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In today's world, food security is an important issue. Food shortages push prices up, impacting upon the health and well-being of hundreds of millions of rural poor across the globe. One way to increase food security is to decrease the amount of yield lost to pests. The Pesticide Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the fight against pests, covering chemical pesticides, biocontrol agents and biopesticides. It also covers interrelated topics such as pesticide toxicity, legislation and regulation, handling, storage and safety aspects, IPM techniques, resistance management, interaction of pesticides with soil and the environment. An important reference for policy makers, advisers and students and researchers of crop science, this book also includes useful notes on commonly known plant diseases and pests.
Currently, the major challenge of humanity is focused on population growth through agricultural production in order to meet the demand for food. The food crunch is mainly due to pest and disease. Traditional methods, synthetic insecticides and microbicides cause health hazards to human beings, domestic animals and also affect our immediate environments. Serious concerns were implemented by both developing and developed countries as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Bio-intensive Integrated Pest Management (BIPM) systems where biopesticides play an important role worldwide. The available books are limited to particular aspects of biopesticides. Hence, it is imperative to bring out a holistic documentation which will provide the reader information on all aspects of biopesticides. The book consists of five sections namely microbials, botanicals, natural enemies semio- chemicals and biotechnology and equipments, bioinformatics tools and IPM. In Section I, microbial deals with utilization of Bacillus in control of phytonematodes; biological control of pest and diseases with fluorescent pseudomonads, entomopathogenic fungus and entomopathogenic nematodes in pest management, microbial viral insecticides and microbial elicitors to induce immunity for plant disease control in chilli and tomato. Importance of plant essential oils, botanicals in endocrine disruption, relevance of botanicals and use of plant volatile on pest management has been discussed in Section II. Importance and role of reduviidae, weaver ants, ground beetles, Odonatas, spiders in biological control has been discussed in Section III. In addition, genetic improvement of biocontrol agents for sustainable pest management has also been highlighted. In Section IV, classical practices and pheromone, kairomonal enhancement to natural enemies and use of transgenic plants in insect control are highlighted. Equipment and their application methodologies for application of biopesticides; relevance of bioinformatics in biopesticides management; pest management of soybean, bio fouling and eco friendly antifoulants have been highlighted in Section V. Each chapter has objectives and conclusion along with recommendations.
Climate change poses significant risks to future crop productivity as temperatures rise, rainfall patterns become more variable, and pest and disease pressures increase. The use of crop genetic resources to develop varieties more tolerant to rapidly changing environmental conditions will be an important part of agricultural adaptation to climate change. Finding new genetic traits that can facilitate adaptation -- and incorporating them into commercially successful varieties -- is time-consuming, expensive, and technically difficult. This book reviews the types of genetic resources, the ways they have been used, and how they might be used in the future. The book also discusses economic, scientific, and institutional factors that will determine the extent of genetic resource use and the benefits it might bring to climate change adaptation. Moreover, this title evaluates economic and institutional factors influencing the flow of genetic resources, including international agreements, and their significance for agricultural research and development in the United States. Finally, the book examines the composition of U.S. and international seed markets, regulations affecting agricultural seeds, the structure and evolution of the seed industry, and trends in private and public R&D in plant breeding.
In the race to feed the world's seven billion people, we are at a
standstill. Over the past century, we have developed increasingly
potent and sophisticated pesticides, yet in 2014, the average
percentage of U.S. crops lost to agricultural pests was no less
than in 1944. To use a metaphor the field of evolutionary biology
borrowed from "Alice in Wonderland," farmers must run ever faster
to stay in the same place--i.e., produce the same yields.
Aphids are among the major global pest groups, causing serious economic damage to many food and commodity crops in most parts of the world. This revision and update of the well-received first edition published ten years ago reflects the expansion of research in genomics, endosymbionts and semiochemicals, as well as the shift from control of aphids with insecticides to a more integrated approach imposed by increasing resistance in the aphids and government restrictions on pesticides. The book remains a comprehensive and up-to-date reference work on the biology of aphids, the various methods of controlling them and the progress of integrated pest management as illustrated by ten case histories. Helmut van Emden is Emeritus Professor of Horticulture at the University of Reading, UK. He has researched on aphids for over 50 years and has wide international experience, including in the tropics. Richard Harrington retired in 2015 as Head of the Rothamsted Insect Survey, with which he worked for 36 years on aphid monitoring and forecasting. He led the EU project "EXAMINE" (Exploitation of Aphid Monitoring In Europe) which brought together colleagues involved in aphid monitoring throughout Europe and beyond.
Biological control - utilizing a population of natural enemies to
seasonally or permanently suppress pests - is not a new concept.
The cottony cushion scale, which nearly destroyed the citrus
industry of California, was controlled by an introduced predatory
insect in the 1880s. Accelerated invasions by insects and spread of
weedy non-native plants in the last century have increased the need
for the use of biological control. Use of carefully chosen natural
enemies has become a major tool for the protection of natural
ecosystems, biodiversity and agricultural and urban
This book offers a multifaceted yet integrated discussion on two
major applications of biological control: permanent control of
invasive insects and plants at the landscape level and temporary
suppression of both native and exotic pests in farms, tree
plantations, and greenhouses. Written by leading international
experts in the field, the text discusses control of invasive
species and the role of natural enemies in pest management.
This book is essential reading for courses on Invasive Species,
Pest Management, and Crop Protection. It is an invaluable reference
book for biocontrol professionals, restorationists,
agriculturalists, and wildlife biologists.
Further information and resources can be found on the Editor's own website at: www.invasiveforestinsectandweedbiocontrol.info/index.htm
This book presents the most up-to-date and comprehensive guide to the current and potential future state of weed science and research. Weeds have a huge effect on the world by reducing crop yield and quality, delaying or interfering with harvesting, interfering with animal feeding (including poisoning), reducing animal health and preventing water flow. They are common across the world and cost billions of dollars worth of crop losses year on year, as well as billions of dollars in the annual expense of controlling them. An understanding of weeds is vital to their proper management and control, without which the reduction in crop yields that they would cause could lead to mass starvation across the globe. Topics covered include weed biology and ecology, control of weeds and particular issues faced in their control. Authored and edited by internationally renowned scientists in the field all of whom are actively involved in European Weed Research Society working groups, this succinct overview covers all the relevant aspects of the science of weeds. Weed Research: Expanding Horizons is the perfect resource for botanists, horticultural scientists, agronomists, weed scientists, plant protection specialists and agrochemical company personnel.
This Volume comprises 12 chapters in an attempt to bring available information on biology, social behavour and economic importance of termites. Chapters in this book dealing with termites identification provide a review on most updated information of their systematics. Ecologically, termites interact with living and non-living surroundings and deliver a wide range of behaviors. In a separate chapter termites ecology is examined and explored. Termites depend on their gut microbes for digestion of complex polysaccharides of wood into simpler molecules. Information provided on termite gut microbiome and lignocellulose degradation constitutes an important contribution. Termite biology and social behaviour have been addressed comprehensively. Trail pheromones are responsible for the orientation and recruitment of nestmates to the food sources. Once arriving at a potential food source, termites assess its quality using a different set of cues. A separate chapter on trail pheromones, cues used during foraging and food assessment, with preferences for foraging sites, contributes a wealth of information. Emphasis has been given on reviewing ecological benefits of termites in other chapters. The information with respect to termite species as an edible insect and the overall role it plays in food and nutrition security in Africa is quite informative. A separate chapter dealing with importance of termites and termitaria in mineral exploration constitutes a significant step in addressing the economic importance of this insect group.
Pesticides used to control weeds, unwanted insects, and fungi contribute to agricultural productivity and public health by preventing crop damage and controlling pests. However, pesticides may also have adverse effects. EPA's OPP reviews applications for pesticide products and registers those that it determines do not have unreasonable adverse effects on health and the environment. This book examines the extent to which EPA inspects for GLP compliance laboratories that test pesticides and the challenges EPA faces in doing so; uses the information obtained through GLP inspections in its pesticide decision-making process; and collaborates with FDA on GLP inspections.
Mites pose a serious problem to plants worldwide, attacking crops and spreading disease. When mites damage crops of economic importance the impacts can be felt globally. Mites are among the most diverse and successful of invertebrates, with over 45,000 described species, with many more thousands to be discovered. They are responsible for a significant portion of the losses of crops for food, fibre, industry and other purposes, and require expensive and often controversial pest control measures. Understanding these mites is vital for entomologists, pest researchers, agronomists and food producers. Knowledge of mite pests helps to inform control strategies and optimize the production of economic plants and the agrarian economy. This encyclopedia provides a thorough coverage of the mites and the problems they cause to crops, yet it is easily searchable, organised by mite species and subdivided into helpful headings. It takes a worldwide view of the issue of mites injurious to economic plants, describing mites prevalent in different regions and discussing control methods appropriate in different environments. This book provides an encyclopaedic reference to the major mites, described by family in terms of their internal and external morphology, bio-ecology and family systematics. Methods of mite collection and laboratory study is described, as well as species diagnostic characteristics, worldwide distribution, host plants, identification by the type of damage they cause and control strategies, including chemical and biological intervention and integrated pest management measures. Mites of the following families are included: (Eriophyoidea, Tarsonemidae, Tuckerellidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae, Acaridae, Penthaleidae). The Handbook of Mites of Economic Plants is an important resource for students of entomology and crop production, and as a thorough reference guide for researchers and field workers involved with mites, crop damage and food production.
The abundance of insects can change dramatically from generation to generation; these generational changes may occur within a growing season or over a period of years. Such extraordinary density changes or "outbreaks" may be abrupt and ostensibly random, or population peaks may occur in a more or less cyclic fashion. They can be hugely destructive when the insect is a crop pest or carries diseases of humans, farm animals, or wildlife. Knowledge of these types of population dynamics and computer models that may help predict when they occur are very important.
This important new book revisits a subject not thoroughly discussed in such a publication since 1988 and brings an international scale to the issue of insect outbreaks.
"Insect Outbreaks Revisited" is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students in ecology, population biology and entomology, as well as government and industry scientists doing research on pests, land managers, pest management personnel, extension personnel, conservation biologists and ecologists, and state, county and district foresters.
Imagine a statistics book for bioassays written by a statistician. Next, imagine a statistics book for bioassays written for a layman. Bioassays with Arthropods, Third Edition offers the best of both worlds by translating the terse, precise language of the statistician into language used by the laboratory scientist. The book explains the statistical basis and analysis for each kind of quantal response bioassay in just the right amount of detail. The first two editions were a great reference for designing, conducting, and interpreting bioassays: this completely revised and updated third edition will also train the laboratory scientist to be an expert in estimation of dose response curves. New in the Third Edition: Introduces four new Windows and Apple-based computer programs (PoloJR, OptiDose, PoloMixture and PoloMulti) for the analyses of binary and multiple response analyses, respectively Replaces out-of-date GLIM examples with R program samples Includes a new chapter, Population Toxicology, and takes a systems approach to bioassays Expands the coverage of invasive species and quarantine statistics Building on the foundation set by the much-cited first two editions, the authors clearly delineate applications and ideas that are exceptionally challenging for those not already familiar with their use. They lead you through the methods with such ease and organization, that you suddenly find yourself readily able to apply concepts that you never thought you would understand. To order the PoloSuite computer software described in Bioassays with Arthropods, Third Edition, use the order form found at www.leora-software.com or contact the LeOra Software Company at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Plant pathogenic fungi cause devastating damage to crop production worldwide. The growing global population necessitates reduced crop losses to improve food security, and the control of fungal plant pathogens is vital to help maintain food production. Providing a concise and balanced review of fungicides used in crop protection, this book describes the science of fungicide use, selection and resistance within the context of farming situations. Major updates and additions reflecting the emergence of two new classes of fungicides (strobilurins and SDHI) and the increased incidence of fungicide resistance are included in this new edition, which also discusses legislative requirements to reduce fungicide applications, and current trends in fungicide use.
The pesticide should cause effect on the target pests and be selective enough to spare the non-target beneficial. The book deals with the pesticide toxicity to predators, parasitoids and microbes which are used for pest management in the agroecosystem. The other beneficials exposed to pesticides are pollinators, earthworms, silkworm and fishes. The book contains information on the modes of pesticide exposure and toxicity to the organisms, sub-lethal effects of insecticides and method of toxicity assessment, risk assessment of pesticidal application in the field. The purpose of the work is to compile and present the different procedures to assess pesticide poising in organisms related to the agroecosystem along with discussions on risk assessment procedures with clear comparison of toxicity of pesticides to target pests and non target beneficial organisms.
Armored scale insects are among the most damaging and least understood of the pests that prey on forest trees, fruit and nut crops, landscape ornamentals, and greenhouse plants. The passage of U.S. plant quarantine laws was prompted by devastation caused by an armored scale in the nineteenth century, and the appearance of new invasive species remains a vital concern at ports of entry and for arborists, farmers, nursery workers, foresters, and gardeners everywhere. This book provides the most comprehensive available information on the identification, field appearance, life history, and economic importance of the 110 economically important armored scale insects that are found in the United States. The authors have devised the first field key to economic armored scales, which will be invaluable to those trying to identify the pests and prevent the introduction of new exotics. (Most of the species covered are not native to the United States but broadly distributed across the globe.) The extensive color plates and highly detailed line drawings surpass anything available in other volumes on armored scale insects, and have not previously been published. Especially noteworthy are the data on distribution, host plants, and the kinds of damage caused by armored scales. The species descriptions include scientific names, synonyms, common names, field characteristics, microscopic characters, affinities, host plants, distribution by state, life history, economic damage, and selected references.
Many biological studies on insect management do not consider economics or fundamental economic principles. This book brings together economists and entomologists to explain the principles, successes, and challenges of effective insect management. It highlights the importance of economic analyses for decision making and the feasibility of such approaches, and examines integrated pest management (IPM) practices from around the world with an emphasis on agriculture and public health. The book begins by establishing an economic framework upon which to apply the principles of IPM. It continues to examine the entomological applications of economics, specifically, economic analyses concerning chemical, biological, and genetic control tactics as well as host plant resistance and the cost of sampling and is illustrated with case studies of economic-based IPM programs from around the world.
It's the pesticide on our dinner plates, a chemical so pervasive it's in the air we breathe, our water, our soil, and even found increasingly in our own bodies. Known as Monsanto's Roundup by consumers, and as glyphosate by scientists, the world's most popular weed killer is used everywhere from backyard gardens to golf courses to millions of acres of farmland. For decades it's been touted as safe enough to drink, but a growing body of evidence indicates just the opposite, with research tying the chemical to cancers and a host of other health threats. In Whitewash, veteran journalist Carey Gillam uncovers one of the most controversial stories in the history of food and agriculture, exposing new evidence of corporate influence. Gillam introduces readers to farm families devastated by cancers which they believe are caused by the chemical, and to scientists whose reputations have been smeared for publishing research that contradicted business interests. Readers learn about the arm-twisting of regulators who signed off on the chemical, echoing company assurances of safety even as they permitted higher residues of the pesticide in food and skipped compliance tests. And, in startling detail, Gillam reveals secret industry communications that pull back the curtain on corporate efforts to manipulate public perception. Whitewash is more than an expose about the hazards of one chemical or even the influence of one company. It's a story of power, politics, and the deadly consequences of putting corporate interests ahead of public safety.
Throughout Asia, Australia and the Pacific, and increasingly in Africa, the primary horticultural insect pests are fruit flies belonging to the genera Bactrocera, Zeugodacus and Dacus (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini). The Dacini is a hugely diverse clade of nearly 900 species endemic to the rainforests of Asia, Australia and the western Pacific, and the savannas and woodlands of Africa. All these species lay their eggs into fleshy fruits and vegetables, where the maggots feed, therefore destroying the fruit. In addition to being crop pests, dacines are also invasive pests of major quarantine importance and their presence in production areas can significantly impact market access opportunities. This broad text provides a rapid introduction to this economically and ecologically important group, which includes species such as the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis), Melon fly (Z. cucurbitae), Queensland fruit fly (B. tryoni) and the Olive fly (B. oleae). Broken into three primary sections, it first explores the evolutionary history, systematic relationships, taxonomy and species-level diagnosis of the Dacini flies. The following biology section covers their life history, population demography, behaviour and ecology, and natural enemies. The final section of the book covers the management of these flies, with chapters on pre-harvest, post-harvest and regulatory controls. Each chapter concludes with a list of key monographs, papers or book chapters for further reading. This book will be of interest to field entomologists, extension officers, quarantine officers and market access negotiators, as well as students of applied entomology and pest management.
This collection reviews advances in understanding and managing key diseases and insect pests of tree fruit. Part 1 summarises current research on what causes key fungal diseases (apple scab, powdery mildew, apple canker and brown rot) as well as viral diseases (apple mosaic virus and plum pox). Building on this foundation, Part 2 discusses integrated fruit disease management techniques such as improved surveillance, breeding disease-resistant varieties, improved fungicide application as well as the use of biocontrol agents. The second half of the book focuses on the ecology of major insect pests (aphids, tortricid moths, mites and spotted wing drosophila). The final part of the book reviews ways of improving integrated pest management (IPM) techniques for tree fruit, from monitoring and forecasting to agronomic practices to methods of biological control and optimisation of insecticide use. With its distinguished editors and expert team of chapter authors, this will be a standard reference on understanding and managing key diseases and insect pests of tree fruit.
Insect transgenesis promises improvements in agriculture, pharmaceuticals and public health. Many important insects can now be routinely transformed with effectors that have useful applications. Agriculture presents the largest market for transgenic insects and has a foundational history of success with sterile insect technique for control of pests including Mediterranean fruit flies and screwworms. Biotechnology will contribute superior markers, suppressible sterility and sex-conversion. Public health is also seeing transgenic mosquitoes developed which suppress natural populations and are incapable of transmitting disease. Experts in the field will contribute their insights into the latest technology and its applications. Authors will also consider the larger risks, social and economic aspects of transgenic insects whose value must be proven in political, regulatory and public acceptance arenas.
A companion to 'Urban Pest Management', this book builds on the issues of insect pests in urban settings to discuss control strategies that look beyond products. From an environmental and health perspective, it is not always practical to spray chemicals indoors or in urban settings, so this work discusses sustainable control and best practice methods for managing insects that are vectors of disease, nuisance pests and the cause of structural damage.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of multiple causes of soil-related sub-optimal crop performance. This book integrates soil health and sustainable agriculture with nematode ecology and suppressive services provided by the soil food web to provide holistic solutions. Biological control is an important component of all nematode management programmes, and with a particular focus on integrated soil biology management, this book describes tools available to farmers to enhance the activity of natural enemies, and utilize soil biological processes to reduce losses from nematodes.
This book systematically presents 40 pests, 7 natural pest enemies, and 20 diseases and weeds commonly encountered in sugarcane production, combining clear colour photos with detailed scientific descriptions. It covers a range of related topics, including morphological identification, habits and frequency of occurrence, prevention and control measures, symptom identification, characteristics of infections and epidemics, parasitic (predator) characteristics, ways of utilising natural pest enemies, main species and distribution, fluctuation in the field, and chemical control of weeds. With novel content presented in simple, straightforward language, the book provides a valuable reference guide for scientific researchers, educators and industrial practitioners, as well as students and advisers at agricultural universities.
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