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This book is an essential companion volume to "Quarantine Pests for Europe, 2nd Edition" and "Illustrations of Quarantine Pests for Europe." The three titles are the result of collaboration between CABI and EPPO in the compilation of data on the pests of phytosanitary significance for the European and Mediterranean region. This present publication provides updated geographic distributions of over 350 pests for which data sheets and illustrations are already available. A map is provided for each pest showing the current world distribution graphically. This is supported by a list of the countries and provinces in which the pest has been recorded with a coded indication of its current status. Coverage extends to insects, mites, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, viruses and parasitic plants. The pests concerned are either entirely absent from the European and Mediterranean region (A1 list) or have a restricted distribution (A2 list). Text within the book is provided in both English and French.
in the conservation and use of global plant genetic resources for sustainable agricultural production, Global Plant Genetic Resources for Insect-Resistant Crops explores plant biodiversity, its preservation, and its use to develop crops resistant to pests, thereby reducing world-wide use of chemical pesticides. Topics addressed include:
The two closely related species of Potato Cyst-Nematodes (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis (Woll) and Globodera pallida Stone have a worldwide distribution. Both are internationally recognized plant quarantine organisms of actual or potential major economic importance wherever potatoes are grown or traded. They occur in large soil masses and also adhere to potato tubers as microscopic cysts, which represent a complex of morphologically identical, but behaviourally different virulence groups, or pathotypes. This presents major problems for their detection, identification and management. This book is a synthesis of current practical knowledge and underpinning scientific research on PCN globally. It is arranged in five sections, comprising nineteen chapters by leading practitioners and research nematologists, in which the biology, detection, identification and control options (including plant resistance) for PCN are examined. In addition, its worldwide status is considered, including South America, where PCN co-evolved with its potato host. Essential information is provided for professionals and advanced students of plant nematology and crop protection.
Since its inception in the 1960s, integrated pest management (IPM) has become the dominant paradigm in crop protection. Its ecological approach - involving a minimum use of pesticides - has accounted for much of its popularity, and it has been widely adopted by a range of development agencies. This study outlines some of the classic IPM success stories (primarily from North America) and contrasts them with the results obtained in developing countries. Conventional explanations for IPM's failure in developing countries focus on problems with extension, farmer co-operation, funding, government direction, or even conspiracy in the pesticide industry. In contrast, Morse and Buhler demonstrate that the main reason for the poor performance of IPM has more to do with the nature of IPM itself. A product of agricultural industrialization, IPM may be effective in the context of large-scale industrial farming, argue the authors, but it is not suitable for resource-poor farmers operating on a relatively small scale.
Soilborne diseases have, until recently, received less attention than plant diseases affecting the shoot and foliage. However, this is not a reflection of their economic importance, but rather of difficulties in investigating and detecting pathogens below soil level. Many soilborne diseases are stress related and it is in the tropics where crop growth is particularly limited by environmental stress, predisposing crops to infection by soilborne pathogens. There is thus a great need for information on soilborne diseases of crops in the tropics. This book aims to fill this need by providing reviews of relevant research. It covers the major tropical crops and also includes general chapters on principles, ecology and control. Written by leading research workers from countries including the UK, USA, Australia and India, it will be indispensable for plant pathologists working in this area.
Proponents of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) advocate its use to reduce or eliminate the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture, since excessive pesticide use may be a threat to both human health and the environment. Proponents of biotechnology believe that the use of novel products, such as transgenic plants with insect resistance, will reduce the need for chemical pesticides. However the use of such novel products within IPM systems may also create potential risks. This volume reviews such issues and discusses the potential benefits of and constraints to the applications of biotechnology in IPM systems, especially in developing countries. It also considers the related policy issues confronting decision-makers in national agricultural research systems and international development agencies. The book consists of revised versions of papers presented at a conference hosted by the Rockefeller Foundation and held in Bellagio, Italy in October 1993.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of multiple causes of soil-related sub-optimal crop performance. This book integrates soil health and sustainable agriculture with nematode ecology and suppressive services provided by the soil food web to provide holistic solutions. Biological control is an important component of all nematode management programmes, and with a particular focus on integrated soil biology management, this book describes tools available to farmers to enhance the activity of natural enemies, and utilize soil biological processes to reduce losses from nematodes.
This comprehensive book is the first illustrated volume to provide detailed discussions of all plant genera regarding techniques developed to evaluate plant resistance to insects. Many of the book's references have never before appeared in a volume on this subject. The authors systematically discuss techniques used to evaluate different types of insect behavior and plant morphological and phytochemical factors responsible for plant resistance and susceptibility to insects.
Emerging Strategies for Pesticide Analysis presents a selection of reports on analytical technologies in the field of pesticide residue analysis. These reports have been written by international experts in their respective fields. Applications-oriented chapters focus on methods development for extraction and cleanup, in addition to multiresidue analysis of important pesticides. Other chapters describe alternative analytical approaches to conventional detection methods. stressing advantages and disadvantages of techniques such as fiber optic spectroscopy, ion trap mass spectrometry, LC/MS, and others. The final chapter summarizes the future of technological advancement in pesticide analysis.
"Dying on the Vine" chronicles 150 years of scientific warfare against the grapevine's worst enemy: phylloxera. In a book that is highly relevant for the wine industry today, George Gale describes the biological and economic disaster that unfolded when a tiny, root-sucking insect invaded the south of France in the 1860s, spread throughout Europe, and journeyed across oceans to Africa, South America, Australia, and California - laying waste to vineyards wherever it landed. He tells how scientists, viticulturalists, researchers, and others came together to save the world's vineyards and, with years of observation and research, developed a strategy of resistance. Among other topics, the book discusses phylloxera as an important case study of how one invasive species can colonize new habitats and examines California's past and present problems with it.
This book brings together key features of the toxicology and occupational hazards of pesticides and the way their use is regulated in the main trading regions of the world. There are chapters on each of the main groups of insecticides, namely organochlorines, anticholinesterases and pyrethrins and pyrethroids. The book also covers fungicides and herbicides, as well as more specialised agents such as microbial pesticides. The risks and hazards to humans are considered, both occupational and through the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs. Additionally, clinical aspects of pesticide poisoning are discussed.
The possibility of harm from pesticide exposure has led to the development of national and international regulations governing the application of pesticides. The book describes the regulatory systems in three major economic areas: the North American Free Trade Area (USA, Canada and Mexico), the European Union and Japan.
This book should be of interest to all individuals working on
the development and application of pesticides anywhere in the
world. All those involved in the manufacture, regulation and
toxicology of pesticides should also benefit from reading this
Analysis of Pesticide in Tea: Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Methodology is a comprehensive book, providing serial, rapid, high-throughput analytical methods for determining more than 600 pesticides in tea. There are increasing numbers of strict limit standards for pesticide residues in edible agricultural products in countries all over the world. The threshold for pesticide residues in tea is high for international trade. At present, 17 countries and international organizations have stipulated MRL levels for over 800 pesticide residues in tea. All methods described in this book are validated by an independent, U.S.-based organization (AOAC International), and all indexes have satisfied AOAC International's criteria. China has a history of 5000 years in growing tea and is a large tea producer with 80 million people involved in tea growing. China exports tea to over 100 countries worldwide, enjoying a high reputation for quality and variety.
"Plant Defense" provides an overview of all major aspects of plant defence, including defence against pathogens, parasites, and invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores. The book looks at defense mechanisms including structural and chemical defences, and constitutive and inducible defences. Including details of how plants 'sense' attack and how this is communicated within the plant and also to neighbouring plants, how plants coordinate defence responses to simultaneous multiple attacks, and the energy and resources expended by a plant in maintaining and implementing its defence systems.
..".the most useful, practical book I have seen on the management
of turfgrass insect pests...mandatory reading for turfgrass
managers in golf, lawns, and sports..." --Dr. James B. Beard,
International Sports Turf Institute, Inc.
Designed for both novice and experienced superintendents, this
field-manual will help you understand and implement successful
integrated pest management techniques. Each chapter begins with a
solid introduction, followed by step-by-step lists to aid in the
field application of IPM principles to real world situations. Over
150 photographs--32 in color--along with informative tables and
drawings illustrate the key points. Actual examples and success
stories are presented by superintendents from across the country to
help you plan or improve your IPM program.
The goal of this book is to bring together several factors regarding a threatening concern of our society today: how our production systems impact life on Earth. All ecosystems around us endure the effects of the way we manage resources in order to survive and thrive. All biomes are highly interconnected, and it is clear that we cannot live with unhealthy land, atmosphere and water. The aquatic ecosystems are incredibly delicate, yet, they have been suffering a lot from man-made pollution in several forms, from industrial effluents to the presence of pesticides, mostly coming from agricultural practices. Humans have a special connection with water, not only because it is the origin of life itself, but also because it is a primary material for so much that we need, even if we do not see it clearly. Understanding the mechanisms by which these chemicals reach water bodies, how they behave in such systems, and the impact they have on organisms of all sizes, shapes and roles in the food web, is essential to better protect them. By doing this, directly and indirectly we are protecting ourselves. This book is a collection of basic literature, which present findings that are foundational for the environmental research of the forthcoming decades, recent mechanistic discoveries at cellular levels, as well as a summary of useful strategies to assess risk and to execute monitoring with advanced laboratory techniques.
A pesticide is a substance or a mixture of substances used for killing pests: organisms dangerous to cultivated plants or to animals. The term applies to various pesticides such as insecticide, fungicide, herbicide and nematocide. Applications of pesticides to crops and animals may leave residues in or on food when it is consumed, and those specified derivatives are considered to be of toxicological significance. Pesticides which are used for preventing or destroying pest is having more negative impact on our ecological system when compared to its desired action. Pesticides are carried by wind to other areas and make them contaminate. Pesticides are also causing water pollution and some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants which contribute to soil contamination. Pesticide residue refers to the pesticides that may remain on or in food after they are applied to food crops. The maximum allowable levels of these residues in foods are often stipulated by regulatory bodies in many countries. Exposure of the general population to these residues most commonly occurs through consumption of treated food sources, or being in close contact to areas treated with pesticides such as farms or lawns. Defined by the World Health Organization (WTO) as, "Any substance or mixture of substances in food for man or animals resulting from the use of a pesticide and includes any specified derivatives, such as degradation and conversion products, metabolites, reaction products, and impurities that are considered to be of toxicological significance." Many of chemical residues, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bioaccumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment. Persistent chemicals can be magnified through the food chain and have been detected in products ranging from meat, poultry, and fish, to vegetable oils, nuts, and various fruits and vegetables. The publication in 1962 of the famous Silent Spring by the biologist Rachel Carson made popular the risks associated to DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). This was followed by the cancelation of this pesticide for agricultural uses by US authorities. Other prominent examples of pesticide cancelation include EDB (ethylene dibromide) in 1983 and methyl bromide in 2005. It is well known now that a significant fraction of pesticides are carcinogenic; for instance, 18% of all insecticides and 90% of all fungicides were found to be carcinogenic (NAS, 1987 `Regulating pesticides in food'. Washington DC, National Academy of Sciences.). It is also well known that pesticide residues remain for long periods of time, and that they are especially toxic to the young. Also, pesticides kill domestic animals, fishes and bees. Moreover, their use results in the development and evolution of pesticide resistance in insects, weeds and plant pathogens. Nevertheless hundreds of pesticides are used worldwide, and some pesticides are used in some countries but not in others. For instance, the main pesticide which is used in corn production in the US is atrazine, but this pesticide has been banned in the EU because of its toxicity since 2004. This book is highlighting pesticides residue in our food, food safety, its impact on our health, health risk, pesticides residue in fruits, vegetables, milk & its products and honey bees and finally its removal. Hope this book contributes in raising awareness about the use of pesticides and the risk associated with its use leading finally to the rational use of pesticides having its benefits without compromising our health. The publication was made possible due to the efforts and the expertise of the contributing authors. They are gratefully acknowledged.
Presto! No More Pests!" proclaimed a 1955 article introducing two new pesticides, "miracle-workers for the housewife and back-yard farmer." Easy to use, effective, and safe: who couldn't love synthetic pesticides? Apparently most Americans did-and apparently still do. Why-in the face of dire warnings, rising expense, and declining effectiveness-do we cling to our chemicals? Michelle Mart wondered. Her book, a cultural history of pesticide use in postwar America, offers an answer. America's embrace of synthetic pesticides began when they burst on the scene during World War II and has held steady into the 21st century-for example, more than 90% of soybeans grown in the US in 2008 are Roundup Ready GMOs, dependent upon generous use of the herbicide glyphosate to control weeds. Mart investigates the attraction of pesticides, with their up-to-theminute promise of modernity, sophisticated technology, and increased productivity-in short, their appeal to human dreams of controlling nature. She also considers how they reinforced Cold War assumptions of Western economic and material superiority. Though the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring and the rise of environmentalism might have marked a turning point in Americans' faith in pesticides, statistics tell a different story. Pesticides, a Love Story recounts the campaign against DDT that famously ensued; but the book also shows where our notions of Silent Spring's revolutionary impact falter-where, in spite of a ban on DDT, farm use of pesticides in the United States more than doubled in the thirty years after the book was published. As a cultural survey of popular and political attitudes toward pesticides, Pesticides, a Love Story tries to make sense of this seeming paradox. At heart, it is an exploration of the story we tell ourselves about the costs and benefits of pesticides-and how corporations, government officials, ordinary citizens, and the press shape that story to reflect our ideals, interests, and emotions.
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