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This book comprehensively reviews current pest management practices and explores novel integrated pest management strategies in Brassica oilseed crops. It is essential reading for pest management practitioners and researchers working on pest management in canola and other Brassica crops worldwide. Canola, mustard, camelina and crambe are the most important oilseed crops in the world. Canola is the second largest oilseed crop in the world providing 13% of the world's supply. Seeds of these species commonly contain 40% or more oil and produce meals with 35 to 40% protein. However, its production has declined significantly in recent years due to insect pest problems. The canola pest complexes are responsible for high insecticide applications on canola. Many growers rely on calendar-based spraying schedules for insecticide applications. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella and flea beetles Phyllotreta spp. (P. cruciferae and P. striolata)cause serious damage to canola. In the Northern Great Plains, USA, for instance, P. xylostella is now recorded everywhere that canola is grown. Severe damage to canola plants can be caused by overwintering populations of flea beetles feeding on newly emerged seedlings. Cabbage seed pod weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus), swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii), and tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) are also severe pests on canola. Minor pests include aphids (cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and turnip aphid, Hyadaphis erysimi) and grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes. This book: * is the only single compiled source of information on integrated management of canola and other Brassica oilseed pests * presents the biology and management of all the major and minor pests of Brassica oilseed crops * is an essential source of information for applied entomologists, crop protection researchers, extension agents and stakeholders
Biological pesticides based on pathogenic micro-organisms specific to a target pest offer an ecologically-sound and effective solution to pest problems. They pose less threat to the environment and to human health than do chemical pesticides. However, despite the enormous potential for biopesticides, their development, commercialization and use has been slow. The information reported in this book is based on a survey of more than 100 biopesticide research workers in developing countries. The results demonstrate that the main difficulties and constraints facing researchers relate to a lack of expertise in the crucial later stages of development. Biopesticide research is receiving mostly low investments, mainly from the public sector, and requires more multidisciplinary expertise. It is concluded that targeted assistance on a multinational and multi-disciplinary basis is required in developing countries in order to remove the constraints.
Since the publication of the first edition of this book in 2003, the status of many important invasive plants around the world has changed dramatically. Species have extended their ranges, new literature has been accumulated, and control methods have been improved. Research on some plant invaders has also focused on the species' ecology and impacts, confirming that invasive plants continue to pose serious threats to species and ecosystems. Given their range expansions and introduction via international trade, these problems will only become more serious in the future. Providing the latest information on the most important invasive plants, this new edition: - Contains 50 new species, chosen for their impacts on ecosystems and native species - Reviews the most significant new publications on ecology and species management - Updates introduced, invasive and native ranges, providing an easy-reference, full-colour map for each species - Provides new and improved control methods Including colour images of each species, this up-to-date reference guide on the most important plant invaders is an invaluable tool for both researchers and policy makers.
Since 1973, Storey's Country Wisdom Bulletins have offered practical, hands-on instructions designed to help readers master dozens of country living skills quickly and easily. There are now more than 170 titles in this series, and their remarkable popularity reflects the common desire of country and city dwellers alike to cultivate personal independence in everyday life.
Termites are of great interest to both entomologists and those concerned with pest management. On the one hand their complex social systems and nest building make them fascinating for students of insect behaviour, while on the other they are major pests of crops and buildings in the tropics and subtropics. This book provides a general scientific introduction to the termites, including their biology, behaviour, pest status and control. Commonly used ecological and laboratory techniques are described in appendices. There has been no such general book published for many years and so this title will fill a definite gap in the market. It is aimed at advanced students of entomology and pest management, as well as professionals concerned with urban and agricultural pest control.
Rachel Carson Environment Book Award, First Place (2018) IPPY Outstanding Book of the Year: Most Likely to Save the Planet (2018) Thorpe Menn Literary Excellence Award (2018) "Reads like a mystery novel as Gillam skillfully uncovers Monsanto's secretive strategies." --Erin Brockovich "A damning picture...Gillam expertly covers a contentious front." --Publishers Weekly "A must-read." --Booklist "Hard-hitting, eye-opening narrative." --Kirkus It's the pesticide on our dinner plates, a chemical so pervasive it's in the air we breathe, our water, our soil, and even found increasingly in our own bodies. Known as Monsanto's Roundup by consumers, and as glyphosate by scientists, the world's most popular weed killer is used everywhere from backyard gardens to golf courses to millions of acres of farmland. For decades it's been touted as safe enough to drink, but a growing body of evidence indicates just the opposite, with research tying the chemical to cancers and a host of other health threats. In Whitewash, veteran journalist Carey Gillam uncovers one of the most controversial stories in the history of food and agriculture, exposing new evidence of corporate influence. Gillam introduces readers to farm families devastated by cancers which they believe are caused by the chemical, and to scientists whose reputations have been smeared for publishing research that contradicted business interests. Readers learn about the arm twisting of regulators who signed off on the chemical, echoing company assurances of safety even as they permitted higher residues of the pesticide in food and skipped compliance tests. And, in startling detail, Gillam reveals secret industry communications that pull back the curtain on corporate efforts to manipulate public perception. Whitewash is more than an expos about the hazards of one chemical or even the influence of one company. It's a story of power, politics, and the deadly consequences of putting corporate interests ahead of public safety.
The history of biological control of harmful organisms by mites is marked by outstanding achievements with a few premiere natural enemies. Early works concentrated on the use of predatory mites for the control of synanthropic flies, More recently, the focus has been mostly on mites of the family Phytoseiidae for the control of plant feeding mites. This is an important family of acarine predators of plant pest mites, which are effectively used in agriculture worldwide. Besides the vast knowledge in several species in this family, there are as well many opportunities for biological control, represented in an array of organisms and through the improvement of management techniques, which are constantly explored by researchers worldwide. This has resulted in an increasing interest in predatory mite species within the families Stigmaeidae, Ascidae, Laelapidae, Rhodacaroidea, Macrochelidae, Erythraeidae and Cheyletidae, among others. This book will compile important developments with predatory mite species within these families, which are emerging as important tools for integrated pest management. New developments with predatory insects and pathogenic organisms attacking mites will also be a subject of this book. Finally, the potential and gaps in knowledge in biological control of acarine plant pests will be addressed.
Naturally occurring toxins are among the most complicated and lethal in existence. Plant species, microorganisms and marine flora and fauna produce hundreds of toxic compounds for defence and to promote their chances of survival, and these can be isolated and appropriated for our own use. Many of these toxins have yet to be thoroughly described, despite being studied for years. Focusing on the natural toxins that are purely toxic to insects, this book contains over 500 chemical structures. It discusses the concepts and mechanisms involved in toxicity, bioassay procedures for evaluation, structure-activity relationships, and the potential for future commercialization of these compounds. A comprehensive review of the subject, this book forms an important source of information for researchers and students of crop protection, pest control, phytochemistry and those dealing in insect-plant interactions.
This volume describes the various applications of entomopathogenic soil microorganisms in the management and control of the devastating lepidopteran pest. An introduction describes the insecticidal properties of viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes and their metabolites, as well as their applications in the context of crop improvement. Subsequent chapters focus on topics such as insecticidal proteins; the role of nucleopolyhedroviruses; Bt toxins and their receptors; control of lepidopterans using entomopathogenic fungi; management of cotton defoliators; and sustainable use of entomopathogenic nematodes and their bacterial symbionts. An overview of culture collections of entomopathogenic microorganisms rounds out the volume.
Pesticides are now accepted as an integral part of modern agricultural production. This book provides analysis of the steps taken by national and international bodies working towards a cohesive global strategy for evaluating the safety of residues in food that result from approved pesticide uses. Also described is the role of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and Codex Alimentarius in developing standards that protect the health of the consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade. It goes on to look at the promotion of good agricultural practice in the use of pesticides and the need for control in their practical use. These include sampling, testing the compliance of marketed products against legal limits and verifying the effectiveness of the safety-based regulatory measures. This is a specialist book for those looking to go into the field of international food safety, for students and lecturers studying the topic, for policy makers working on public health and agricultural issues, and personnel responsible for taking samples and performing the analysis of pesticide formulations and residues.
Several Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches are available for managing pests of varied kinds, including individual and integrated methods for pest suppression. Recently the focus has shifted to pest management tools that act on insect systems selectively, are compatible with the environment, and are not harmful for ecosystems. Other approaches target specific biochemical and physiological aspects of insect metabolism, and involve biotechnological and genetic manipulation. Still other approaches include the use of nanotechnology, endophytes, optical and sonic manipulation to detect and control pest insects. Unfortunately, conventional forms of pest management do not focus on technology transfer to the ground level workers and farmers. As a result, farmers are incurring huge losses of crops and revenues. This book highlights the importance of using communication tools in pest management and demonstrates some success stories of utilizing automated unmanned technologies in this context. The content is divided into three sections, the first of which, "Pest Population Monitoring: Modern Tools," covers long and short-range pest population monitoring techniques and tools such as satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles/drones, remote sensing, digital tools like GIS, GPS for mapping, lidar, mobile apps, software systems, artificial diet designs and functional diversity of info-chemicals. The second section of the book is devoted to "Emerging Areas in Pest Management" and offers a glimpse of diversified tactics that have been developed to contain and suppress pest populations such as endophytes, insect vectors of phytoplasma, Hymenopterans parasitoids, mass production and utilization of NPV etc. In turn, the third section focuses on "Integrated Pest Management" and presents farming situations that illustrate how research in diversified aspects has helped to find solutions to specific pest problems, and how some new and evolving tactics can be practically implemented. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for entomology and plant pathology researchers, students of zoology and plant protection, and readers whose work involves agriculture, horticulture, forestry and other ecosystems.
Over the past century, the number of species that have been transported to areas outside their native range has increased steadily. New pests and pathogens place biological pressure on valuable resident species, but strict bans may conflict with trading and travel needs. An overview of how the conflict can be managed using pest risk mapping and modelling, this book uses worked examples to explain modelling and help development of tool kits for assessment.
Alternative methods of disease control such as natural products and compounds derived from biological origins, provide an effective alternate to the use of chemical products or a means to minimize their use. It is imperative now to look for such sustainable crop disease management approaches, that include routine and alternative methods. Natural products for sustainable crop disease management is an effort in this direction, and deals with immediate concerns in the field of natural and alternative products for disease control, apart from using biocontrol organisms. This book presents up-to-date information on natural products and compounds derived from biological origins and thoroughly discusses their applicability, field use and prospects for adoption under different cropping conditions. This book also validates disease management strategies.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are recognized as one of the limiting factors in crop production all over the world. They impair the quality of crops and cause significant yield losses, seriously threatening global food security. Management of these creatures is a vital aspect of the agricultural process and has often depended upon the use of hazardous chemical nematicides, but the disadvantages of these substances have created interest in searching for alternate safe methods of phytonematode management. This book highlights the use of biocontrol agents as a novel, eco-friendly approach in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Besides covering the ecology, diversity and geographical distribution, survival biology and virulence mechanisms of potential biocontrol agents, their limitations have also been described. Reviewing biocontrol agents such as nematophafous fungi, parasitic bacteria, predaceous mites, rhizobacteria, mycorrhiza and predaceous nematodes, the book discusses future research needs in detail. Written in a clear and informative style by eminent nematologists from around the world, this book provides a source of valuable information for researchers, teachers, students of plant nematologym enabling them to plan better strategies for managing plant-parasitic nematodes.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria use Cry proteins to kill their insect larval hosts. The expression of certain Cry toxins in transgenic crops has been widely used to achieve efficient control of insect pests. This book describes the use of Bt crops and the emerging problem of resistance, recent progress in understanding the mechanism of action of Bt toxins, different resistance mechanisms and strategies to cope with resistance in the field. It describes resistant insects found in the field in different countries, particularly in the developing world, and ways to counter resistance such as gene stalking, refuges, modified toxins and gene discovery of novel toxins with different mode of action.
Rice is one of the most important foods in the world. As the demand for rice continues to increase, there is an urgent need to increase yields in the face of such challenges as climate change, threats from pests and diseases and the need to make cultivation more resource-efficient and sustainable. Drawing on an international range of expertise, this collection focuses on ways of improving the cultivation of rice at each step in the value chain, from breeding to post-harvest storage. Volume 2 reviews research in improving cultivation in such areas as irrigation and nutrition as well as developments in disease and pest management. Achieving sustainable cultivation of rice Volume 2: Cultivation, pest and disease management will be a standard reference for rice scientists in universities, government and other research centres and companies involved in rice cultivation. It is accompanied by Volume 1 which reviews research in breeding, nutritional and other aspects of rice quality.
* Highly illustrated guide, written in plain language* Emphasizes appropriate, low-input technology* Gives examples of both problems and solutions in the village context"Controlling Crop Pests and Diseases" covers pest and disease damage, causative agents, and methods of combatting them. As well as manual and cultural techniques, it describes the knapsack sprayer and its maintenance, showing that expensive chemicals are not necessary the secrets of cheaply-available or improvised ingredients are revealed. The book also covers protection against larger animals and wind, using hedges and ditches.The examples are illustrated stories presented as strip cartoons for extension staff or teachers to show and hand out to farmers and students. Those who already use storytelling and drama in their work will know their value in extension; others for whom this method is new will find it fresh, stimulating and productive."
We have been witnessing a silent chemical revolution over the past half century. Pesticides bring widespread environmental contamination, with residues detected far from their site of application. These substances are playing havoc with the lives of humans and the environment because of their indiscriminate use. Pesticide Risk Assessment describes the environmental risks associated with the injudicious use of pesticides and their mixtures, their methods of estimation and assessment, and their regulation. It also contains methods to reduce and minimize the risks associated with the use of pesticides. The book: Examines pesticides, their impact on the environment, mode of action, estimation methods, risk assessment, mixture toxicity, alternatives for risk reduction, and regulatory aspects. Includes global case studies detailing cases of pesticide poisoning, and the health effects of exposure to pesticides. Covers risks to human health, aquifers and aquatic organisms, pollinators, soil micro flora and fauna, terrestrial organisms and wildlife. Suitable for anyone involved in pesticide application and integrated pest management, this is essential reading for researchers, scientists, extension workers and policy makers.
Biofouling Methods provides a cook book for both established workers and those new to the field. The methods included in this important new book range from tried and tested techniques to those at the cutting edge, encompassing the full diversity of this multidisciplinary field. The book covers methods for microbial and macrofouling, coatings and biocides, and ranges from methods for fundamental studies to methods relevant for industrial applications. There is an emphasis on answering questions and each chapter provides technical methods and problem-solving hints and tips. Bringing together a wealth of international contributions and edited by three internationally known and respected experts in the subject Biofouling Methods is the essential methodology reference in the field for all those working in the antifouling industry including those involved in formulation of antifouling products such as paints and other coatings. Aquatic biologists, ecologists, environmental scientists and lawyers, marine engineers, aquaculture personnel, chemists, and medical researchers will all find much of interest within this book. All universities and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught should have copies of this important work on their shelves.
Swathes of the human world are covered in ornamental grass lawns; they are the single most commonly encountered horticultural feature on the planet. Unfortunately, they are now often viewed as resource-draining green deserts due to the lack of plant and animal diversity, the need for frequent mowing and watering, and addition of lawn greening products to keep them looking at their best. It is a venerable horticultural feature that is essentially frozen in time, and with few alternatives to whet the appetite, the lawn has languished in its current grass-only format for decades. Until now. Tapestry lawns are a new, practically researched and timely development of the ornamental lawn format that integrates both horticultural practice and ecological science and re-determines the potential of a lawn. Mown barely a handful of times a year and with no need for fertilisers or scarifying, tapestry lawns are substantially richer in their diversity of plant and animal life compared to traditional grass-only lawns and see the return of flowers and colour to a format from which they are usually purposefully excluded. Tapestry Lawns: Freed from Grass and Full of Flowers traces the changes in the lawn format from its origins to the modern day and offers information on how and why the tapestry lawn construct is now achievable. It provides guidance on how to create and maintain a tapestry lawn of your own and champions the potential benefits for wildlife that can follow. Features Accessible and informative to all types of readers from academic to amateur Includes a refined and tested set of useful tapestry lawn plants Contains step-by-step instructions for creation and management methods of grass-free lawns Illustrated in full colour If you have ever thought about mowing your lawn much less, making it much more colourful and wildlife friendly, then this book will inform and guide you to create a perfect, grass-free lawn.
This book describes the application of statistics, economics and mathematical modeling to the control of bird and mammal pests. It is about how scientists have analyzed whether vertebrates are pests and what is achieved by control. The book distinguishes itself from other books on the topic by emphasizing the science behind vertebrate pest control rather than methods of control. Dr. Hone critically reviews the literature on topics such as damage assessment and control evaluation and makes links to ecology, epidemiology, fisheries management and economics. The text includes case studies of many mammalian and avian pests in a worldwide scope.
An authoritative reference on the subject of using non-chemical controls on greenhouse-grown crops, this book explains the latest in crop-management techniques from around the globe. The contributing authors come from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Spain, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Italy, and Asia. Biological control factors and the various types of controls -- predators, parasites, nematodes, and pathogens -- are described. Information is also provided on greenhouse structures, sampling, quality control, specific pests on both ornamental and vegetable crops -- whiteflies, spider mites, leafminers, thrips, aphids, other minor pests -- and soil borne pests. Specific crops are also discussed, including chrysanthemums, poinsettias, cut flowers, foliage plants, woody ornamentals, bedding plants, cucumbers, sweet peppers, tomatoes, and mushrooms.
The most numerous of the world's invasive species, rodent pests have a devastating impact on agriculture, food, health and the environment. In the last two decades, the science and practice of rodent control has faced new legislation on rodenticides, the pests' increasing resistance to chemical control and the impact on non-target species, bringing a new dimension to this updated 2nd edition and making essential reading for all those involved in rodent pest control, including researchers, conservationists, practitioners and public health specialists.
The rice plant is an ideal host for many insect species. All of the plant parts are vulnerable to insect-feeding from the time of sowing till harvest. There are over 800 insect species damaging rice in one way or another, although the majority of them do very little damage. In tropical Asia only about 20 species are of major importance. In Africa, 15 species of insects are considered major rice pests and in the Americas about 20 species are considered major pests. To develop effective pest management strategies, it is essential to properly identify and understand the biology and ecology of insect pests and the arthropods that help regulate their populations. This book effectively utilizes the unique knowledge and expertise of leading rice entomologists from Africa, Asia and the Americas to provide the first global coverage of rice insect pests. The discussion of each pest includes geographical distribution, plant hosts other than rice, description and biology, plant damage and ecology.
This new book on the sustainable management of insect pests in important vegetables offers valuable management strategies in detail. It focuses on eco-friendly technology and approaches to mitigating the damage caused by insect pests with special reference to newer insecticides. Chapters in the volume provide an introduction to vegetable entomology and go on to present a plethora of research on sustainable eco-friendly pest management strategies for root vegetables, spice crops, tuber crops, and more. Vegetable crops that are infested by several insect pests from the nursery to the harvesting stage cause enormous crop losses. Given that it is estimated that up to 40 percent of global crops are lost to agricultural pests each year, new research on effective management strategies is vital. The valuable information provided in this book will be very helpful for faculty and advanced-level students, scientists and researchers, policymakers, and others involved in pest management for vegetable crops.
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