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This study combines econometrics and agent-based modelling to evaluate the impacts of a range of pesticide use reduction strategies in the context of Thai highland agriculture. Pesticide productivity and pesticide overuse are quantified, while determinants of the adoption of innovations in pesticide use reduction are estimated. On that basis, the Mathematical Programming-based Multi Agent System (MPMAS), a bio-economic simulation model, is used to ex-ante assess the adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in combination with a series of market-based instruments that boost the transition to more sustainable pest control practices. The MPMAS simulation results demonstrate that, over five years, it is possible to bring down levels of pesticide use significantly without income trade-offs for farm agents. A proportional tax, increasing the price of synthetic pesticides by 50% on average, together with bio-pesticide subsidies for IPM proves to be the most cost-effective and practicable policy package. IPM practices are adopted by up to 75% of farm agents and pesticide use reductions reach up to 34%.
"Pest and Disease Management Handbook "updates the 3rd edition of the "Pest and Disease Control Handbook" (1989). The structure of this important new book differs in several respects, acknowledging the advances that have been made in integrated crop management and the trends towards the more rational use of pesticides.
Fully revised and up-to-date, the book commences with a new introductory chapter covering the principles of pest and disease management. Following chapters, each written by acknowledged experts in the field, cover a group of major temperate northern hemisphere crops. As well as comprehensive details of pest and disease management strategies, each chapter also includes a classification scheme for the cited pests and diseases.
This important publication is a vital tool for all those involved in the crop protection / agrochemical industry including business managers, entomologists, agricultural scientists, plant pathologists and those studying and teaching BASIS courses. As an important reference guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying agricultural sciences, applied entomology and crop protection, copies of the book should be available on the shelves of all research establishments and universities where these subjects are studied and taught.
"Pest and Disease Management Handbook "is published for the British Crop Protection Council (BCPC) by Blackwell Science. BCPC is a registered charity having the principal objective of promoting the development, use and understanding of effective and sustainable crop protection practice.
Dr David V Alford, based in Cambridge, UK, is a member of the BCPC board, with many years' experience working as a government entomologist.
Featuring completely updated chapters, additional authors, and an increased emphasis on alternatives to traditional pesticides, the second edition of Ecological Entomology is the field's leading reference on the role of insects in ecosystems. The authors cover insect growth and development, what they eat, how they reproduce, and how they move in various environments. The book also examines how insects interact with the plant community and how to control insect populations naturally.
The community of natural enemies that inhabits agroecosystems is complex mainly due to multiple trophic interactions established among them and their target prey/hosts. Several factors can influence the efficiency of natural enemies as biological control agents, such as the occurrence of preferred food items, supplementary food resources, shelters, agricultural practices or landscapes. In this book, scientists present recent studies in regards to the identification, protection strategies and impacts of agricultural practices on important groups of natural enemies. This core focus includes specific studies on predatory species (e.g., mites, spiders, anthocorids, nabids, carabids, and coccinellids) as well as parasitoid species (hymenopterans). The different chapters present new approaches towards the conservation of natural enemies in agroecosystems, and discuss the effects of climate change and agricultural practices on biodiversity, life history and movement of natural enemies.
The book deals with the present state and problems of integrated pest management as relating to stakeholder acceptance of IPM and how integrated pest management can become a sustainable practice. The discussions include using less pesticides and the possibility of eliminating pesticides from agricultural practice.
Currently, the major challenge of humanity is focused on population growth through agricultural production in order to meet the demand for food. The food crunch is mainly due to pest and disease. Traditional methods, synthetic insecticides and microbicides cause health hazards to human beings, domestic animals and also affect our immediate environments. Serious concerns were implemented by both developing and developed countries as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Bio-intensive Integrated Pest Management (BIPM) systems where biopesticides play an important role worldwide. The available books are limited to particular aspects of biopesticides. Hence, it is imperative to bring out a holistic documentation which will provide the reader information on all aspects of biopesticides. The book consists of five sections namely microbials, botanicals, natural enemies semio- chemicals and biotechnology and equipments, bioinformatics tools and IPM. In Section I, microbial deals with utilization of Bacillus in control of phytonematodes; biological control of pest and diseases with fluorescent pseudomonads, entomopathogenic fungus and entomopathogenic nematodes in pest management, microbial viral insecticides and microbial elicitors to induce immunity for plant disease control in chilli and tomato. Importance of plant essential oils, botanicals in endocrine disruption, relevance of botanicals and use of plant volatile on pest management has been discussed in Section II. Importance and role of reduviidae, weaver ants, ground beetles, Odonatas, spiders in biological control has been discussed in Section III. In addition, genetic improvement of biocontrol agents for sustainable pest management has also been highlighted. In Section IV, classical practices and pheromone, kairomonal enhancement to natural enemies and use of transgenic plants in insect control are highlighted. Equipment and their application methodologies for application of biopesticides; relevance of bioinformatics in biopesticides management; pest management of soybean, bio fouling and eco friendly antifoulants have been highlighted in Section V. Each chapter has objectives and conclusion along with recommendations.
Agricultural and forest pests lead to many plant diseases resulting in poor yield and productivity. Traditionally, chemical pesticides have been used to control these pests. However, the adverse health impacts of chemical pesticides have triggered parallel research in safe biological options. Nevertheless, biocontrol has come a long way ever since the commercialization of the first Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticide (sporeine) in the 1940s, however, still there are research gaps. New knowledge and practical experiences have been added over the last few decades. This book reviews research on biological control agents, including bacterial, fungal and viral biopesticides along with their advanced formulation options.
The concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) was developed as an alternative to chemical pesticides following the widespread realization or their horrifying and damaging effects on environment, human, animal and plant health, which were vividly portrayed in Rachel Carsons book Silent Spring. The IPM approach involves the use of different tactics in compatible combinations to keep pest populations below the levels at which they cause economics injury. Thus. the IPM approach minimizes the use of chemical pesticides and avoids their harmful effects. The development and implementation of IPM has been increasing in North America with successful results. However, its role in tropical agriculture is less well known. For this reason, the United Nations Environment Programine (UNEP), and the International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) undertook a global review of IPM to assess the impact of related activities in tropical regions of Asia. Africa and South America. This volume assesses the current status and future prospects for IPM in these regions, it provide a unique overview of the efforts made to develop and implement IPM for the pests of livestock and agroforestry in selected countries in the tropics (including India and China), as well as a survey of IPM strategies on a crop-by-crop basis for each continent. The book gives an honest appraisal of both the successes and failures of past IPM programmes and provides new paradigms and directions that IPM must develop, if it is to be adopted by farmers and governments on a scale necessary to change their current reliance on chemical pestioldes
This book covers advanced concepts and creative ideas with regard to insect biorational control and insecticide resistance management. Some chapters present and summarize general strategies or tactics for managing insect pests such as the principles of IPM in various crop systems and biorational control of insect pests, advances in organic farming, alternative strategies for controlling orchard and field-crop pests. Other chapters cover alternative methods for controlling pests such as disruption of insect reproductive systems and utilization of semiochemicals and diatomaceous earth formulations, and developing bioacoustic methods for mating disruption. Another part is devoted to insecticide resistance: mechanisms and novel approaches for managing insect resistance in agriculture and in public health.
Environmental Behaviour of Agrochemicals deals with a major area of concern regarding the use of agrochemicals - the potential for contamination of soil, air and water. This ninth volume in the Progress in Pesticide Biochemistry and Toxicology series, provides an international outlook on the impact of the production and use of agrochemicals on the environment, In Environmental Behaviour of Agrochemicals emphasis is placed on the methods for assessing the movement of pesticides into ground water from a variety of perspectives, and run-off of agrochemicals from soil into surface water. In addition to detailed accounts of recommended analytical methodologies for environmental samples, an in-depth overview is given of recent developments in the use of computer simulation models for assessing environmental fate. Coverage also includes the current status of biosensors for in vitro measurements for environmental analysis, volatization of agrochemicals and estimation of physico-chemical properties. Environmental Behaviour of Agrochemicals brings together contributions from internationally renowned experts to discuss a developing topic which is of vital importance to both producers and users of agrochemicals.
Apart from an A-Z of Pest-repellent Plants, this edition includes many other organic solutions, from traps and barriers to sprays, oils, dusting powders and washes. It helps you find a quick and easy solution to any garden, personal and household pest. This title comes from the bestselling author of "Herbs for Australian Gardens", "Grow Your Own Herbal Remedies" and "Asian Herbs & Vegetables".
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by specific filamentous fungi that infest agricultural commodities. They are known to contaminant crops and consequently animal feeds and animal products, causing significant economic losses associated with their impact on animal health and productivity in agribusiness. In animal production, dramatic acute mycotoxin poisoning with severe or fatal disease is of relatively low prevalence. However, uncertainty and controversy continue to plague livestock producers and health professionals based on real or potential damage to feed efficiency, immune system function, inefficient animal reproduction and possible residues in the human food supply. This book describes conditions that favour mycotoxin formation and consumption, suggesting preventive approaches.
Among the highlights of this book is the use of novel insecticides acting on a specific site in an insect group and are compatible with natural enemies and the environment. One of such approaches is based on disrupting the activity of biochemical sites acting on transcription factors such as the Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) family, anti juvenile hormone (AJH) agents that target JH biosynthetic enzymes, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and bursicon as a target for insect control. Another one is the biotechnology or the genetic approach such as gene silencing (RNA interference) and Bt-crops. Other sections of the book are devoted to the plant s natural products, optical manipulation and the use of nanotechnology for improving insect control methods."
This book focuses on pesticide research. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans for food, destroy property, spread or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance. Many pesticides are poisonous to humans.
This book presents a comprehensive compilation of registration requirements necessary for authorisation of biological control agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi, active substances of natural origin and semiochemicals) in OECD countries. It also reviews data requirements for invertebrate agents (insect, mites and nematodes) and provides proposals for harmonisation of the regulation process and guidelines for completion of application forms. Based on results of the EU REBECA Policy Support Action, which gathered experts from academia, regulation authorities and industry, risks and benefits of the specific agents were reviewed and proposals for a more balanced registration process elaborated, including recommendations for acceleration of the authorisation process and discussions on trade-off effects and policy impacts. All these aspects are covered in detail in this book, which points the way forward for enhanced utilisation of biological control agents.
Evidence suggests that efforts to eradicate the Asian long-horned beetle appear likely to succeed, while the emerald ash borer and P. ramorum are likely to continue to infest and damage forest ecosystems indefinitely despite efforts to control them. The Asian long-horned beetle is a wood-boring insect from Asia that has caused separate infestations in parts of New York, New Jersey, and Illinois. Over 8,000 trees infested with the beetle have been removed, and over 600,000 trees have been chemically treated to protect against the beetle. As a result of these and other actions, federal and state agencies have been able to reduce the size of the infested areas. The emerald ash borer is also a wood-boring insect from Asia that has infested large areas in Michigan; Ohio; Indiana; and Ontario, Canada, killing an estimated 15 million trees. The pathogen P. ramorum is the causal agent of the disease known as Sudden Oak Death. It is of unknown origin and has infested large areas in central and northern coastal California and a small area in southern Oregon. This book examines these key environmental issues. This book is a fully-indexed excerpted version of a GAO report.
The theme of the book is highly relevant to the current emphasis on environment conservation, with focus on native biodiversity conservation in agro-ecosystems. The current impetus being given to organic farming and export oriented agri-hortculture in the country calls for access to relevant scientific knowledge base among the stakeholders. Research on biological pest control is more than a century old in India. Egg parasitoids, which are mainly tiny wasps, led by the family Trichogrammatidae, are the most widely utilized natural enemies for biological control globally. Over thirty countries are using these bioagents to protect over 10 million hectares of agricultural and forestry crops from many important insect pests. The book comprises 18 chapters, which are arranged in continuum, commencing with basic aspects of knowledge and ending in their utilization targets. The chapters cover broadly four areas: bio-diversity and natural occurrence of egg parasitoids, behaviour and adaptation of egg parasitoids, mass production and safe use of egg parasitoids and utilisation of egg parasitoids in different crop ecosystems. Some of the chapters cater to the needs of discipline-wise update on the current R&D scenario-like insect taxonomy, biotechnology, mass-production and quality control of the target organisms - egg-parasitoids, which are useful for laboratory scientists/researchers. There are also chapters devoted to knowledge status and scope for utilization of egg parasitoids in different target crops, which cater to requirements of field entomologists and extensionists for use in their tasks of guiding farmers/local guides. The book is different in approach, method, structure and content and ensures holistic coverage of the topic. The chapters are written by active and experienced workers in different crops and aspects and co-edited by four very experienced experts who have over three decades R&D experience in the subject. All the authors have uniformly focussed on comprehensive literature study and critical identification of knowledge gaps for future R&D, thus the book is novel in outlook, up-to-date in content and comprehensive in coverage of themes. This book will be useful for supplementary reading for MSc Agriculture and PhD Agriculture students, besides MSc/PhD research students in Zoology/Environmental Biology, who are specialising in Entomology. It would also serve as a very useful reference book for researchers worldwide, though focus is also there on Indian work. It addresses the special information needs of students and faculty, besides practitioners and extensionists in the Australasia and Africa regions and thus not limited to the R&D knowledge generated in developed countries.
Biocontrol is among the most promising methods for a safe, environmentally benign and sustainable pest control. Microbial pesticides offer a great potential, and it is anticipated that they will become a substantial part of the use of all crop protection products. Their development and commercialization, however, has been difficult and with many failures. In this book a rational and structured roadmap has been designed for the development and commercialization of microbial pest control products for the control of arthropod pests. The building blocks of the entire process are identified and essential aspects highlighted. Biopesticides based on entomopathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes are elaborately discussed. This systematic roadmap with a strong focus on economics and market introduction will assist academic researchers and industrial developers of biopesticides in accomplishing their goal: the development of successful cost-effective microbial pesticides.
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