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What is it that leaves us shell shocked in the face of the massacres carried out in New York on 9/11 or in Paris on 13 November 2015? How are we to explain the intensity of the reaction to the attacks on Charlie Hebdo? Answering these questions involves trying to understand what a society goes through when it is subjected to the ordeal of terrorist attacks. And it impels us to try to explain why millions of people feel so concerned and shaken by them, even when they do not have a direct connection with any of the victims. In Shell Shocked, sociologist Gerome Truc sheds new light on these events, returning to the ways in which ordinary individuals lived through and responded to the attacks of 9/11, of 11 March 2004 in Madrid and 7 July 2005 in London. Analysing the political language and the media images, the demonstrations of solidarity and the minutes of silence, as well as the tens of thousands of messages addressed to the victims, his investigation reveals all the ambiguity of our feelings about the Islamists' attacks. And it brings out the sources of the solidarity that, in our individualistic societies, ultimately finds expression in the first person singular rather than the first person plural: 'I am Charlie', 'I am Paris'. This timely and path-breaking book will appeal to students and scholars is sociology and politics and to anyone interested in understanding the impact of terrorism in contemporary societies.
On 9/11 the CIA changed. Once a organisation focused on information gathering, it became a militarised force. As Philip Mudd explains, at that time, came a different breed of prisoner, one who wanted to die but held information that could save thousands of lives. Out of this emerged what was referred to internally as "The Program": a world web of secret detention centres that used "enhanced interrogation tactics". A 2014 US Senate report exposed horrifying details from this "Program" but there were no details as to how officials came to their decisions, what happened daily at these "Black Sites" and how the officers felt about what they were doing. Mudd weaves stunning research, new interviews and his own account to illuminate the CIA at this most difficult time.
This is the first comprehensive study of the core philosophical questions posed by terrorism such as: How should we define it? Is it morally distinctive? Can it be morally justified?Igor Primoratz seeks to overcome relativism and double standards that often plague debates about terrorism. He investigates the main ethical approaches to terrorism: in terms of its consequences, rights and justice, "supreme emergency," and the collective responsibility of citizens. The book provides a rigorous, yet accessible analysis of a range of moral positions, from the acceptance of terrorism when its consequences are good on balance to its absolute rejection. Primoratz argues that terrorism is almost absolutely wrong. It may be morally justified only when an entire people is facing a true moral disaster, and this should be understood in a highly restrictive way.Conceptual analysis and normative arguments about the practice of terrorism are complemented with case studies of terror-bombing of German cities in World War II and the role of terrorism in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict."Terrorism: A Philosophical Investigation" will be essential reading for researchers and students of philosophy and politics, and the general reader seeking to understand and evaluate acts and campaigns of terrorism.
Long considered the masters of counterinsurgency, the British military encountered significant problems in Iraq and Afghanistan when confronted with insurgent violence. In their effort to apply the principles and doctrines of past campaigns, they failed to prevent Basra and Helmand from descending into lawlessness, criminality, and violence.
By juxtaposing the deterioration of these situations against Britain's celebrated legacy of counterinsurgency, this investigation identifies both the contributions and limitations of traditional tactics in such settings, exposing a disconcerting gap between ambitions and resources, intent and commitment. Building upon this detailed account of the Basra and Helmand campaigns, this volume conducts an unprecedented assessment of British military institutional adaptation in response to operations gone awry. In calling attention to the enduring effectiveness of insurgent methods and the threat posed by undergoverned spaces, David H. Ucko and Robert Egnell underscore the need for military organizations to meet the irregular challenges of future wars in new ways.
Tackling one of the most prevalent myths about insurgencies, this book examines and rebuts the popular belief that Mao Zedong created a fundamentally new form of warfare that transformed the nature of modern insurgency. The labeling of an insurgent enemy as using "Maoist Warfare" has been a common phenomenon since Mao's victory over the Guomindang in 1949, from Malaya and Vietnam during the Cold War to Afghanistan and Syria today. Yet, this practice is heavily flawed. This book argues that Mao did not invent a new breed of insurgency, failed to produce a coherent vision of how insurgencies should be fought, and was not influential in his impact upon subsequent insurgencies. Consequently, Mao's writings cannot be used to generate meaningful insights for understanding those insurgencies that came after him. This means that scholars and policymakers should stop using Mao as a tool for understanding insurgencies and as a straw man against whom to target counterinsurgency strategies.
Behind a gruesome ISIS beheading video lies the untold story of the men in orange and the faith community that formed these unlikely modern-day saints and heroes. In a carefully choreographed propaganda video released in February 2015, ISIS militants behead twenty-one orange-clad Christian men on a Libyan beach. In the West, daily reports of new atrocities may have displaced the memory of this particularly vile event. But not in the world from which the murdered came. All but one were young Coptic Christian migrant workers from Egypt. Acclaimed literary writer Martin Mosebach traveled to the Egyptian village of El-Aour to meet their families and better understand the faith and culture that shaped such conviction. He finds himself welcomed into simple concrete homes through which swallows dart. Portraits of Jesus and Mary hang on the walls along with roughhewn shrines to now-famous loved ones. Mosebach is amazed time and again as, surrounded by children and goats, the bereaved replay the cruel propaganda video on an iPad. There is never any talk of revenge, but only the pride of having a martyr in the family, a saint in heaven. "The 21" appear on icons crowned like kings, celebrated even as their community grieves. A skeptical Westerner, Mosebach finds himself a stranger in this world in which everything is the reflection or fulfillment of biblical events, and facing persecution with courage is part of daily life. In twenty-one symbolic chapters, each preceded by a picture, Mosebach offers a travelogue of his encounter with a foreign culture and a church that has preserved the faith and liturgy of early Christianity - the "Church of the Martyrs." As a religious minority in Muslim Egypt, the Copts find themselves caught in a clash of civilizations. This book, then, is also an account of the spiritual life of an Arab country stretched between extremism and pluralism, between a rich biblical past and the shopping centers of New Cairo.
How have we come to depend so greatly on the words terror and terrorism to describe broad categories of violence? David Simpson offers here a philology of terror, tracking the concept's long, complicated history across literature, philosophy, political science, and theology--from Plato to NATO. Introducing the concept of the "fear-terror cluster," Simpson is able to capture the wide range of terms that we have used to express extreme emotional states over the centuries--from anxiety, awe, and concern to dread, fear, and horror. He shows that the choices we make among such words to describe shades of feeling have seriously shaped the attribution of motives, causes, and effects of the word "terror" today, particularly when violence is deployed by or against the state. At a time when terror-talk is widely and damagingly exploited by politicians and the media, this book unpacks the slippery rhetoric of terror and will prove a vital resource across humanistic and social sciences disciplines.
Chomsky ends his preface to Culture of Terrorism with the words, 'As the latest inheritors of a grim tradition, we should at least have the integrity to look in the mirror without evasion'. The tradition to which he is referring is none other than the Western imperial project and in encouraging Americans to pursue integrity, he dissects the events of just one year - 1986 - at the height of the Reagan Era and describes American involvement in acts of supreme state terror, both open and clandestine, to present a case study which has great relevance today and whose lessons must never be forgotten.
The Gunpowder Plot is perhaps the most famous and well-documented event in British Early Modern history. This means the story can be told through original dialogue recorded at the time to a greater extent than any other of the period. James Travers' new account exploits this potential for dramatic first-hand history by drawing on those original sources, at The National Archives and elsewhere. The book includes material from the official investigation and new evidence relating to the torture of Guy Fawkes. This expert retelling of the Gunpowder Plot story brings seventeenth-century voices fresh to the page. It shows the complex motivations of the principal figures involved, both officers of the state and the plotters themselves, and tells the story of the Plot without the benefit or distortion of hindsight. Moving away from the crude dichotomy of Catholic and Protestant, characters' decisions and reactions are shown at the heart of events. It can be argued, for example, that Fawkes was as much anti-Scottish as anti-Protestant. It is a dramatic tale, with original documents unveiling the key figures' fateful decisions as they happen. The plotters' generation was the first audience of Shakespeare's plays and his words were common currency among them. There are shades of meaning in their plans and confessions, which have eluded historians until now. At the time, Fawkes was the 'unknown face' of the Plot, prized by the well-known and well-connected plotters as a man who could pass unnoticed in Westminster, even as he went to destroy the Houses of Parliament. Today, 'Guido Fawkes' has become the face of political disaffection, thanks to his popularity as a mask for protestors. And in a modern world of religious terrorism, this book lets us understand what drove the participants in British history's most potentially destructive home-grown plot.
With more than 35 years experience of jihadist activism, Abu Mus'ab al-Suri remains the foremost theoretician in the global jihadist movement today, despite his capture in Pakistan in late 2005. After having participated in the founding of Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan in 1988, al-Suri, whose real name is Mustafa Sethmarian Nasar, trained a whole generation of young jihadis at his camps in Afghanistan. When he moved back to Spain in the early 1990s, al-Suri took part in establishing Al-Qaeda networks in Europe. In the mid-1990s, he rose to prominence in jihadi circles as editor of the London-based bulletin of the Algerian Groupe Islamique Armee, the most deadly Islamist terrorist group operating in Europe at the time. Al-Suri later formed his own media centre and training camp in Taleban-ruled Afghanistan, to which he returned in 1998. Building on his extensive military experience from the Syrian Islamist insurgency in the early 1980s, he contributed decisively to formulating Al-Qaeda's global warfare strategy. Throughout his writings there is a desire to learn from past mistakes and rectify the course of the jihadi movement. His 1,600 page masterpiece, "The Global Islamic Resistance Call", outlines a broad strategy for the coming generation of Al-Qaeda, with a keen eye for the practical implementation of jihadi guerrilla warfare theories. His ideas of how to maximise the political impact of jihadi violence and how to build autonomous cells for 'individualised terrorism' have inspired many jihadi militants of today. The book includes a translation of two key chapters from al-Suri's seminal work "The Global Islamic Resistance Call".
This edited collection surveys how non-Western states have responded to the threats of domestic and international terrorism in ways consistent with and reflective of their broad historical, political, cultural and religious traditions. It presents a series of eighteen case studies of counterterrorism theory and practice in the non-Western world, including countries such as China, Japan, India, Pakistan, Egypt and Brazil. These case studies, written by country experts and drawing on original language sources, demonstrate the diversity of counter-terrorism theory and practice and illustrate how the world 'sees' and responds to terrorism is different from the way that the United States, the United Kingdom and many European governments do. This volume - the first ever comprehensive account of counter-terrorism in the non-Western world - will be of interest to students, scholars, students and policymakers responsible for developing counter-terrorism policy. -- .
The war on terror is a lost cause. As the war heads towards its
second decade, American security policy is in disarray - the Iraq
War is a disaster, Afghanistan is deeply insecure and the al-Qaida
movement remains as potent as ever with new generations of leaders
coming to the fore.
Pirates and Emperors, Old and New constitutes a collection of extended essays written between 1986 and 2001 which explore how "selected incidents of terrorism" are used as a cover for Western violence across the globe. Topics covered include the Lockerbie Bombing, the Second Palestinian Intifada and the attacks on the World Trade Centre. For those who want to understand the roots of American military actions in Iraq and Afghanistan, recent interventions in Libya, and the on-going destruction of Palestine this collection remains invaluable. This edition first published 2002
Blamed, at first, by the Spanish government for the recent Madrid train bombings, ETA (Euzkadi ta Askatasuna), the Basque nationalist organization, has been perhaps the most violent insurgent group on the European continent. Yet little is known about it outside of Spain. This book, now back in print, offers a full analytical study of ETA.
This timely and significant book seeks to explain the deep-seated complexities of terrorism and insurgency in Southeast Asia. In the aftermath of 9/11, this region has been designated by the United States to be the 'second front' in the war on terrorism. Yet despite the emergence of this 'new' global terrorism, the authors argue that armed rebellion in Southeast Asia is a phenomenon that predates Al Qaeda and the global Jihadist movement and that much can be learned from the motivations behind it. Written by a group of leading Western and emerging Southeast Asian scholars, this extensive volume demonstrates the difficulty and diversity of rebellion in Southeast Asia, and explores its intricate historical, political, social and economic roots. The book will serve as an excellent reference and educational text, providing an empirical and regional guide to the complex problem of insurgency in Southeast Asia. It will also contribute to a more educated understanding that could provide the basis for appropriate counter-terrorism strategies in this important part of the world. Comprehensive and engaging, this volume will find widespread appeal amongst researchers, students and policymakers interested in terrorism, international relations and Asian studies and will also be an invaluable tool for studies into political violence and security.
In 2014, the armed offensive of the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIL, ISIS, or Daesh) in northern and western Iraq and northeastern Syria raised significant concerns for the United States. After first ordering multiple deployments of U.S. troops to Iraq to provide security to diplomatic personnel and facilities, advise Iraqi security forces, and conduct intelligence gathering and reconnaissance, President Obama began ordering U.S. military airstrikes on IS forces in Iraq in August 2014. Later in September, after laying out plans for expanded use of military force against the Islamic State in a televised speech to the American people, the President ordered U.S. military airstrikes in Syria against both IS forces and forces of the "Khorasan Group," identified by the President as part of Al Qaeda. The intensified U.S. military engagement has raised numerous questions in Congress and beyond about the President's authority to use military force against the Islamic State. This book discusses the issues and current proposals for the use of military force against the Islamic State.
Focussing on the economics of terrorism in the post 9/11 world, this book brings together original research based on the collaborative efforts of leading economists and planners. The authoritative and expert contributors use a variety of methodological approaches and apply them to different types of terrorist attacks (on airports, highways, seaports, electric power infrastructure, for example). They also draw analogies between man-made and natural disasters. The results suggest that these issues are extremely complex and that the economic costs of some types of attack are huge, but that increased understanding and estimation can be used to justify resource investments in prevention, mitigation and response. A primary aim of the book is to contribute to developing more cost-effective anti-terrorist policies. Scholars and researchers in the fields of transportation, public sector economics, urban planning, disaster prevention, mitigation and management, and engineers will find The Economic Impacts of Terrorist Attacks a major contribution to a new and rapidly expanding research area.
The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9-11 Commission, is an independent, bipartisan commission created by congressional legislation and the signature of President George W. Bush in late 2002. The commission has produced a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, including preparation for and the immediate response to the attacks. It reports in detail on issues relating to intelligence agencies; law enforcement agencies; diplomacy; immigration, non-immigrant visas and border control; the flow of assets to terrorist organisations; commercial aviation; the role of congressional oversight and resource allocation; and other areas determined relevant by the Commission for its inquiry. It also provides recommendations designed to guard against future attacks.;W.W. Norton is proud to have been selected by the 9-11 Commission to be the authorised publisher of the report.
A comprehensive history of one of the world's deadliest jihadist groups Boko Haram is one of the world's deadliest jihadist groups. It has killed more than twenty thousand people and displaced more than two million in a campaign of terror that began in Nigeria but has since spread to Chad, Niger, and Cameroon. This is the first book to tell the full story of this West African affiliate of the Islamic State, from its beginnings in the early 2000s to its most infamous violence, including the 2014 kidnapping of 276 Nigerian schoolgirls. An in-depth account of a group that is menacing Africa's most populous and richest country, the book also illuminates the dynamics of civil war in Africa and jihadist movements in other parts of the world.
The brutal assasination of Commissioner Frederick Mackeson on British India's North-West Frontier in 1853 was a bloody and public declaration of a conflict that was to stretch well into the next one hundred and fifty years. The Wahhabi tribe, extreme Islamist fundamentalists, set out to restore purity to their faith by declaring violent jihad on all who opposed them. Their history has long been forgotten and yet their vicious brand of political ideology lives on. The Wahhabi deeply influenced not only the formation of modern Saudi Arabia, but Osama bin Laden and the Taliban. Their teachings educate orphan boys in Afghanistan and press rifles into their hands, for the sake of jihad. The parallels between this pivotal terrorist network and our post-9/11 political climate are staggering. Charles Allen sheds lights on the historical roots of modern terrorism and shows how this dangerous nineteenth-century theology lives on today.
Captivating, concise, and current, Essentials of Terrorism: Concepts and Controversies introduces readers to the modern landscape of domestic and international terrorism. The Fifth Edition of Gus Martin's renowned text covers key foundational topics and provides a framework for defining terrorism and exploring its history and causes, while also discussing terrorist environments, tactics, targets, and counterterrorism. This new edition includes information regarding intelligence, counterterrorism laws, and deprivation theory, as well as new and updated sections discussing mass violence in the United States, narco-terrorism, anti-state dissident terrorism, ISIS, and a new theoretical model for ending terrorist campaigns. The text also examines recent attacks and presents new data, case studies, and photos to show readers the state of terrorism across the globe today. SAGE edge FREE online resources for students that make learning easier. See how your students benefit.
Written by two leading scholars, this book is an accessible overview of the global political consequences of the 9/11 terror attacks.
The War on Terror has defined the first decade of this century. It has been marked by the deaths of thousands of people, political turmoil, massive destruction, and intense fear. Regardless of the name it goes under, the long war on terror will continue to affect lives across the world. Its catalyst, 9/11, did not have to happen, nor did the character of the responses. This book offers a set of novel interpretations of how we got here, where we are, and where we should be heading. It is organised around twelve penetrating and readable essays, full of novel interpretations and succinct summaries of complex ideas and events. In their examination of those aspects of global order touched by terror, the authors argue that the dangers of international terrorism are not overblown. Future 9/11s are possible: so is a more just and law-governed world. Terrorism cannot be disinvented, but with more intelligent policies than have been on show these past ten years, it can be overcome and made politically anachronistic.
This book will be essential reading for all students of terrorism studies, international security, war and conflict studies and IR in general, as well as of much interest to well-informed lay readers.
In Radical Origins, Azeem Ibrahim provides an accessible primer on radicalism, an understanding of jihadist history, and a way forward, debunking misconceptions about Islam along the way. This remarkable work culminates in a powerful body of evidence about how to contain, reduce and stop the spread of radicalisation once and for all.
This rigorously analytical yet readable book examines trends in new terror - understood here to be the capacity of sub-state actors to secure religious or politically motivated objectives by violent means. The contributors argue that whilst the use of violence to achieve political ends is scarcely original, what distinguishes new terror is its potential for lethality. This, combined with its evolving capacity to draw upon the resources of globalisation, particularly the revolution in communications which has advanced global markets, has also rendered them, and the more developed core states in the international trading order, increasingly vulnerable to asymmetric threats. The book's objectives are to: * examine the character of new terror and its ambivalent relationship to the evolving cybernetic order made possible by technology and globalisation * identify emerging trends and threats in terrorism including cyber-terrorism, eco-terrorism, bombings and CBR material * consider the implications of these characteristics for the Asia Pacific region. This careful examination of the key paradox facing the modern condition, namely that the freedoms of communication themselves facilitate terror cells aimed at unravelling the prevailing order, will be of great interest to academics and researchers of contemporary politics, international relations, business, and Asian studies. The lay reader will also find the book accessible.
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