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'If you only read one book this year, make it this one' CATHY RENTZENBRINK
'This book must be read by as many people as possible - only when people change their view of human nature will they begin to believe in the possibility of building a better world' GRACE BLAKELEY
'It'd be no surprise if it proved to be the Sapiens of 2020' GUARDIAN
It's a belief that unites the left and right, psychologists and philosophers, writers and historians. It drives the headlines that surround us and the laws that touch our lives. From Machiavelli to Hobbes, Freud to Dawkins, the roots of this belief have sunk deep into Western thought. Human beings, we're taught, are by nature selfish and governed by self-interest.
Humankind makes a new argument: that it is realistic, as well as revolutionary, to assume that people are good. The instinct to cooperate rather than compete, trust rather than distrust, has an evolutionary basis going right back to the beginning of Homo sapiens. By thinking the worst of others, we bring out the worst in our politics and economics too.
In this major book, internationally bestselling author Rutger Bregman takes some of the world's most famous studies and events and reframes them, providing a new perspective on the last 200,000 years of human history. From the real-life Lord of the Flies to the Blitz, a Siberian fox farm to an infamous New York murder, Stanley Milgram's Yale shock machine to the Stanford prison experiment, Bregman shows how believing in human kindness and altruism can be a new way to think - and act as the foundation for achieving true change in our society.
It is time for a new view of human nature.
Consisting of an assortment of landmark essays and the best in contemporary scholarship, this anthology delves deeply into the most pressing environmental issues of our times. Articles included in this anthology are distinguished for their relevance to real-life policy making and for their ability to promote rich and lively discussion about controversial matters. In addition, the editors' careful organization of the topics and illuminating section previews keep students focused on the most essential points of current environmental debates.
The second edition of Media ethics in the South African context explores the dynamic and potentially explosive field of media ethics from a South African perspective. Grounded in ethical theory, the public philosophies of communication and media performance norms, this text provides guidelines for the individual's ethical decision making; for both media practitioners and media groups. Cutting edge analysis of the South African normative context under the previous and present political dispensations makes this book essential reading for media policy formulators and students alike. Changes in the normative context are presenting the South African news media in particular, with new challenges.
The true meaning of humility persistently drives debate, largely because we cannot agree on the word's definition. The "correctness" of normative terms matters, and humility carries a distinctive normative weight. How we understand humility is not a matter of mere semantics. It is a pursuit of inquiry with the potential to informaperhaps even to transformaour lives. The Joy of Humility takes up this task with a view toward the perennial question of what entails a truly flourishing life. Here, philosophers, theologians, ethicists, and psychologists work to frame the debate in such a way that the conversation can move forward. To model this goal, each chapter prompts a response to which the chapter's author offers a reply. Part one considers the scope and implications of humility as a contested concept; part two works toward clarity on how to measure humility as a trait and its potential impact on individuals and society. With contributions from Miroslav Volf, Norman Wirzba, Stacey M. Floyd-Thomas, Jason Baehr, Lisa Sowle Cahill, Don E. Davis, Kent Dunnington, Jane Foulcher, Sarah Gazaway, Jennifer A. Herdt, Elizabeth J. Krumrei-Mancuso, Robert C. Roberts, and Everett L. Worthington Jr., The Joy of Humility offers an engaging discourse for everyone, laypeople and scholars alike, to consider these profoundly human questions. By opening up the space for dialogue to push past ideological and cultural assumptions, this volume challenges us to consider how humility, in calling us to esteem others as integral to our own well-being, opens us up to a life of joy.
Offering a balance of theory and applications and a mix of text and readings, Consider Ethics begins with chapters covering ethical theory, each of which is followed by related, classical readings. The book concludes with an examination of six contemporary ethical issues presented in a pro/con format with introductory material that places each issue in context. Featuring selections from the world's most influential philosophers, this combination of primary texts and explanatory pedagogy presents the material in a clear, accessible way that does not sacrifice rigor. Making connections among different ethical theories throughout, the text helps students to engage the subject matter and apply theories to important contemporary ethical issues. NEW! Pearson's Reading Hour Program for Instructors Interested in reviewing new and updated texts in Philosophy? Click on the below link to choose an electronic chapter to preview...Settle back, read, and receive a Penguin paperback for your time! http://www.pearsonhighered.com/readinghour/philosophy
Timeless wisdom on generosity and gratitude from the great Stoic philosopher Seneca To give and receive well may be the most human thing you can do-but it is also the closest you can come to divinity. So argues the great Roman Stoic thinker Seneca (c. 4 BCE-65 CE) in his longest and most searching moral treatise, "On Benefits" (De Beneficiis). James Romm's splendid new translation of essential selections from this work conveys the heart of Seneca's argument that generosity and gratitude are among the most important of all virtues. For Seneca, the impulse to give to others lies at the very foundation of society; without it, we are helpless creatures, worse than wild beasts. But generosity did not arise randomly or by chance. Seneca sees it as part of our desire to emulate the gods, whose creation of the earth and heavens stands as the greatest gift of all. Seneca's soaring prose captures his wonder at that gift, and expresses a profound sense of gratitude that will inspire today's readers. Complete with an enlightening introduction and the original Latin on facing pages, How to Give is a timeless guide to the profound significance of true generosity.
What the Roman poet Horace can teach us about how to live a life of contentment What are the secrets to a contented life? One of Rome's greatest and most influential poets, Horace (65-8 BCE) has been cherished by readers for more than two thousand years not only for his wit, style, and reflections on Roman society, but also for his wisdom about how to live a good life-above all else, a life of contentment in a world of materialistic excess and personal pressures. In How to Be Content, Stephen Harrison, a leading authority on the poet, provides fresh, contemporary translations of poems from across Horace's works that continue to offer important lessons about the good life, friendship, love, and death. Living during the reign of Rome's first emperor, Horace drew on Greek and Roman philosophy, especially Stoicism and Epicureanism, to write poems that reflect on how to live a thoughtful and moderate life amid mindless overconsumption, how to achieve and maintain true love and friendship, and how to face disaster and death with patience and courage. From memorable counsel on the pointlessness of worrying about the future to valuable advice about living in the moment, these poems, by the man who famously advised us to carpe diem, or "harvest the day," continue to provide brilliant meditations on perennial human problems. Featuring translations of, and commentary on, complete poems from Horace's Odes, Satires, Epistles, and Epodes, accompanied by the original Latin, How to Be Content is both an ideal introduction to Horace and a compelling book of timeless wisdom.
Even before the publication of his seminal Animal Liberation in 1975, Peter Singer, one of the greatest moral philosophers of our time, unflinchingly challenged the ethics of eating animals. Now, in Why Vegan?, Singer brings together the most consequential essays of his career to make this devastating case against our failure to confront what we are doing to animals, to public health, and to our planet. From his 1973 manifesto for Animal Liberation to his personal account of becoming a vegetarian in "The Oxford Vegetarians" and to investigating the impact of meat on global warming, Singer traces the historical arc of the animal rights, vegetarian, and vegan movements from their embryonic days to today, when climate change and global pandemics threaten the very existence of humans and animals alike. In his introduction and in "The Two Dark Sides of COVID-19," cowritten with Paola Cavalieri, Singer excoriates the appalling health hazards of Chinese wet markets-where thousands of animals endure almost endless brutality and suffering-but also reminds westerners that they cannot blame China alone without also acknowledging the perils of our own factory farms, where unimaginably overcrowded sheds create the ideal environment for viruses to mutate and multiply. Spanning more than five decades of writing on the systemic mistreatment of animals, Why Vegan? features a topical new introduction, along with nine other essays, including: * "An Ethical Way of Treating Chickens?," which opens our eyes to the lives of the birds who end up on so many plates-and to the lives of their parents; * "If Fish Could Scream," an essay exposing the utter indifference of commercial fishing practices to the experiences of the sentient beings they scoop from the oceans in such unimaginably vast numbers; * "The Case for Going Vegan," in which Singer assembles his most powerful case for boycotting the animal production industry; * And most recently, in the introduction to this book and in "The Two Dark Sides of COVID-19," Singer points to a new reason for avoiding meat: the role eating animals has played, and will play, in pandemics past, present, and future. Written in Singer's pellucid prose, Why Vegan? asserts that human tyranny over animals is a wrong comparable to racism and sexism. The book ultimately becomes an urgent call to reframe our lives in order to redeem ourselves and alter the calamitous trajectory of our imperiled planet.
'Veganism is not just a diet. Not just an opinion, nor a trend. It is a 21st-century revolution which began 20 centuries ago.' From the activist, scientist and animal welfare consultant whose employment tribunal changed the law forever comes a timely, personal polemic on the nature of ethical veganism. A choice many feel is the answer to today's global crises. Written with urgency, humour and a strong personal narrative, Jordi Casamitjana's book is the first to consider veganism as an ethical belief. A political engagement. Not just a 'lifestyle choice.' While the book full of the vitality and complexity of the animal kingdom he has dedicated his life to protecting, chapters are structured to cover both history, science and practicalities. Ethical veganism is about so much more than food and Jordi also explores how it possible to dress ethically, travel according to vegan principles, to work responsibly, as well as eat carefully.
Make Ethical Ideas Accessible to Students With a clear presentation, Ethics: Theory and Practice educates readers about ethical theory and has them apply what they learn to specific classic and contemporary moral problems (lying, cheating, establishing ethical business practices, honoring ethical obligations in medicine, etc.). Jacques P. Thiroux first wrote this text 1977 in order to educate readers about ethical theory and its applications in a way that beginning students could understand. The result was an accessible text that isn't too technical and doesn't plunge into complex readings without sufficient background. The text is fully updated with global issues and non-Western ethical views. Keith W. Krasemann now continues Thiroux's efforts of making ethical ideas accessible to students. Besides updating the foundations of the text, Krasemann incorporates new and relevant material, most of which is often unique only to this text. Teaching and Learning Experience Personalize Learning - MyThinkingLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking - Outstanding student content - including cases for study and discussion, a chapter on how to set up an ethical system, eight appendices, supplementary reading lists, and more! - encourage students to examine their assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, assess their conclusions, and more! Engage Students - Ethics: Theory and Practice provides chapter objectives, exercises for review, discussion questions, ethics problems and more! All features which encourage students to learn how ethical theories can be applied to their everyday lives. Support Instructors - Teaching your course just got easier! You can create a Customized Text or use our Instructor's Manual, Electronic "MyTest" Test Bank or PowerPoint Presentation Slides. NEW! Pearson's Reading Hour Program for Instructors Interested in reviewing new and updated texts in Philosophy? Click on the below link to choose an electronic chapter to preview... Settle back, read, and receive a Penguin paperback for your time! http://www.pearsonhighered.com/readinghour/philosophy
For courses in Business Ethics, Moral Issues in Business, Social Issues in Business, Business and Society, International Business Ethics, and Issues in International Business. This systematic, integrated investigation of the field of business ethics is presented from an informed philosophical point of view. It argues that ethics is the glue as well as the oil that makes business possible, addressing the full gamut of issues: from such macro considerations as the moral justification of economic systems to such micro issues as proper computer use by employees.
In this book, renowned anthropologists Jean and John L. Comaroff make a startling but absolutely convincing claim about our modern era: it is not by our arts, our politics, or our science that we understand ourselves-it is by our crimes. Surveying an astonishing range of forms of crime and policing-from petty thefts to the multibilliondollar scams of toobigtofail financial institutions to the collateral damage of war-they take readers into the disorder of the late modern world. Looking at recent transformations in the triangulation of capital, the state, and governance that have led to an era where crime and policing are ever more complicit, they offer a powerful meditation on the new forms of sovereignty, citizenship, class, race, law, and political economy of representation that have arisen. To do so, the Comaroffs draw on their vast knowledge of South Africa, especially, and its struggle to build a democracy founded on the rule of law out of the wreckage of long years of violence and oppression. There they explore everything from the fascination with the supernatural in policing to the extreme measures people take to prevent home invasion, drawing illuminating comparisons to the United States and United Kingdom. Going beyond South Africa, they offer a global criminal anthropology that attests to criminality as the constitutive fact of contemporary life, the vernacular by which politics are conducted, moral panics voiced, and populations ruled. The result is a disturbing but necessary portrait of the modern era, one that asks critical new questions about how we see ourselves, how we think about morality, and how we are going to proceed as a global society.
The age of human rights has been kindest to the rich. Even as state violations of political rights garnered unprecedented attention due to human rights campaigns, a commitment to material equality disappeared. In its place, economic liberalization has emerged as the dominant force in national and global economies. In this provocative book, Samuel Moyn analyzes how and why we chose to make human rights our highest ideals while simultaneously neglecting the demands of a broader social and economic justice. Moyn places the human rights movement in relation to this disturbing shift from an embrace of the welfare state to the neoliberal globalization of today and explores why the rise of human rights has occurred alongside exploding inequality. "Samuel Moyn breaks new ground in examining the relationship between human rights and economic fairness." -George Soros "[The book's] critical-and self-critical-energy is consistently bracing, and is surely a condition of restoring the pursuit of equality and justice as an indispensable modern tradition." -Pankaj Mishra, London Review of Books "No one has written with more penetrating skepticism about the history of human rights... Moyn asks whether human-rights theorists and advocates, in the quest to make the world better for all, have actually helped to make things worse...Sure to provoke a wider discussion." -Adam Kirsch, Wall Street Journal
Just War scholarship has adapted to contemporary crises and
situations. But its adaptation has spurned debate and
conversation--a method and means of pushing its thinking forward.
Now the Just War tradition risks becoming marginalized. This
concern may seem out of place as Just War literature is
proliferating, yet this literature remains welded to traditional
conceptualizations of Just War. Caron E. Gentry and Amy E. Eckert
argue that the tradition needs to be updated to deal with substate
actors within the realm of legitimate authority, private military
companies, and the questionable moral difference between the use of
conventional and nuclear weapons. Additionally, as recent policy
makers and scholars have tried to make the Just War criteria
legalistic, they have weakened the tradition's ability to draw from
and adjust to its contemporaneous setting.
'It is impossible to live the pleasant life without also living sensibly, nobly and justly' The ancient Greek philosopher and teacher Epicurus argued that pleasure - not sensual hedonism, but the absence of pain or fear - is the highest goal of life. His hugely influential lessons on happiness are a call to appreciate the joy of being alive. One of twenty new books in the bestselling Penguin Great Ideas series. This new selection showcases a diverse list of thinkers who have helped shape our world today, from anarchists to stoics, feminists to prophets, satirists to Zen Buddhists.
A portion of the revenue from this book's sales will be donated to Doctors Without Borders to assist in the fight against COVID-19.The rapid spread of COVID-19 has had an unprecedented impact on modern health-care systems and has given rise to a number of complex ethical issues. This collection of readings and case studies offers an overview of some of the most pressing of these issues, such as the allocation of ventilators and other scarce resources, the curtailing of standard privacy measures for the sake of public health, and the potential obligations of health-care professionals to continue operating in dangerous work environments.
Terence Irwin's edition of the Nicomachean Ethics offers more aids to the reader than are found in any modern English translation. It includes an Introduction, headings to help the reader follow the argument, explanatory notes on difficult or important passages, and a full glossary explaining Aristotle's technical terms. The Third Edition offers additional revisions of the translation as well as revised and expanded versions of the notes, glossary, and Introduction. Also new is an appendix featuring translated selections from related texts of Aristotle.
Criticism and Compassion: The Ethics and Politics of Claudia Card offers a unique perspective on the range of issues explored by Card during her distinguished career in philosophy. Investigates her work as an early leader in the development of feminist philosophy, challenging many preconceptions about the society's norms regarding gender, marriage, and motherhood Crossing many disciplinary boundaries, her concept of social death has come to play a significant role in multidisciplinary field of genocide studies This volume combines many of Claudia Card's important essays with recently commissioned essays by leading philosophers whose work has been influenced by Card The full scope of Card's philosophy is presented here - both in her own words and those of her critics and interpreters
Target success in AQA A-level Philosophy with this proven formula for effective, structured revision; key content coverage is combined with exam-style tasks and practical tips to create a revision guide that you can rely on to review, strengthen and test students' knowledge. With My Revision Notes, every student can: - Plan and manage a successful revision programme using the topic-by-topic planner - Consolidate subject knowledge by working through clear and focused content coverage - Test understanding and identify areas for improvement with regular 'Now Test Yourself' tasks and answers - Improve exam technique through practice questions, expert tips and examples of typical mistakes to avoid
In ""Our Right to Drugs"", Szasz shows how the present drug war started at the beginning of this century, when the US government first assumed the task of protecting people from patent medicines. By the end of World War I the free market in drugs was but a dim memory. Instead of dwelling on the familiar impracticality and unfairness of drug laws, Szasz demonstrates the deleterious effects of prescription laws, which place people under lifelong medical supervision. The result is that most Americans today prefer a coercive and corrupt command drug economy to a free market in drugs. Szasz stresses the consequences of the fateful transformation of the central aim of US drug prohibitions: from protecting the public from being fooled by mis-branded drugs to protecting them from harming themselves by self medication. He emphasises that a free society cannot endure if the state treats adults as if they were truant children and if its citizens reject the values of self-discipline and personal responsibility. After discussing the racial aspects of drug prohibition (eg. drug enforcers are far more likely to accost blacks than whites), Szasz suggests a connection between drug prohibition and the personal dread of the availability of an easy and pleasurable way to commit suicide.
Since the Global Financial Crisis, a surge of interest in the use of finance as a tool to address social and economic problems suggests the potential for a generational shift in how the finance industry operates and is perceived. J. C. de Swaan seeks to channel the forces of well-intentioned finance professionals to improve finance from within and help restore its focus on serving society. Drawing from inspiring individuals in the field, de Swaan proposes a framework for pursuing a viable career in finance while benefiting society and upholding humanistic values. In doing so, he challenges traditional concepts of success in the industry. This will also engage readers outside of finance who are concerned about the industry's impact on society.
Recent discussions of Thomas Aquinas's treatment of natural law have focused upon the ""self-evident"" character of the first principles, but few attempts have been made to determine in what manner they are self-evident. On some accounts, a self-evident precept must have, at most, a tenuous connection with speculative reason, especially our knowledge of God, and it must be untainted by the stain of ""deriving"" an ought from an is. Yet Aquinas himself had a robust account of the good, rooted in human nature. He saw no fundamental difference between is-statements and ought-statements, both of which he considered to be descriptive. Knowing the Natural Law traces the thought of Aquinas from an understanding of human nature to a knowledge of the human good, from there to an account of ought-statements, and finally to choice, which issues in human actions. The much discussed article on the precepts of the natural law (I-II, 94, 2) provides the framework for a natural law rooted in human nature and in speculative knowledge. Practical knowledge is itself threefold: potentially practical knowledge, virtually practical knowledge, and fully practical knowledge. This distinction within practical knowledge, typically overlooked or underutilized, reveals the steps by which the mind moves from speculative knowledge all the way to fully practical knowledge. The most significant sections of Knowing the Natural Law examine the nature of ought-statements, the imperative force of moral precepts, the special character of per se nota propositions as found within the natural law, and the final movement from knowledge to action.
Reverence is an ancient virtue that survives among us in half-forgotten patterns of civility and moments of inarticulate awe. Reverence gives meaning to much that we do, yet the word has almost passed out of our vocabulary. Reverence, says philosopher and classicist Paul Woodruff, begins in an understanding of human limitations. From this grows the capacity to be in awe of whatever we believe lies outside our control - God, truth, justice, nature, even death. It is a quality of character that is especially important in leadership and in teaching, although it figures in virtually every human relationship. It transcends religious boundaries and can be found outside religion altogether. Woodruff draws on thinking about this lost virtue in ancient Greek and Chinese traditions and applies lessons from these highly reverent cultures to today's world. The book covers reverence in a variety of contexts - the arts, leadership, teaching, warfare, and the home - and shows how essential a quality it is to a well-functioning society. First published by Oxford University Press in 2001, this new edition of Reverence is revised and expanded. It contains two new chapters, one on the sacred and one on compassion, and an epilogue focused on renewing reverence in our own lives.
In Moral Conscience through the Ages, Richard Sorabji brings his erudition and philosophical acumen to bear on a fundamental question: what is conscience? Examining the ways we have conceived of that little voice in our heads - our self-directed judge - he teases out its most enduring elements, the aspects that have survived from the Greek playwrights in the fifth century BCE through St Paul, the Church Fathers, Catholics and Protestants, all the way to the 17th centurys political unrest and the critics and champions of the eighteenth to twentieth centuries. Sorabji traces a history of conscience over this long period and examines an impressive breadth of recurrent topics: the longing for different kinds of freedom of conscience, the proper limits of freedom itself, protests at consciences being terrorized, dilemmas of conscience, the value of conscience to human beings, its secularization, its reliability, and ways to improve it. These historical issues are alive today, with fresh concerns about topics such as conscientious objection, the force of conscience, or the balance between freedoms of conscience, religion, and speech. The result is a stunningly comprehensive look at a central component of our moral understanding.
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