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This book is the third in a series of volumes on major tropical and sub-tropical crops. These books aim to review the current state of the art in management of the total spectrum of pests and diseases which affect these crops in each major growing area using a multi-disciplinary approach. Soybean is economically the most important legume in the world. It is nutritious and easily digested, and is one of the richest and cheapest sources of protein. It is currently vital for the sustenance of many people and it will play an integral role in any future attempts to relieve world hunger. Soybean seed contains about 17% of oil and about 63% of meal, half of which is protein. Modern research has developed a variety of uses for soybean oil. It is processed into margarine, shortening, mayonnaise, salad creams and vegetarian cheeses. Industrially it is used in resins, plastics, paints, adhesives, fertilisers, sizing for cloth, linoleum backing, fire extinguishing materials, printing inks and a variety of other products. Soybean meal is a high-protein meat substitute and is used in the developed countries in many processed foods, including baby foods, but mainly as a feed for livestock. Soybean (Glycine max), which evolved from Glycine ussuriensis, a wild legume native to northern China, has been known and used in China since the eleventh century Be. It was introduced into Europe in the eighteenth century and into the United States in 1804 as an ornamental garden plant in Philadelphia.
Practical Deer Management offers candid and comprehensive advice for anyone who has to deal with deer and the issues they present, be they gardeners suffering attacks on their flower beds, foresters looking to prevent damage to newly planted trees, or landowners with larger scale problems. While a wealth of information on deer exists already, a career in teaching countryside managers quickly made it apparent that there was a need for a straightforward and comprehensive volume that is accessible to all. Written to be clear and easily understood, Practical Deer Management looks at the deer themselves and suggests non-lethal protective measures in addition to more active management, with attention given to other considerations such as health, the law and the practical construction of infrastructure such as high seats. A humane approach is stressed throughout. Practical Deer Management is an essential handbook for anyone who has to deal with deer and the problems that they may present. 'Through this refreshing book there is the possibility for us all to find a better understanding and tolerance of all of our deer.' Ray Mears
Reference to the design of new insecticides nontoxic to the environment and the public emphasizing optimal food production with greater safety. Some 30 international experts examine topics including new types of active molecules among natural products and animal toxins; insect metabolic and organ sy
This handbook illustrates and describes the 200 kinds of common weeds found in Kansas along roadsides and in yards, gardens, and cultivated fields. Designed as a reference for the general reader with no special training in botany, it will be of value to farmers, ranchers, gardeners, or anyone who must control weeds.
A detailed line drawing of the plant and a distribution map is provided for each species. The description lists its common and scientific names and includes information on the plant's typical size, stem, leaves, flowers, particular arrangement of flowers, and habitat. Useful commentary about the weed--such as whether it is poisonous to livestock--is also given. The book includes a glossary of botanical terms and an index of plant names.
A handy system of "finding lists" enable the user, working with only three or fewer structural features of a plant, to arrive at easy, on-the-spot identification of an unknown weed.
Chemical pesticides continue as a point of major controversy in our society. Increasingly stringent regulatory actions on the part of state and federal agencies, exemplified by the RPAR (Rebuttable Presump tion Against Registration) program of the Environmental Protection Agency, are supported by environmental groups and are generally op posed or viewed with skepticism by agriculturalists. The energy crisis invokes other questions on benefits of pesticides versus nonchemical controls and effects on labor utilization. As DDT and other persistent pesticides have been phased out, the more labile, short-lived chemicals have filled the voids in pest management systems; and effects on nontarget species appear to have declined in recent years as the shift occurred. However, nagging ques tions of the hazard to man and other nontarget species from long-term, low-level exposure to pesticides are frequently raised; and recent suggestions that certain well-known and long-used chemicals cause cancer, increase sterility, and initiate or augment other deleterious effects in test animals have instilled a sense of caution and raised con cern about the continued availability of some pesticides previously considered safe. So the facade of concern and confusion continues. This book is an outgrowth of a symposium at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in February, 1978. An introduction has been added, and some of the papers have been modified since presentation."
This is the first truly comprehensive A-Z reference work on the subject, having approximately 2,000 pages in a practical two-volume format. The full-length entries provide detail that glossaries and dictionaries cannot. Over 900 individual entries provide thorough coverage, and a number of biographical entries are included on important plant pathologists and plant scientists.
This volume addresses recent developments in weed science. These developments include conservation agriculture and conservation tillage, climate change, environmental concerns about the runoff of agrochemicals, resistance of weeds and crops to herbicides, and the need for a vastly improved understanding of weed ecology and herbicide use. The book provides details on harnessing knowledge of weed ecology to improve weed management in different crops and presents information on opportunities in weed management in different crops. Current management practices are also covered, along with guidance for selecting herbicides and using them effectively.
Written by experts in the field and supplemented with instructive illustrations and tables, "Recent Advances in Weed Management "is an essential reference for agricultural specialists and researchers, government agents, extension specialists, and professionals throughout the agrochemical industry, as well as a foundation for advanced students taking courses in weed science.
This book fills the need for a comprehensive treatment of rice entomology under one cover. The contributors to this book, drawn from various related disciplines, discuss the fundamentals of rice entomology, the biology and ecology of rice insects and the various techniques of rice insect control, namely, host plant resistance, cultural, mechanical and physical controls, predators and parasitoids, pathogens and insecticides.
Contributed papers by experts in the field detail how to put integrated pest management to work. Presents the philosophy and practice, ecological and economic background as well as strategies and techniques including not only the use of chemical pesticides but also biological, genetic and cultural methods to manage the harm done by insect pests. Covers such key crops as cotton, corn, apples and forage. This edition reports important advances of the last decade including an increased environmental and ecological awareness and a trend toward lower chemical pesticide use.
The word "pesticide" is derived from Latin words pest -(which meansharm)and caedo (which means to destroy); it is the common name inchemical preparations for the destruction of organisms (pest) which cause damage to crops and livestock. By their nature, pesticidal substances are biologically active; they are capable of causing disturbances in the vital activity of living organisms of plant and animal origin. However, the degree of disruption of the vital activity of various organisms with the same substance is different due to the selectivity of its action, or selective toxicity, .i.e. the ability to affect one species of living organisms without undue influence on other species. This factor is taken into account when using certain preparations in specific conditions and depending on the phytosanitary condition. The basis of selective toxicity of pesticides is the species differences of biochemical mechanisms of vital activity of organisms. Identification of differences in biochemical processes is the way to create new pesticide substances. Pesticidal substances affect the normal course of biochemical processes in living organisms, causing a pathological process. Now tens of thousands of chemical compounds circulate in the environment. Therefore, the problem of environmental protection from chemical pollution exists in all countries of the world, including Ukraine. The current level of development of science and technology can prevent pollution. Among them, there are those that can be prevented, and those that cannot be avoided completely or even partially. The first feature of pesticides, compared to other chemical compounds, is the impossibility of preventing their circulation in the biosphere. A significant number of pesticides are carried by air streams to the upper atmosphere. They are able to circulate around the globe and fall with rain on the ground. Pesticides are chemical compounds designed to kill a living organism, which is the second feature. Having biological activity, they are potentially dangerous for wildlife and human health.
Insect Pests of Millets: Systematics, Bionomics, and Management focuses on protecting the cultivated cereals that many worldwide populations depend on for food across the semi-arid tropics of the world. Providing coverage of all the major cultivated millets, including sorghum, pearlmillet, finger millet, barnyard millet, prosomillet, little millet, kodomillet, and foxtail millet, this comprehensive book on insect pests is the first of its kind that explores systematics, bionomics, distribution, damage, host range, biology, monitoring techniques, and management options, all accompanied by useful illustrations and color plates. By exploring the novel aspects of Insect-plant relationships, including host signaling orientation, host specialization, pest - host evolutionary relationship, and biogeography of insects and host plants, the book presents the latest ecologically sound and innovative techniques in insect pest management from a general overview of pest management to new biotechnological interventions.
This collection reviews advances in research on improving barley cultivation across the value chain. Part 1 reviews advances in understanding barley physiology in such areas as plant growth, grain development and plant response to abiotic stress. Chapters also review current developments in exploiting genetic diversity and mapping the barley genome. Building on this foundation, the second part of the book summarises advances in breeding with chapters on breeding trial design as well as advances in molecular breeding techniques such as genome wide association studies (GWAS) and targeted induced lesions in genomes (TILLING). Part 3 looks further along the value chain at ways of optimising cultivation practices. There are chapters on post-harvest storage as well as fungal diseases, weeds and integrated methods for their management. The final part of the book assesses current developments in optimising barley for particular end uses such as malting, brewing and animal feed as well as current research on the nutraceutical properties of barley.
Preserving the efficacy of herbicides and of herbicide-resistance
technology depends on awareness of the increasing resistance of
weeds to herbicides used in agriculture and coordinated action to
address the problem by individuals at the farm level and beyond.
This summit served as a venue to bring the attention of important
stakeholders to the issue and as an opportunity for experts from
diverse disciplines to strategize in a coordinated way to address
This volume summarises current developments in integrated pest management (IPM), focussing on insect pests. Chapters discuss advances in understanding species and landscape ecology on which IPM is founded. The book then reviews advances in cultural, physical and, in particular, biological methods of control. Topics include developments in classical, conservation and augmentative biological control as well as the use of entomopathogenic fungi, viruses, nematodes and semiochemicals. The final parts of the book summarise current research on monitoring pesticide use as well as emerging classes of biopesticides.
Biological control of weeds has been practiced for over 100 years and Australia has been a leader in this weed management technique. The classical example of control of prickly pears in Australia by the cactus moth "Cactoblastis cactorum," which was imported from the Americas, helped to set the future for biocontrol of weeds in many countries. Since then there have been many projects using Classical Biological Control to manage numerous weed species, many of which have been successful. Importantly, there have been no serious negative non-target impacts the technique, when practiced as it is in Australia, is safe and environmentally friendly. Economic assessments have shown that biocontrol of weeds in Australia has provided exceedingly high benefit-to-cost ratios. This book reviews biological control of weeds in Australia to 2011, covering over 90 weed species and a multitude of biological control agents and potential agents. Each chapter has been written by practicing biological control of weeds researchers and provides details of the weed, the history of its biological control, exploration for agents, potential agents studied and agents released and the outcomes of those releases. Many weeds were successfully controlled, some were not, many projects are still underway, some have just begun, however all are reported in detail in this book. "Biological Control of Weeds in Australia" will provide invaluable information for biological control researchers in Australia and elsewhere. Agents used in Australia could be of immense value to other countries that suffer from the same weeds as Australia. The studies reported here provide direction to future research and provide examples and knowledge for researchers and students. KEY FEATURES * A unique collation of information for Australian weed research and management * Contains all the information about biological control of weeds in Australia in one book * Provides key references for further information * Will become a well cited publication"
Despite the research effort put into controlling pathogens, pests and parasitic plants, crop losses are still a regular feature of agriculture worldwide. This makes it important to manage the crop appropriately in order to maximise yield. Understanding the relationship between the occurrence and severity of attack, and the resulting yield loss, is an important step towards improved crop protection. Linked to this, is the need to better understand the mechanisms responsible for reductions in growth and yield in affected crops. Physiological Responses of Plants to Attack is unique because it deals with the effects of different attackers pathogens, herbivores, and parasitic plants, on host processes involved in growth, reproduction, and yield. Coverage includes effects on photosynthesis, partitioning of carbohydrates, water and nutrient relations, and changes in plant growth hormones. Far from being simply a consequence of attack, the alterations in primary metabolism reflect a more dynamic and complex interaction between plant and attacker, sometimes involving re-programming of plant metabolism by the attacker. Physiological Responses of Plants to Attack is written and designed for use by senior undergraduates and postgraduates studying agricultural sciences, applied entomology, crop protection, plant pathology and plant sciences. Biological and agricultural research scientists in the agrochemical and crop protection industries, and in academia, will find much of use in this book. All libraries in universities and research establishments where biological and agricultural sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this exciting book on their shelves
Chemical poisons have infiltrated all facets of our lives - housing, agriculture, work places, sidewalks, subways, schools, parks, even the air we breathe. More than half a century since Rachel Carson issued Silent Spring - her call-to-arms against the poisoning of our drinking water, food, animals, air, and the natural environment - The Politics of Pesticides takes a fresh look at how activists around the world are fighting back against Monsanto's most dangerous creation, glyphosate. The scientists and activists contributing to The Politics of Pesticides, edited by long-time Green activist Mitchel Cohen, explore not only the dangers of glyphosate - better known as "Roundup" - but the campaign which ended with glyphosate declared as a cancer-causing agent. In an age where banned pesticides are simply replaced with newer and more deadly ones, and where corporations such as Monsanto, Bayer, Dow and DuPont scuttle attempts to regulate the products they manufacture, what is the effective, practical, and philosophical framework for banning glyphosate and other pesticides? The Politics of Pesticides explores the best strategies for winning the struggle for healthy foods and a clean environment. It takes lessons from activists who have come before, and offers a new, holistic and radical approach that is essential for defending life on this planet and creating for our kids, and for ourselves, a future worth living in.
Shows readers the how, which, when, where, what and why of termite and wood borer control. The previous edition of this highly-regarded and indispensable text is now out-of-date, and the new edition has been refined and rewritten as a full fledged text and reference book for pest-control technicians and the people who train them. Now including a colour section for easier identification of problem species, it will result in better educated technicians and more precise termite management in the future.
A pocket reference that allows the non-specialist to identify major insect and arachnid pests found in stored cereal grains, grain products and grain legumes. It describes most storage pests found worldwide and provides concise information on the biology, distribution, damage and economic importance of each species. Each entry contains at least one color photograph. The notes for each species tell the nature of the pest or beneficial and the commodity affected; temperature and humidity conditions at which the species can survive; optimum conditions at which eggs take the shortest time to develop into adults; and maximum population growth rate per month. This new edition covers twice as many species and includes more detail on distribution, host range and pest status than the previous edition. Short introductory sections on insect biology, principles of control and concepts of pest status evaluation have also been added. This handy pocket guide is designed to complement the more comprehensive book "Insects of Stored Products" also by David Rees. Features* A unique colour illustrated pocket guide to pests of durable stored food and fiber commodities * Each species illustrated with concise information on distribution, host range * In this new updated edition additional species have been added to give it a worldwide coverage * Additional information also provided in this edition on control, host range, biology, distribution and pest status of covered species
Invasive arthropods cause significant damage in agricultural crops and natural environments across the globe. Potentially threatened regions need to be prepared to prevent new pests from becoming established. Therefore, information on pest identity, host range, geographical distribution, biology, tools for detection and identification are all essential to researchers and regulatory personnel. This book focuses on the most recent invasive pests of agricultural crops in temperate subtropical and tropical areas and on potential invaders, discussing their spread, biology and control.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) on small-grain cereals is one of the most devastating diseases. Several species can cause head blight, though Fusarium graminearum is the predominant pathogen in most regions. F. graminearum is one of the most intensively studied fungal plant pathogens. This book presents the current state of knowledge regarding mycological aspects that make wheat-Fusarium interaction, such as hyphal growth, morphogenesis in germinating spores, visualization of enzymatic hydrolysis, production of mycotoxins, inhibition of the hyphal growth by antagonist microorganisms, use of natural substances or by modification of the host resistance, as well as genetic analysis and expression of genes that regulate the infection. Fungal ecology and epidemiology will also be discussed. Just as the analysis of environmental requirements for the establishment of the disease, the use of forecasts of disease risk with meteorological base and integrated management and control. This book includes the study of disease in Latin America, therefore will be of interest to researchers who are working on the issue, as for those who are interested in knowing about the disease.
The Garden and Greenhouse Flowers manual is a reference manual on diseases which attack garden and greenhouse flowers. The manual identifies various types of diseases which are known to invade these plants located throughout North, Central, and South America.The recordings include diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and nematodes. Causal disease agents are described and illustrated in some cases and diseases and disease control measures are also discussed. A manual such as this is never finished since new reports of diseases are continuously reported.
"Mites (Acari) for Pest Control" is an extremely comprehensive
publication, covering in depth the 34 acarine families that contain
mites useful for the control of pest mites and insects, nematodes
and weeds. In addition to providing information on each relevant
acarine family, the book includes essential information on the
introduction, culture and establishment of acarine biocontrol
agents, the effects of the host plants, agrochemicals and
environmental factors on mites used in biological control and
discusses commercial and economic considerations in their
Mites are now used in various ways for biological control, with
a growing number of species being sold commercially throughout the
world. The authors of this landmark publication, who have between
them a huge wealth of experience working with mites in biological
control programs, have put together a book that will for many years
be the standard reference on the subject.
The book will be of great value to all those working in crop
protection and biological control both in research as well as in
commercial operations, including acarologists, entomologists,
integrated pest management specialists, agricultural and plant
scientists. Libraries in all universities and research
establishments where these subjects are studied and taught should
all have copies on their shelves.
Uri Gerson is at the Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Hebrew University, Rehovot, Israel. Robert L. Smiley and Ronald Ochoa are at the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD, USA
Public confidence in the security of the US food and fiber system has been sustained by the quality, variety, abundance, and affordability of agricultural products in the United States. Although the system in place to defend against unintentional threats to agriculture has weaknesses and needs, the demonstrated ability of the system to resolve, accommodate, or manage critical food safety problems, temporary shortages of some commodities, plant and animal infestations and diseases, and natural disasters indicates that, in general, such confidence has been warranted. However, over the last several years, there has been recognition of the possibility and consequences of intentional threats directed at US agriculture. Such attacks could come from foreign or domestic terrorists and use biological, chemical, or radiological agents. They could be directed at the pre-harvest (live plant and live animal) or post-harvest (processing and distribution) stages of food and fiber production. "Countering Agricultural Bioterrorism assesses the vulnerability of US agriculture to intentional threats and provides recommendations needed to strengthen and adapt tine US system for defense against biological threats to agriculture.
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