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The evolving field of the economics of terrorism has been, and continues to be, the subject of much research. Professor Enders, in this authoritative collection, provides the reader with a selection of seminal articles and excerpts that chart the development of this topic over the past four decades. Along with an original introduction by the editor, the areas covered include terrorist motives, types and organizations, education and poverty, the costs of terrorism, and counter-terrorism and substitution effects. This indispensable research collection will be of immense value to both students and practitioners with an interest in this topical subject.
On 22 July 2011 a young man named Anders Behring Breivik carried out one of the most vicious terrorist acts in post-war Europe. In a carefully orchestrated sequence of actions he bombed government buildings in Oslo, resulting in eight deaths, then carried out a mass shooting at a camp of the Workers Youth League of the Labour Party on the island of Utoya, where he murdered sixty-nine people, mostly teenagers. How could Anders Behring Breivik - a middle-class boy from the West End of Oslo - end up as one of the most violent terrorists in post-war Europe? Where did his hatred come from? In A Norwegian Tragedy, Aage Borchgrevink attempts to provide an answer. Taking us with him to the multiethnic and class-divided city where Breivik grew up, he follows the perpetrator of the attacks into an unfamiliar online world of violent computer games and anti-Islamic hatred, and demonstrates the connection between Breivik s childhood and the darkest pages of his 1500-page manifesto. This is the definitive story of 22 July 2011: a Norwegian tragedy.
Sharing terrorism-related information between state, local and federal officials is crucial to protecting the United States from another terrorist attack. Achieving this objective was the motivation for Congress and the White House to invest hundreds of millions of taxpayer dollars over the last nine years in support of dozens of state and local fusion centres across the United States. Congress directed the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to lead this initiative. A bipartisan investigation has found, however, that DHS' work with those state and local fusion centres has not produced useful intelligence to support federal counter-terrorism efforts. This book offers recommendations to clarify DHS' role with respect to state and local fusion centres; to improve oversight of federal grand funds supporting fusion centres; conduct promised assessments of fusion centre information-sharing; and strengthen its protection of civil liberties in fusion centre intelligence reporting.
No Go Zones. That's what they're called. And while the politically correct try to deny their existence, the shocking reality of these "No Go Zones"-where Sharia law can prevail and local police stay away-can be attested to by its many victims. Now Raheem Kassam, a courageous reporter and editor at Breitbart, takes us where few journalists have dared to tread-inside the No Go Zones, revealing areas that Western governments, including the United States, don't want to admit exist within their own borders. With compelling reporting, Kassam takes you into Islamic areas you might not even know existed-communities, neighborhoods, and whole city districts from San Bernardino, California, (a No Go Zone of the mind) to Hamtramck, Michigan (essentially an Islamic colony in the Midwest); from Malmoe, Sweden, to the heart of London, England-where infidels are unwelcome, Islamic law is king, and extremism grows. In No Go Zones, Kassam reveals: How in No Go Zones a blind eye is being turned to polygamy, female genital mutilation, sexual assault, segregation, and even honor killings Why Muslim ghettos in the West aren't the equivalent of Little Italy or Chinatown, but a serious cultural and political threat How the welfare state actually funds and supports a Muslim subculture of resentment How to identify extremist mosques A matter of numbers: how mass migration could transform Europe into a Muslim-dominated continent within our own lifetimes The alarming speed at which No Go Zones are coming to America Compelling in its reporting, shocking in its detail, Raheem Kassam's No Go Zones is one of the most frightening true stories you will read this year.
Despite numerous warnings from intelligence services, ISIS' rise to power has left countries around the world floundering for solutions. Today, we face a threat that is more violent, powerful and financially stronger than ever before. In this book, journalist Benjamin Hall will provide insights by answering the basic questions we still don't have the answers to: Who are they? Where did they come from? How are they so successful, so quickly? How can they be stopped? By embedding himself behind enemy lines, Hall provides a riveting narrative based on firsthand experience and personal interviews. He goes beyond the vicious jihadis to reveal a generation of chaos and uncover a volatile region engulfed in turmoil. Hall reveals why ISIS is a problem that will define the Middle East - and the West - for decades to come.
An accessible and comprehensive history of terrorism from ancient times to the present In the years since 9/11, there has been a massive surge in interest surrounding the study of terrorism. This volume applies distinguished military historian John Lynn's lifetime of research and teaching experience to this difficult topic. As a form of violence that implies the threat of future violence, terrorism breeds insecurity, vulnerability, and a desire for retribution that has far-reaching consequences. Lynn distinguishes between the paralyzing effect of fear and the potentially dangerous and chaotic effects of moral outrage and righteous retaliation guiding counterterrorism efforts. In this accessible and comprehensive text, Lynn traces the evolution of terrorism over time, exposing its constants and contrasts. In doing so, he contextualizes this violence and argues that a knowledge of the history and nature of terrorism can temper its psychological effects, and can help us more accurately and carefully assess threats as well as develop informed and measured responses.
The opening of the National September 11th Memorial and Museum in 2014 marks a new era of reflection toward enhancing homeland security regulation in the United States. In the context of this new era, it is necessary to consider how policy intended to reinforce homeland security is evaluated. Benefit-Cost Analyses for Security Policies describes how to undertake the evaluation of security policies within the framework of benefit-cost analysis and offers a unique contribution to analysis of homeland security regulations in the United States. The authors outline how established procedures for benefit-cost analysis must adapt to meet challenges posed by current security policy, through examining specific security related regulations. The logic of risk assessment, selection of a discount rate, valuation of travelers' time when delayed due to screening, valuation of changes in risks of injury or death, and impacts of terrorist events on the economy as a whole are among the issues discussed. An outline of the research and policy evaluation steps needed to build robust benefit-cost methods to evaluate security related regulations in the future is presented in the book. A series of examples is offered to illustrate how new security regulations should be reassessed to ensure resources are not wasted. Policy analysts will benefit from the insight drawn on how to evaluate homeland security regulation in the United States. Academic researchers interested in homeland security policy evaluation will find this book valuable and informative. Postgraduate students of public policy or applied economics will find examples of the challenges in using the methods of benefit-cost analysis in this new area for policy evaluation.
Since 9/11, despite extensive international efforts against global terrorism, there has been a worrying lack of focus on terrorist activity in Africa. Terrorism in East and West Africa: The Under-focused Axis addresses this strategic deficit by drawing together and analysing the various domestic and international counter-terrorist measures that have been carried out in East-West Africa since this infamous attack. In his analysis Dr Ridley emphasises the need to avoid apportioning blame, preferring instead to conduct a thorough examination of counter-terrorist financing measures in certain African countries, as well as looking at the problems associated with their implementation. In this context, the author explains how Western impositions, guidance, and assistance have compounded the ineffectiveness of such measures. This timely book draws upon the author's experience as a former intelligence analyst, to give an account of terrorism in East and West Africa in the first two decades after the 9/11 attacks. Throughout the book there is a questioning of why there has been, and continues to be, an incorrect strategic approach to this threat. This book explores counter-terrorism measures in East and West Africa from an original perspective and delivers an important resource for scholars of terrorism laws, strategies, and politics.
The causes and consequences of terrorism are matters of considerable debate and great interest. Spectacular events are recognized by their dates, including the 9/11 attacks in New York and Washington and the 7/7 London bombings. Many other attacks, including those in non-Western countries, receive far less attention even though they may be more frequent and cumulatively cause more casualties. In Terrorism: What Everyone Needs to KnowRG, leading economist Todd Sandler provides a broad overview of a persistently topical topic. The general issues he examines include what terrorism is, its causes, the roles of terrorist groups, how governments seek to counter terrorism, its economic consequences, and the future of terrorism. He focuses on the modern era and how specific motivations, ranging from nationalism/separatism to left- or right-wing extremism or religious ideals, and general conditions, such as poverty and inequality or whether a country is democratic or authoritarian, affect the frequency and costs of terrorism. The diversity of terrorist groups and type of attacks can be overwhelming, and Sandler provides a unifying framework to generate insight: strategic interaction. That is, like other organizations, terrorist groups organize to pursue goals and respond in an optimal fashion to a risky environment that can influence the group's size, its diversity of attacks, its regional location, its host country's characteristics, and the group's ideology. Terrorists also responded to enhanced security measures by altering their tactics, targets, and location. As such, they are formidable opponents to their stronger government adversaries. Governments, in turn, pursue various costly strategies to prevent terrorism, including passive barriers and active attacks against terrorists, their resources, and those who support them. Terrorism covers numerous questions on the subject and sheds lights on a wide-range of theoretical and empirical research.
The United States has encountered increasing levels of terrorist activity and a number of significant natural disasters in this millennium, a pattern which has also occurred globally. There has been a degree of uncertainty over their impact on the national economy. A unique contribution towards mitigation is offered in this book, which develops a national economic impact model to estimate the effects of simulated terrorist attacks and real world natural disasters on individual US States and economic sectors. The model, NIEMO (The National Interstate Economic Model), examines interindustry relationships and interregional trade, and presents a multiregional input-output analysis of the economic impact resulting from these events. Students and researchers in regional science, planning, economics and geography will find this book offers an informative perspective. Practitioners, policy makers and general readers interested in public policy issues will appreciate the insights.
THE PULITZER PRIZE-WINNING BESTSELLER, NOW A MAJOR NEW TV SERIES STARRING JEFF DANIELS AND ALEC BALDWIN This is the definitive account of the run-up to 9/11: from the man who lit the spark of radical Islam in 1948, to those who built up a terror network, and to the FBI agent whose warnings of 'something big' coming were ignored until the Twin Towers fell. 'The Looming Tower is a thriller. And it's a tragedy, too' The New York Times 'The most detailed (and thrilling) account we have of the events that led to the destruction of the Twin Towers' Observer, Books of the Year 'Possibly the best book yet written on the rise of al-Qaeda ... beautifully written and wonderfully compelling' William Dalrymple 'We meet some formidable schemers and killers ... fabulists crazed with blood and death' Martin Amis
The violent actions of a few extremists can alter the course of history, yet there persists a yawning gap between the potential impact of these individuals and what we understand about them. In Engineers of Jihad, Diego Gambetta and Steffen Hertog uncover two unexpected facts, which they imaginatively leverage to narrow that gap: they find that a disproportionate share of Islamist radicals come from an engineering background, and that Islamist and right-wing extremism have more in common than either does with left-wing extremism, in which engineers are absent while social scientists and humanities students are prominent. Searching for an explanation, they tackle four general questions about extremism: Under which socioeconomic conditions do people join extremist groups? Does the profile of extremists reflect how they self-select into extremism or how groups recruit them? Does ideology matter in sorting who joins which group? Lastly, is there a mindset susceptible to certain types of extremism? Using rigorous methods and several new datasets, they explain the link between educational discipline and type of radicalism by looking at two key factors: the social mobility (or lack thereof) for engineers in the Muslim world, and a particular mindset seeking order and hierarchy that is found more frequently among engineers. Engineers' presence in some extremist groups and not others, the authors argue, is a proxy for individual traits that may account for the much larger question of selective recruitment to radical activism. Opening up markedly new perspectives on the motivations of political violence, Engineers of Jihad yields unexpected answers about the nature and emergence of extremism.
In recent decades, the taking of hostages has proven to be a particularly effective tactic for Islamic terrorist organizations worldwide, including al Qaeda. The global jihad movement regards citizens of foreign (mainly western) countries as prime targets for abduction, although in fact local residents have constituted the majority of kidnapping victims. This book analyzes Islamic terror abductions over the last 30 years in the Middle East (Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia), Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and the Philippines), Africa (the Maghreb, the Sahel regions, and Somalia), and in Russia as a part of the RussianChechen conflict. Discussion also focuses on the abduction by Hizballah of Israeli soldiers, the Second Lebanon War of 2006, the Mumbai terror attack (2008), the Chechen hostage crisis in Moscow and Beslan (2002 and 2004), the kidnapping of employees of the Algerian In Amenas gas facility by al Qaeda of the Maghreb in January 2013 and the Nairobi Westgate Mall hostage crisis in September 2013. The role of Iran as a state sponsor of terrorism, and its patronage of terror organizations that utilize the tactic of abduction to promote Iranian interests in Lebanon and Iraq, is highlighted throughout. Discussion focuses on the challenges faced by countries whose citizens have been abducted by Islamic terror organizations and their reactions to these challenges, and provides theoretical classifications of the phenomenon of terrorism in general and terror abduction in particular.
On 12 October 1984, an IRA bomb exploded inside Brighton's Grand Hotel, killing five people and injuring thirty. It was an assassination attempt on Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet, who were staying there for the Conservative party conference. While the bombing was deplorable, the story of how people reacted to it is an inspiring one. People refused to be beaten by what had happened; they got on with their jobs and their lives - a theme with, sadly, a strong resonance in present-day Britain. In Something Has Gone Wrong, Brighton journalist Steve Ramsey speaks to those who were there on the day and involved in its aftermath, many of whom have never spoken publicly about it before. His interviewees include: firemen who worked on the long rescue operation; medics from the local hospital; police officers who rushed to the scene; detectives who played key roles in the criminal investigation; and cabinet ministers and high-ranking civil servants, who describe how the conference continued and how the government pursued business as usual. Incorporating fascinating new insights and information, the author has produced a portrait of this shocking event which combines narrative clarity with the vividness of oral history, and reads like a thriller.
This innovative Research Handbook brings together leading international law scholars from around the world to discuss and highlight the contemporary debate regarding issues of conflict prevention and the legality of resorting to the use of armed force through to those arising during an armed conflict and in the phase between conflict and peace. The Handbook covers key conceptual topics drawn from across the three areas of jus ad bellum, jus in bello and jus post bellum. The subject matter of the included chapters range from conflict prevention through to reparation and compensation, via coverage of issues such as disarmament, the role of the Security Council, self-defence, humanitarian intervention and the responsibility to protect, targets, war crimes, private military contractors, peacekeeping, and the protection of human rights. Being the first to examine topics under these areas in one volume, the book will be of interest to scholars, academics, postgraduate and research students as well as government lawyers from various disciplinary backgrounds looking for a contemporary grounding in issues under the broad theme of international conflict and security law.
September 11th, the date of a terrible mass murder, is also the crystallization point of bizarre inconsistencies, fantastic contradictions, discreet background moves and strategic secret operations. A Top 20 best-seller in Germany. Part I is a lively discussion of the important role of conspiratorial behavior in nature and history, as well as an important document on the most crucial events of our times. Part II, Conspiracy Diary, chronicles the "conspirologist" author's researches into the 9/11 puzzle. Broeckers shows the official version of Sept. 11 is an elaborate conspiracy theory that points blame to false leads. "As much evidence has surfaced against the alleged chief planner Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda gang as in the first hours after the attacks: practically none." Part III rounds out the book with an interview with Andreas von Blow, the ex-Minister for Research and Technology with responsibility for oversight of German intelligence agencies.
Virtually every nation has had to confront tensions between the rule-of-law demands for transparency and accountability and the need for confidentiality with respect to terrorism and national security. This book provides a global and comparative overview of the implications of governmental secrecy in a variety of contexts. Expert contributors from around the world discuss the dilemmas posed by the necessity for - and evils of - secrecy, and assess constitutional mechanisms for checking the abuse of secrecy by national and international institutions in the field of counter-terrorism. In recent years, nations have relied on secret evidence to detain suspected terrorists and freeze their assets, have barred lawsuits alleging human rights violations by invoking 'state secrets', and have implemented secret surveillance and targeted killing programs. The book begins by addressing the issue of secrecy at the institutional level, examining the role of courts and legislatures in regulating the use of secrecy claims by the executive branch of government. From there, the focus shifts to the three most vital areas of anti-terrorism law: preventive detention, criminal trials and administrative measures (notably, targeted economic sanctions). The contributors explore how assertions of secrecy and national security in each of these areas affect the functioning of the legal system and the application of procedural justice and fairness. Students, professors and researchers interested in constitutional law, international law, comparative law and issues of terrorism and security will find this an invaluable addition to the literature. Judges, lawyers and policymakers will also find much of use in this critical volume.
Reimagining the National Security State provides the first comprehensive picture of the toll that US government policies took on civil liberties, human rights, and the rule of law in the name of the war on terror. Looking through the lenses of theory, history, law, and policy, the essays in this volume illuminate the ways in which liberal democracy suffered at the hands of policymakers in the name of national security. The contributors, who are leading experts and practitioners in fields ranging from political theory to evolutionary biology, discuss the vast expansion of executive powers, the excessive reliance secrecy, and the exploration of questionable legal territory in matters of detention, criminal justice, targeted killings, and warfare. This book gives the reader an eye-opening window onto the historical precedents and lasting impact the security state has had on civil liberties, human rights and, the rule of law in the name of the war on terror.
As leader of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and then the Irish Republican Army (IRA), Michael Collins developed a bold, new strategy to use against the British administration of Ireland in the early twentieth century. His goal was to attack its well-established system of spies and informers, wear down British forces with a sustained guerrilla campaign, and force a political settlement that would lead to a free Irish Republic. Michael Collins and the Anglo-Irish War reveals that the success of the Irish insurgency was not just a measure of Collins's revolutionary genius, as has often been claimed. British miscalculations, overconfidence, and a failure to mount a sustained professional intelligence effort to neutralize the IRA contributed to Britain's defeat. Although Britain possessed the world's most professional secret service, the British intelligence community underwent a politically driven and ill-advised reorganization in early 1919, at the very moment that Collins and the IRA were going on the offensive. Once Collins neutralized the local colonial spy service, the British had no choice but to import professional secret service agents. But Britain's wholesale reorganization of its domestic counterintelligence capability sidelined its most effective countersubversive agency, MI5, leaving the job of intelligence management in Ireland to Special Branch civilians and a contingent of quickly trained army case officers, neither group being equipped-or inclined-to mount a coordinated intelligence effort against the insurgents. Britain's appointment of a national intelligence director for home affairs in 1919-just as the Irish revolutionary parliament published its Declaration of Independence-was the decisive factor leading to Britain's disarray against the IRA. By the time the War Office reorganized its intelligence effort against Collins in mid-1920, it was too late to reverse the ascendancy of the IRA. Michael Collins and the Anglo-Irish War takes a fresh approach to the subject, presenting it as a case study in intelligence management under conditions of a broader counterinsurgency campaign. The lessons learned from this disastrous episode have stark relevance for contemporary national security managers and warfighters currently engaged in the war on terrorism.
For some observers, nuclear arms control is either a relic of the cold war, or a utopian dream about a denuclearized planet decades in the future. But, as Brookings scholars Steven Pifer and Michael O'Hanlon argue in "The Opportunity," arms control can address some key security challenges facing Washington today and enhance both American and global security.
Pifer and O'Hanlon make a compelling case for further arms control measures --to reduce the nuclear threat to the United States and its allies, to strengthen strategic stability, to promote greater transparency regarding secretive nuclear arsenals, to create the possibility for significant defense budget savings, to bolster American credibility in the fight to curb nuclear proliferation, and to build a stronger and more sustainable U.S.-Russia relationship.
President Obama gave priority to nuclear arms control early in his first term and, by all accounts, would like to be transformational on these questions. Can there be another major U.S.-Russia arms treaty? Can the tactical and surplus strategic nuclear warheads that have so far escaped controls be brought into such a framework? Can a modus vivendi be reached between the two countries on missile defense? And what of multilateral accords on nuclear testing and production of fissile materials for nuclear weapons? Pifer and O'Hanlon concisely frame the issues, the background, and the choices facing the president; provide practical policy recommendations, and put it all in clear and readable prose that will be easily understood by the layman.
This authoritative book provides a holistic overview of terrorist groups and finances, including consideration of the necessity and differing financial needs of different groups. For over a decade international efforts by law enforcement, government and financial regulatory authorities have been deployed in combatting terrorist financing, in good faith and with dedication beyond reproach. This book surveys the methods of financing of numerous terrorist groups and organisations - including the Chinese and Asian dimension - and considers why ultimately international efforts to combat the financing of terror are failing. Nick Ridley expertly illustrates the scale of the problem by first outlining the strategies of anti terrorist financing, the pre and post 9/11 differences in scope and extent of terrorist attacks, the financial support and the national and international efforts to implement and carry out countermeasures. He then goes on to set out a detailed analysis of the apparent failure of such counter measures to date. Including operational case studies and details from the authors own experience, studies and access to law enforcement and private sector sources, this book will prove insightful for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying criminology, history and law disciplines. Those in the legal profession will also find plenty of useful information in this topical compendium.
Leading jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda and the Islamic State dominate through cooperation in the form of knowledge sharing, resource sharing, joint training exercises, and operational collaboration. They build alliances and lesser partnerships with other formal and informal terrorist actors to recruit foreign fighters and spread their message worldwide, raising the aggregate threat level for their declared enemies. Whether they consist of friends or foes, whether they are connected locally or online, these networks create a wellspring of support for jihadist organizations that may fluctuate in strength or change in character but never runs dry. Nexus of Global Jihad identifies types of terrorist actors, the nature of their partnerships, and the environments in which they prosper to explain global jihadist terrorism's ongoing success and resilience. Nexus of Global Jihad brings to light an emerging style of "networked cooperation" that works alongside interorganizational terrorist cooperation to establish bonds of varying depth and endurance. Case studies use recently declassified materials to illuminate al-Qaeda's dealings from Iran to the Arabian Peninsula and the informal actors that power the Sharia4 movement. The book proposes policies that increase intelligence gathering on informal terrorist actors, constrain enabling environments, and disrupt terrorist networks according to different types of cooperation. It is a vital text for strategists and scholars struggling to understand a growing spectrum of terrorist groups working together more effectively than ever before.
What is it that leaves us shell shocked in the face of the massacres carried out in New York on 9/11 or in Paris on 13 November 2015? How are we to explain the intensity of the reaction to the attacks on Charlie Hebdo? Answering these questions involves trying to understand what a society goes through when it is subjected to the ordeal of terrorist attacks. And it impels us to try to explain why millions of people feel so concerned and shaken by them, even when they do not have a direct connection with any of the victims. In Shell Shocked, sociologist Gerome Truc sheds new light on these events, returning to the ways in which ordinary individuals lived through and responded to the attacks of 9/11, of 11 March 2004 in Madrid and 7 July 2005 in London. Analysing the political language and the media images, the demonstrations of solidarity and the minutes of silence, as well as the tens of thousands of messages addressed to the victims, his investigation reveals all the ambiguity of our feelings about the Islamists' attacks. And it brings out the sources of the solidarity that, in our individualistic societies, ultimately finds expression in the first person singular rather than the first person plural: 'I am Charlie', 'I am Paris'. This timely and path-breaking book will appeal to students and scholars is sociology and politics and to anyone interested in understanding the impact of terrorism in contemporary societies.
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