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We have all witnessed media reports of the aftermath of mass victim attacks. We see the carnage, and we know that attackers do not show mercy. Victims were innocent and were targeted simply for being a part of a small or large group of people. Whether a bomb, semi-automatic weapon, knife, or vehicle, the attacker strikes quickly and without mercy. Victims may have been dining in a restaurant, relaxing at a bar, participating in school classes, attending a workplace activity, or simply walking on the street. Because of the horrific and effective nature of such attacks, we are often left fearing that little to nothing can be done if the unthinkable happens, and we are caught in such a merciless attack. Surviving Mass Victim Attacks presents specific and valuable strategies for survival if the unthinkable happens, and serves as a practical guide to anyone who wishes to be more knowledgeable and better prepared if caught in an attack themselves. Gary Jackson is a behavioral psychologist threat expert with operational experience who analyzes how victims have managed to survive past mass victim attacks committed by international terrorists, domestic terrorists, self-radicalized terrorists, those with mental health issues, and those driven by hate and bias to present strategies that anyone can use to increase their chances of survival if the unthinkable happen. Throughout, different types of mass victim attackers, their methods, how and what they target, and how to use characteristics of the location to increase survival are addressed. The book uses real life examples to illustrate survival; the strategies presented are easily understood and do not require special skills to execute. By reading Surviving Mass Victim Attacks, you will be better able to know what to expect, how to prepare proactively, and how to respond in a way that will save your life.
Terrorism is an extreme form of radicalization. In this ground-breaking and important book, Clark McCauley and Sophia Moskalenko identify and outline twelve mechanisms of political radicalization that can move individuals, groups, and the masses to increased sympathy and support for political violence. Co-authored by two psychologists both acknowledged in their field as experts in radicalization and consultants to the Department of Homeland Security and other government agencies, Friction draws on wide-ranging case histories to show striking parallels between 1800s anti-czarist terrorism, 1970s anti-war terrorism, and 21st century jihadist terrorism. Altogether, the twelve mechanisms of political radicalization demonstrate how unexceptional people are moved to exceptional violence in the conflict between states and non-state challengers. In this revised and expanded edition, McCauley and Moskalenko use the twelve mechanisms to analyze recent cases of lone-wolf terrorists and illustrate how individuals can become radicalized to jihadist violence with group influence or organizational support. Additionally, in the context of the Islamic State's worldwide efforts to radicalize moderate Muslims for jihad, they advance a model that differentiates radicalization in opinion from radicalization in action, and suggest different strategies for countering these diverse forms of radicalization. As a result, the authors conclude that the same mechanisms are at work in radicalizing both terrorists and states targeted by terrorists, implying that these conclusions are as relevant for policy-makers and security officers as they are for citizens facing the threat of terror today.
In Foreign Intervention in Africa after the Cold War-interdisciplinary in approach and intended for nonspecialists-Elizabeth Schmidt provides a new framework for thinking about foreign political and military intervention in Africa, its purposes, and its consequences. She focuses on the quarter century following the Cold War (1991-2017), when neighboring states and subregional, regional, and global organizations and networks joined extracontinental powers in support of diverse forces in the war-making and peace-building processes. During this period, two rationales were used to justify intervention: a response to instability, with the corollary of responsibility to protect, and the war on terror. Often overlooked in discussions of poverty and violence in Africa is the fact that many of the challenges facing the continent today are rooted in colonial political and economic practices, in Cold War alliances, and in attempts by outsiders to influence African political and economic systems during the decolonization and postindependence periods. Although conflicts in Africa emerged from local issues, external political and military interventions altered their dynamics and rendered them more lethal. Foreign Intervention in Africa after the Cold War counters oversimplification and distortions and offers a new continentwide perspective, illuminated by trenchant case studies.
World events since late 2013 have led some observers to conclude that the international security environment is undergoing a shift from the familiar post-Cold War era of the last 20-25 years, also sometimes known as the unipolar moment (with the United States as the unipolar power), to a new and different strategic situation that features, among other things, renewed great power competition and challenges to elements of the U.S.- led international order that has operated since World War II. A shift in the international security environment could have significant implications for U.S. defense plans and programs. This book discusses potential implications for defence and issues for Congress that arise with a shift in the international security environment. It also examines outcomes and key challenges of NATO's Wales Summit; priorities for 21st century defence; and discusses the 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review and defense strategy.
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aThe interpretive frameworkpresented offers students of
political violence a highly accessible template from which to study
the sociopsychological reasons individuals are drawn into terrorist
groups, and how the groups themselves act to reinforce the
identities of their members....The authors are to be commended for
producing a model with such tremendous analytical clarity and
"Arena and Arrigo give us a brilliant glimpse into the
'terrorist' psyche as they detail the creation and maintenance of
identity in various terrorist organizations. Their conceptual
framework has important implications for law enforcement, public
policy makers, and academic researchers engaged in the study of
"The overall quality of this book is astonishing, the ease of
reading and the depth of theoretical knowledge, equally impressive.
It is a valuable contribution to the terrorism literature and of
such quality that it will be quoted, used, debated, and confronted
by researchers for years to come. This book represents a vanguard
of sociological thought on this subject and is a much needed voice
in the debates on terrorism."
Who would strap a bomb to his chest, walk into a crowded subway station and blow himself up? Only by examining how a terrorist understands his own identity and actions can this question be answered. The authors of The Terrorist Identity explore how the notion of self-concept combined with membership interrorist and extremist groups, can shape and sustain the identity of a terrorist as well as their subsequent justification for violence and the legitimacy of their actions.
The book provides an understanding of identity that draws on concepts from psychology, criminology, and sociology. Notably, the book examines several case studies of various terrorist groups, including: the Provisional Irish Republican Army, Hamas, the Shining Path, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and racist Skinheads. By making the construct of identity central to this analysis The Terrorist Identity explains how violent and extremist collective behavior emerges culturally, how it informs the identity of group members socially, and how participants assume their place in these groups completely even at the expense of life-threatening harm to others or to themselves.
This is the most recent of Mickolus's Chronologies, reaching back to 1960. It includes informative updates on earlier terrorist events and an exhaustive bibliography of the literature on terrorism published over the past 50 years. The most up-to-date, comprehensive, and authoritative reference source on global terrorism brings Mickolus's coverage of political violence around the world up to the end of 2004. This three-volume set meticulously chronicles every terrorist act committed during the turbulent post-9/11 period. Information about the terrorists, their victims, attempts to bring the perpetrators to justice, and governmental responses are included. This invaluable source of topical information will prove useful to students, researchers, journalists, policy analysts, legislators, and defense and intelligence analysts. Mickolus also provides updates on terrorist acts covered in earlier volumes as new events unfold and recent information is revealed. An exhaustive bibliography of the literature on terrorism published over the past 50 years is also included, as are thematic indices that allow users to locate attacks by region and type.
Since its independence in the nineteenth century, the South American state of Colombia has been shaped by decades of bloody political violence. In The Para-State, Aldo Civico draws on interviews with paramilitary death squads and drug lords to provide a cultural interpretation of the country's history of violence and state control. Between 2003 and 2008, Civico gained unprecedented access to some of Colombia's most notorious leaders of the death squads. He also conducted interviews with the victims of paramilitary, with drug kingpins, and with vocal public supporters of the paramilitary groups. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari, this riveting work demonstrates how the paramilitaries have in essence become a war machine deployed by the Colombian state to control and maintain its territory and political legitimacy.
A former Department of Homeland Security analyst takes a long view on the domestic terrorism threat from radicalized individuals and hate groups of various ideologies. America is a land in which extremism no longer belongs to the country's shadowy fringes, but comfortably exists in the national mainstream. That is the alarming conclusion by intelligence analyst Daryl Johnson, an expert on domestic extremism with more than twenty-five years of experience tracking radicalized groups for the US government. In this book, Johnson dissects the rapidly expanding forms of American hatred and radicalization, including white nationalists, antigovernment militias, antifascists (Antifa), militant black nationalists, and extremist Islamic groups. The author develops a concise model that explains how extremists on both the far right and the far left use the same techniques to recruit and to radicalize individuals, turning them into violent offenders. He also examines the political forces that fuel this threat and have kept the US government from properly identifying and developing countermeasures to deal with it, including a disproportional emphasis on Islamic terrorism. Johnson concludes by recounting individual stories of deradicalization, each of which was the result of personal reevaluations of formerly held extremist convictions. He recommends more resources at the state and federal levels for combatting radical movements and urges greater communication and coordination between law enforcement agencies. This in-depth analysis of a growing menace that has taken America hostage throws a stark light on the darkest segments of American society and provides practical means for dealing with their violent threats.
This book unravels the role of democracy after the 9/11 terrorist attacks and reflects important debates surrounding the security of Muslim communities in the years to come. It looks at the problems of torture, violence and the legal resources available to contemporary democracies to confront terrorism. While terrorism is often regarded as one of the major threats to the West and the nation-state, this book explores the notion that a disciplined sense of terror is what keeps society working. The strengths and limitations of liberalism are examined, as well as the ethical dilemma of torture and human right violations in the struggle against terrorism. This book carefully dissects the origin of the nation-state and how it keeps society united. The author offers a creative and unique approach to democracy and worldwide terrorism, exploring the consequences for the nation-state. This book looks at the connections between terrorism, mobility, consumption, torture and fear. It will be of interest to researchers as well as postgraduate and postdoctoral students within the fields of Human Geography, Politics, Media and International Relations.
The New York Times bestselling author of 13 Hours and Lost in Shangri-La delivers his most compelling and vital work yet--a spellbinding, heartbreaking, and ultimately uplifting narrative, years in the making, that weaves together myriad stories to create the definitive portrait of 9/11. In the days after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, then-Boston Globe journalist Mitchell Zuckoff led a team that reported and wrote the lead news stories and a series of pieces about 9/11 victims and their families. It was the beginning of an obsession with that momentous day, and a commitment to tell its complete true story. Fall and Rise is a 9/11 book like no other. Based on years of meticulous reporting, it gives voice as never before to both the lost and the saved. Zuckoff masterfully braids the stories of what happened in New York, Washington, D.C., and Shanksville, Pennsylvania, into a mesmerizing account that details the minute-by-minute experiences of those whose lives were forever altered by that day. Zuckoff puts us in the center of events with numerous men and women caught up in the terrible attacks--beside a young, out-of-work actor stuck in an elevator in the North Tower of the World Trade Center; among the heroes aboard United Airlines Flight 93; inside the badly damaged Pentagon with a veteran trapped in the inferno; accompanying the first firefighters on the scene in rural Shanksville; in the company of workers at offices in the World Trade Center; among a team of New York firefighters racing against time to save an injured woman and themselves; and alongside families flying to see loved ones across the country who suddenly face terrorists bent on murder. Fall and Rise opens new avenues of understanding for anyone who thinks they know the story of that tragic day, and illuminates as never before the extraordinary ordinary people from all walks of life caught up in tragic circumstances they could neither understand nor control. Destined to become a classic, Fall and Rise is a tribute to the dead and the living, and a testament to the power of the human spirit to triumph even in the darkest hour. Supplemental enhancement PDF accompanies the audiobook.
Looking to the future in confronting the Islamic State The Islamic State (best known in the West as ISIS or ISIL) has been active for less than a decade, but it has already been the subject of numerous histories and academic studies-all focus primarily on the past. The Future of ISIS is the first major study to look ahead: what are the prospects for the Islamic State in the near term, and what can the global community, including the United States, do to counter it? Edited by two distinguished scholars at Indiana University, the book examines how ISIS will affect not only the Middle East but the global order. Specific chapters deal with such questions as whether and how ISIS benefitted from intelligence failures, and what can be done to correct any such failures; how to confront the alarmingly broad appeal of Islamic State ideology; the role of local and regional actors in confronting ISIS; and determining U.S. interests in preventing ISIS from gaining influence and controlling territory. Given the urgency of the topic, The Future of ISIS is of interest to policymakers, analysts, and students of international affairs and public policy.
Most people strongly condemn terrorism; yet they often fail to say how terrorist acts differ from other acts of violence such as the killing of civilians in war. Stephen Nathanson argues that we cannot have morally credible views about terrorism if we focus on terrorism alone and neglect broader issues about the ethics of war. His book challenges influential views on the ethics of war, including the realist view that morality does not apply to war, and Michael Walzer's defence of attacks on civilians in 'supreme emergency' circumstances. It provides a clear definition of terrorism, an analysis of what makes terrorism morally wrong, and a rule-utilitarian defence of noncombatant immunity, as well as discussions of the Allied bombings of cities in World War II, collateral damage, and the clash between rights theories and utilitarianism. It will interest a wide range of readers in philosophy, political theory, international relations and law.
One of the most powerful Islamic militant groups in Africa, Al-Shabaab exerts Taliban-like rule over millions in Somalia and poses a growing threat to stability in the Horn of Africa. Somalis risk retaliation or death if they oppose or fail to comply with Al-Shabaab-imposed restrictions on aspects of everyday life such as clothing, media, sports, interpersonal relations, and prayer. Inside Al-Shabaab: The Secret History of Al-Qaeda's Most Powerful Ally recounts the rise, fall, and resurgence of this overlooked terrorist organization and provides an intimate understanding of its connections with Al-Qaeda. Drawing from interviews with former Al-Shabaab militants, including high-ranking officials, military commanders, police, and foot soldiers, authors Harun Maruf and Dan Joseph reveal the motivations of those who commit their lives to the group and its violent jihadist agenda. A wealth of sources including US diplomatic cables released by Wikileaks, letters taken from the Pakistani hideout of Osama bin Laden, case files from the prosecution of American Al-Shabaab members, emails from Hillary Clinton's tenure as secretary of state, and Al-Shabaab's own statements and recruiting videos inform Maruf and Joseph's investigation of the United States' campaign against Al-Shabaab and how the 2006 US-backed Ethiopian invasion of Somalia gave the group the popular support it needed to radicalize ordinary citizens and become a powerful movement.
The early twenty-first century has been defined by a rise in Islamist radicalisation and a concurrent rise in far right extremism. This book explores the interaction between the 'new' far right and Islamist extremists and considers the consequences for the global terror threat. Julia Ebner argues that far right and Islamist extremist narratives - 'The West is at war with Islam' and 'Muslims are at war with the West' - complement each other perfectly, making the two extremes rhetorical allies and building a spiralling torrent of hatred - 'The Rage'. By looking at extremist movements both online and offline, she shows how far right and Islamist extremists have succeeded in penetrating each other's echo chambers as a result of their mutually useful messages. Based on first-hand interviews, this book introduces readers to the world of reciprocal radicalisation and the hotbeds of extremism that have developed - with potentially disastrous consequences - in the UK, Europe and the US.
Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century helps readers understand terrorism, responses to it, and current trends that affect the future of this phenomenon. Putting terrorism into historical perspective and analyzing it as a form of political violence, this text presents the most essential concepts, the latest data, and numerous case studies to promote effective analysis of terrorist acts. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century objectively breaks down the who-what-why-how of terrorism, giving readers a way both to understand patterns of behavior and to more critically evaluate forthcoming patterns. New to the 8th Edition Provides a more intense exploration of religion as a primary cause of contemporary terrorism. Focuses on the role of social media in recruitment and propaganda. Examines the radicalization and recruitment by ISIS to fighting and to domestic young people to carry out attacks at home. Explores the growing threat - and reality - of cyber attacks. Updates the material on the networking of terrorism today.
Critical acclaim for Sisters in the Resistance
"Often moving . . . always fascinating . . . women in the French Resistance is a key subject. Margaret Weitz has gathered personal testimonies . . . and set them in an intelligible context that helps us understand how all French people—men and women—experienced the Nazi occupation." —Robert Paxton, Mellon Professor of Social Sciences, Columbia University, and author of Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944.
"Compulsive reading . . . a valuable book which vividly portrays the intricacies of resistance within France, written in an easy but serious style." —Times Literary Supplement (London).
"An absolutely stunning and compelling chronicle of dauntless courage and unflagging patriotism." —Booklist.
"[Margaret Collins Weitz's] well-researched, thoughtful study. . . has filled a gap in the history of World War II." —Publishers Weekly.
"Balancing absorbing narrative and astute analysis, Margaret Collins Weitz has integrated the unsung achievements of women into the history of the French Resistance." —Carole Fink, Professor of History, The Ohio State University, and author of Marc Bloch: A Life in History.
"Fifty years after the end of World War II, Sisters in the Resistance renders homage to the courageous women of the French Resistance. It is high time for their contributions to be fully acknowledged, and fortunate indeed that they have found such a sympathetic, scholarly, and lucid chronicler in Margaret Collins Weitz." —Marilyn Yalom, author of Blood Sisters: The French Revolution in Women's Memory.
In Staying Safe, Juval Aviv, a counterterrorism expert and international security consultant, outlines the essential tools for becoming personally responsible for the security and safety of yourself and your loved ones. You will learn how to safeguard your home and office, protect your identity, and travel without fear. Most important, you'll find that Aviv's recommendations and warnings are practical and easy to follow.
Juval Aviv neither overstates nor minimizes today's threats, whether they are from criminals or terrorists; instead he sets out to inform and provide real advice for minimizing risks.
Staying Safe is clear, comprehensive, and full of instructive and vital tips that cover: Flying with confidence Traveling to a foreign country Identifying a potential terrorist threat Basic safety precautions Survival and escape strategies Securing your business Keeping your identity confidential Making transactions on the Internet And much more
What is it that leaves us shell shocked in the face of the massacres carried out in New York on 9/11 or in Paris on 13 November 2015? How are we to explain the intensity of the reaction to the attacks on Charlie Hebdo? Answering these questions involves trying to understand what a society goes through when it is subjected to the ordeal of terrorist attacks. And it impels us to try to explain why millions of people feel so concerned and shaken by them, even when they do not have a direct connection with any of the victims. In Shell Shocked, sociologist Gerome Truc sheds new light on these events, returning to the ways in which ordinary individuals lived through and responded to the attacks of 9/11, of 11 March 2004 in Madrid and 7 July 2005 in London. Analysing the political language and the media images, the demonstrations of solidarity and the minutes of silence, as well as the tens of thousands of messages addressed to the victims, his investigation reveals all the ambiguity of our feelings about the Islamists' attacks. And it brings out the sources of the solidarity that, in our individualistic societies, ultimately finds expression in the first person singular rather than the first person plural: 'I am Charlie', 'I am Paris'. This timely and path-breaking book will appeal to students and scholars is sociology and politics and to anyone interested in understanding the impact of terrorism in contemporary societies.
Following the protest movements and radicalism of the late sixties, many affluent countries experienced lethal revolutionary terrorism. Groups like the Red Brigades in Italy and the Red Army Faction in Germany provoked political crises in their countries. Other affluent countries, however, did not experience this same kind of violence. This book offers a historical-comparative explanation of this cross-national variation, focusing on the development paths followed by countries during the interwar period. The countries that followed a non-liberal path (marked by anarchist terrorism, democratic breakdowns, civil wars, land inequality, non-liberal capitalism, and late industrialization) suffered lethal left-wing terrorism decades later. Terrorism is thus explained as a feature of the political and economic system. Drawing on several fields, including comparative politics, political economy, international relations, and historical sociology, this book offers novel hypotheses about the determinants of violent conflict.
This new Handbook provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of current knowledge and debates on terrorism and counterterrorism, as well as providing a benchmark for future research. The attacks of 9/11 and the 'global war on terror' and its various legacies have dominated international politics in the opening decades of the 21st century. In response to the dramatic rise of terrorism, within the public eye and the academic world, the need for an accessible and comprehensive overview of these controversial issues remains profound. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism seeks to fulfil this need. The volume is divided into two key parts: Part I: Terrorism: This section provides an overview of terrorism, covering the history of terrorism, its causes and characteristics, major tactics and strategies, major trends and critical contemporary issues such as radicalisation and cyber-terrorism. It concludes with a series of detailed case studies, including the IRA, Hamas and Islamic State. Part II: Counterterrorism: This part draws on the main themes and critical issues surrounding counterterrorism. It covers the major strategies and policies, key events and trends and the impact and effectiveness of different approaches. This section also concludes with a series of case studies focused on major counterterrorism campaigns. This book will be of great interest to all students of terrorism and counterterrorism, political violence, counter-insurgency, criminology, war and conflict studies, security studies and IR more generally.
In his first book since What Went Wrong? Bernard Lewis examines the
historical roots of the resentments that dominate the Islamic world
today and that are increasingly being expressed in acts of
terrorism. He looks at the theological origins of political Islam
and takes us through the rise of militant Islam in Iran, Egypt, and
Saudi Arabia, examining the impact of radical Wahhabi
proselytizing, and Saudi oil money, on the rest of the Islamic
"A raw, somber emotional journey that concludes with hope and a measure of forgiveness." a Kirkus Reviews The gripping true story of Kathleen Murray, a young mother whose life was changed on September 11, 1976 when her husband, Brian Murray, a NYPD bomb disposal expert, was killed by a terrorist's bomb. It details her childhood in the Bronx, her journey out of poverty with Brian's help, and her own determination to take care of her two young sons after Brian's death. While Kathleen heals, she launches a lawsuit against the city of New York to find out the real reason the bomb exploded, and at the same time begins a relationship through letters with one of the hijackers, Julie Busic. All the while, Kathleen becomes one of the founders of Survivors of the Shield, a group that advocates for and provides support and assistance to the spouses and children of New York City police officers killed in the line of duty.
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