semiconductors, giant and colossal magnetoresistance, multiferroics, LEDs, fibre optics and solar cells, lasers, graphene and quasicrystals. * Extended chapters on crystal defects and characterisation techniques. * Published in full colour to aid comprehension. * Extensive coverage of crystal structures for important families of inorganic solids is complemented by access to CrystalMaker(R) visualization software, allowing readers to view and rotate over 100 crystal structures in three dimensions. * Solutions to exercises and supplementary lecture material are available online. Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is a must-have textbook for any undergraduate or new research worker studying solid state chemistry.
Comprehensively introduces readers to the production, modifications, and applications of nanocellulose This book gives a thorough introduction to the structure, properties, surface modification, theory, mechanism of composites, and functional materials derived from nanocellulose. It also provides in-depth descriptions of plastics, composites, and functional nanomaterials specifically derived from cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibrils, and bacterial cellulose. It includes the most recent progress in developing a conceptual framework of nanocellulose, as well as its numerous applications in the design and manufacture of nanocomposites and functional nanomaterials. The book also looks at the relationship between structure and properties. Featuring contributions from many noted experts in the field, Nanocellulose: From Fundamentals to Advanced Materials examines the current status of nanocomposites based on nanocelluloses. It covers surface modification of nanocellulose in the nanocomposites development; reinforcing mechanism of cellulose nanocrystals in nanocomposites; and advanced materials based on self-organization of cellulose nanocrystals. The book studies the role of cellulose nanofibrils in nanocomposites, as well as a potential application based on colloidal properties of cellulose nanocrystals. It also offers strategies to explore biomedical applications of nanocellulose. -Provides comprehensive knowledge on the topic of nanocellulose, including the preparation, structure, properties, surface modification and strategy -Covers new reports on the application of nanocellulose -Summarizes three kinds of nanocellulose (cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibrils, and bacterial cellulose) and their production, modification, and applications Nanocellulose: From Fundamentals to Advanced Materials is a useful resource for specialist researchers of chemistry, materials, and nanotechnology science, as well as for researchers and students of the subject.
The revised edition of the guide to environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products The revised and updated second edition of Pharma-Ecology joins the health and environmental sciences professions' concern over the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment and explores how to best minimize their impact. The text highlights the biological effects of various classes of pharmaceutical compounds under clinical settings, their modes of action, and approximate quantities consumed. The second edition contains the most recent knowledge about the ecological impact of PPCPs as more sensitive detection techniques have become available, since the book was first published. The second edition offers the most up-to-date information on pharma ecology and bridges the gap between medicine, public health, and environmental science. This new edition contains helpful learning objectives for each chapter, as well as a brief section at the end of each chapter that presents a set of open ended questions. This vital resource: - Explores the biological effects of pharmaceutical compounds under clinical settings, their modes of action, approximate quantities consumed - Provides researchers and scientists with critical background data on the environmental impacts of PPCPs - Contains the most current information on PPCPs' ecological impacts, based on new detection techniques - Bridges the gap between medicine, public health, and environmental science Written for ecologists, engineers, microbiologists, pharmacists, toxicologists, chemists, physicians, and veterinarians involved in pollution and environmental analysis, the second edition of Pharma-Ecology contains the most current information available on the environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.
The field of quantum and molecular simulations has experienced strong growth since the time of the early software packages. A recent study, showed a large increase in the number of people publishing papers based on ab initio methods from about 3,000 in 1991 to roughly 20,000 in 2009, with particularly strong growth in East Asia. Looking to the future, the question remains as to how these methods can be further integrated into the R&D value chain, bridging the gap from engineering to manufacturing.
Using successful case studies as a framework, Industrial Applications of Molecular Simulations demonstrates the capability of molecular modeling to tackle problems of industrial relevance. This book presents a wide range of various modeling techniques, including methods based on quantum or classical mechanics, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulations, etc. It also explores a wide range of materials, from soft materials such as polymeric blends widely used in the chemical industry to hard or inorganic materials such as glasses and alumina.
This book provides a gentle introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics. The particular aim is to fill the needs of readers who wish to learn the subject without a solid background in classical and quantum mechanics. The approach is unique in that classical mechanical formulation takes center stage. The book will be of particular interest to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in engineering departments.
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