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Charles Abrahams is a world-class lawyer who sued multinationals for colluding with the apartheid government, but at twelve he was determined to become a world-famous heartsurgeon. Then a school inspector shattered his dream: coloured children from the Cape Flats 'should not aim too high'. Class Action is the story of how Charles aimed high anyway, despite a childhood that included forced removal, dire poverty and the deep sense of shame of being neither white nor a 'white coloured'. As one of eleven children in a poor family, he experienced constant hardship and family strife.
Violence was ubiquitous: his street was notorious for its gang fights, his father abused his mother at home, and schoolteachers beat darker-skinned children like him. Charles wanted a larger life, and he found it through student politics, anti-apartheid activism and reading. He studied relentlessly, finding not only formidable political weapons, but a means to delve into the damage apartheid had done to his personal identity, selfesteem, sexuality and morality. He went on to qualify as a lawyer and, after defending local gangsters, he sought to do good through human-rights and class-action law. He has since spearheaded some of South Africa’s most historic, groundbreaking lawsuits, pursuing justice for ordinary citizens whose lives were ruined by powers too profit-driven to ever think about them.
Class Action depicts a remarkable journey of resistance and healing in reaction to institutionalised greed and racism and the harm it has done to our identities, our relationships and the people of our country.
The Constitution informs every aspect of our legal system and every instance of interpretation and application of that system. The Bill of Rights Handbook's detailed coverage of all aspects of Bill of Rights jurisprudence and practice has made it the standard reference work for this important area of law, and it has been extensively relied upon and quoted by the judiciary. The sixth edition of the Handbook is a comprehensive account of over two decades of jurisprudence interpreting and applying the Bill of Rights. The work has been thoroughly revised, in particular to cover developments in the areas of constitutional jurisdiction, remedies and socio-economic rights.
Featuring more than 475 questions based on Life in the United Kingdom: A guide for new residents, the official Home Office materials, Life in the UK Test: Practice Questions 2021 is the ideal study companion for anyone taking the Life in the UK test. Passing the Life in the UK test is a compulsory requirement for anyone wanting to live permanently in Britain or become a British citizen. This practical study aide makes preparing for the test a lot easier. This 2021 edition features practice tests completely revised from 2020 based on direct experience and extensive customer feedback. This means every question has been checked against official samples and formats for accuracy, and the book features formats and questions seen in the official test. This book gives students access to practice questions which are just like the real test. Students also get a free subscription to online practice tests at www.lifeintheuk.net, along with up-to-date news and information. 1. 20 complete practice tests, fully revised based on direct experience and customer feedback 2. Updated advice on what to study and what the questions will be like 3. A free subscription for online practice tests at www.lifeintheuk.net Complete study materials are available in the companion titles Life in the UK Test: Study Guide 2021 and Life in the UK Test: Handbook 2021.
The 2021 edition of the bestselling Handbook series includes the complete testable materials from Life in the United Kingdom: A guide for new residents, the official Home Office materials. Passing the Life in the UK test is a compulsory requirement for anyone wanting to live permanently in Britain or become a British citizen. This practical study guide makes preparing for the test a lot easier. The new edition includes: Up-to-date advice on specific question formats and clear advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Focus points to help target your studies. Clear and easy to understand diagrams illustrating complex topics. Key advice from successful students and FAQs. The 2021 edition includes advice on what to study and unique study aids. Our updated appendices help students develop the comprehensive understanding they will need to pass the test. This book offers detailed advice on the types of questions you will be asked in the official test. Purchasers also get a free subscription to online practice tests at www.lifeintheuk.net, along with up-to-date news and information. This book provides students with everything required to help them pass their test with confidence. The latest official materials Expert and independent study advice A FREE subscription to online practice tests at www.lifeintheuk.net
The 2021 edition of the best-selling study guide includes the complete testable materials from Life in the United Kingdom: A guide for new residents, the official Home Office materials. Passing the Life in the UK test is a compulsory requirement for anyone wanting to live permanently in Britain or become a British citizen. This practical study guide makes preparing for the test a lot easier. The new edition includes: Updated advice on specific question formats and clear advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Focus points to help target your studies. Completely revised and expanded practice tests, based on customer feedback and the direct experience of our editors. This means we offer accurate and up-to-date advice on what the test is really like. Clear and easy to understand diagrams illustrating complex topics. Key advice from successful students and FAQs. The 2021 edition includes advice on what to study, the kinds of questions to expect and unique study aids. Our study aids help students develop the comprehensive understanding they will need to pass the test. This book offers detailed advice on the types of question you will be asked in the official test. Purchasers also get a free subscription to online practice tests at www.lifeintheuk.net, along with up-to-date news and information. This book provides students with everything they need to help them pass their test with confidence. The latest official materials Expert and independent study advice Practice questions, including a FREE subscription to online practice tests at www.lifeintheuk.net
This highly acclaimed textbook provides law students with a thorough introduction to the Human Rights Act 1998, its background, how it came to be passed and the mass of case law that has followed it. The authors discuss the particular rights the Act embodies, including the law's response to terrorism. Combining broad topic coverage with an engaging writing style, Hoffman and Rowe provide an outstanding platform for students wishing to gain an in-depth and critical understanding of this contemporary, contentious and constantly evolving area of law.
From the BESTSELLING Law Express revision series. Law Express Question and Answer: Human Rights is designed to ensure you get the most marks for every answer you write by improving your understanding of what examiners are looking for, helping you to focus in on the question being asked and showing you how to make even a strong answer stand out.
That Every Man Be Armed, the first scholarly book on the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, has played a significant role in constitutional debate and litigation since it was first published in 1984. Halbrook traces the right to bear arms from ancient Greece and Rome to the English republicans, then to the American Revolution and Constitution, through the Reconstruction period extending the right to African Americans, and onward to today's controversies. With reviews of recent literature and court decisions, this new edition ensures that Halbrook's study remains the most comprehensive general work on the right to keep and bear arms.
International human rights law has expanded remarkably since the 1990s. It is therefore more important than ever to identify, beyond specific controversies, its deeper structure and the general pattern of evolution. Moreover, it has a logic of its own: though part of international law, it borrows many of its principles from domestic constitutional law. This leading textbook meets both challenges. It has been significantly updated for the new third edition, introducing sections on subjects including business and human rights, amongst other key areas. Features include forty new cases from various jurisdictions or expert bodies, and figures offering visual descriptions of the procedures discussed in the text. The 'questions for discussion' have also been systematically updated. The text retains its student-friendly design, and the features which made the previous editions so engaging and accessible remain. This popular textbook continues to be an essential tool for all students of human rights law.
JOIN OVER HALF A MILLION STUDENTS WHO CHOSE TO REVISE WITH LAW EXPRESS Revise with the help of the UK's bestselling law revision series. Features: * Review essential cases, statutes, and legal terms before exams. * Assess and approach the subject by using expert advice. * Gain higher marks with tips for advanced thinking and further discussions. * Avoid common pitfalls with Don't be tempted to. * Practice answering sample questions and discover additional resources on the Companion website. www.pearsoned.co.uk/lawexpress
Citizenship is an ever-evolving and expanding concept. European citizenship is all the more so. This book considers the role that the institutional design of the European Union plays in extending the rights of EU citizens. With chapters from leading researchers in the field, Democratic Empowerment in the European Union outlines the core themes relating to democratic empowerment in the EU. It examines the channels that are being made available by EU policy makers to help increase democratic participation, as well as the hindrances to, and the problems associated with, democratic empowerment. With its groundbreaking account of the ways in which EU citizens are hampered in exercising their democratic citizenship, and proposals for how they might be further empowered to do so, this book is an important addition to the literature on the subject, and offers an excellent introduction to this crucial issue. Democratic Empowerment in the European Union will be essential reading for students of politics and both social and public policy with interests in democracy and citizenship, as well as European policy makers seeking to understand and encourage democratic engagement.
Contrary to how it is often portrayed, the concept of human rights is not homogeneous. Instead it appears fragmented, differing in scope, focus, legal force and level of governance. Using the lens of key case studies, this insightful book contemplates human rights integration and fragmentation from the perspective of its users. The fragmentation of human rights law has resulted in an uncoordinated legal architecture that can create obstacles for effective human rights protection. Against this background, expert contributors examine how to make sense - in both theoretical and practical terms - of these multiple layers of human rights law through which human rights users have to navigate. They consider whether there is a need for more integration and the potential ways in which this might be achieved. The research presented illustrates the pivotal role that users play in shaping, implementing, interpreting and further developing human rights law. Offering an innovative perspective to the debate, this book will appeal to both students and academics interested in human rights and the methodological approaches that can be used in furthering its research. Practitioners and policy makers will also benefit from the forward thinking insights into how an integrated approach to human rights could look.
Mark Tushnet presents a concise yet comprehensive overview of free expression law, understood as a form of constitutional law. Confronting the major issues of free expression - speech critical of government, libel law, hate speech regulation, and the emerging challenges posed by new technologies - he evaluates the key questions and potential difficulties for future generations. Contrasting the United States with current law in Europe and elsewhere, Tushnet argues that freedom of expression around the world should reflect deference to legislative judgements, unless those judgements reflect inadequate deliberation or bias, and that much of the existing free expression law is consistent with this view. Key features include: * Comprehensible for both students of law and non-specialist readers interested in freedom of expression from a legal perspective * Viewpoints from multiple legal systems including analysis of decisions made by the US Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights * Explains the two legal doctrinal structures: categorical, rule-bound approaches and standards-based approaches * List of key references for further reading, allowing readers to extend their knowledge of the topic past the advanced introduction. This Advanced Introduction will be an essential foundational text for students of law, as well as those from a political science background who can view freedom of expression from a legal perspective.
The exceptionality of America's Supreme Court has long been conventional wisdom. But the U.S. Supreme Court is no longer the only one changing the landscape of public rights and values. Over the past thirty years, the European Court of Human Rights has developed an ambitious, American-style body of law. Unheralded by the mass press, this obscure tribunal in Strasbourg, France, has become, in many ways, the Supreme Court of Europe. Michael D. Goldhaber introduces American audiences to the judicial arm of the Council of Europe - a group distinct from the European Union, and much larger - whose mission is centered on interpreting the European Convention on Human Rights. The council routinely confronts nations over their most culturally sensitive, hot-button issues. It has stared down France on the issue of Muslim immigration, Ireland on abortion, Greece on Greek Orthodoxy, Turkey on Kurdish separatism, Austria on Nazism, and Britain on gay rights and corporal punishment. And what is most extraordinary is that nations commonly comply. In the battle for the world's conscience, Goldhaber shows how the court in Strasbourg may be pulling ahead.
Since 9/11, we have lived in an age of counterterrorism in which the spectre of terrorism justifies increasingly repressive and violent measures. Against this backdrop, legal scholars and human rights advocates have encouraged integration of human rights into the discourse of counterterrorism as the best way to counter such repression and violence. This book challenges that received wisdom by showing the ambiguous effects of such converged discourse on developing countries. It highlights the effect of terrorism discourse on human rights in two developing countries, viz., the Philippines and Indonesia, the efforts of local advocates in resisting abuses in the name of counterterrorism, and the persistence of violations despite legal and policy reforms in those countries. Applying a novel analytic framework drawn from critical terrorism studies and critical international law, the book provokes new thinking on the future of human rights advocacy in the age of counterterrorism.
The concept of supranational European citizenship has become one of the core concepts of the EU's unique polity. It has, however, been one of the most difficult to actualise. This book examines the challenges of, and barriers to, exercising full citizenship rights for European citizens and considers how they might best be overcome. Drawing on cutting-edge research from interdisciplinary areas of study, this book examines the key issues surrounding EU citizenship. Reflecting on the diversity of European societies, it identifies, analyses and compares the many barriers that citizens face to fully exercising their rights. With chapters examining key issues from migration to democratic governance and social rights, Moving Beyond Barriers critically analyses concepts of citizenship and the way that EU citizenship is politically, legally, economically and socially institutionalised, and elaborates alternatives to the current paths of realising EU citizenship. Citizenship issues feature prominently in the European policy-making agenda and the insights offered by this book will be of benefit to those with an interest in EU law, social and public policy and administration. Policy-makers and practitioners will also benefit from the reflections on citizenship and the practical guidance on how to move beyond current issues regarding EU citizenship.
Inquisitive and diverse, this innovative Research Handbook explores the ways in which human rights apply to people at work, through national constitutional provisions, judicial decisions and the application of rights expressed in supranational instruments. Analysing why certain human rights are deemed fundamental and how they apply in the context of work, this expansive Research Handbook highlights the gulf between the ideal applications of these rights universally, and the increasing reality in the new economy that these are rarely enforceable for employees in alternative forms of employment. Established and emerging scholars provide perspectives from countries across all continents, identifying issues of prominence in their area of the globe. Probing workers' rights and business obligations, the Research Handbook on Labour, Business and Human Rights Law will be imperative reading for scholars and students working within the fields of labour law, human rights and business ethics. This timely Research Handbook will also appeal to lawyers, trade union officials and government affairs staff, broadening their understanding of the laws and obligations impacting their positions.
AI is poised to disrupt our work and our lives. We can harness these technologies rather than fall captive to them-but only through wise regulation. Too many CEOs tell a simple story about the future of work: if a machine can do what you do, your job will be automated. They envision everyone from doctors to soldiers rendered superfluous by ever-more-powerful AI. They offer stark alternatives: make robots or be replaced by them. Another story is possible. In virtually every walk of life, robotic systems can make labor more valuable, not less. Frank Pasquale tells the story of nurses, teachers, designers, and others who partner with technologists, rather than meekly serving as data sources for their computerized replacements. This cooperation reveals the kind of technological advance that could bring us all better health care, education, and more, while maintaining meaningful work. These partnerships also show how law and regulation can promote prosperity for all, rather than a zero-sum race of humans against machines. How far should AI be entrusted to assume tasks once performed by humans? What is gained and lost when it does? What is the optimal mix of robotic and human interaction? New Laws of Robotics makes the case that policymakers must not allow corporations or engineers to answer these questions alone. The kind of automation we get-and who it benefits-will depend on myriad small decisions about how to develop AI. Pasquale proposes ways to democratize that decision making, rather than centralize it in unaccountable firms. Sober yet optimistic, New Laws of Robotics offers an inspiring vision of technological progress, in which human capacities and expertise are the irreplaceable center of an inclusive economy.
For the past 180 years, the inherent power of indigenous tribes to govern themselves has been a central tenet of federal Indian law. Despite the U.S. Supreme Court's repeated confirmation of Native sovereignty since the early 1830s, it has, in the past half-century, incrementally curtailed the power of tribes to govern non-Indians on Indian reservations. The result, Dewi Ioan Ball argues, has been a ""silent revolution,"" mounted by particular justices so gradually and quietly that the significance of the Court's rulings has largely evaded public scrutiny. Ball begins his examination of the erosion of tribal sovereignty by reviewing the so-called Marshall trilogy, the three cases that established two fundamental principles: tribal sovereignty and the power of Congress to protect Indian tribes from the encroachment of state law. Neither the Supreme Court nor Congress has remained faithful to these principles, Ball shows. Beginning with Williams v. Lee, a 1959 case that highlighted the tenuous position of Native legal authority over reservation lands and their residents, Ball analyzes multiple key cases, demonstrating how the Supreme Court's decisions weakened the criminal, civil, and taxation authority of tribal nations. During an era when many tribes were strengthening their economies and preserving their cultural identities, the high court was undermining sovereignty. In Atkinson Trading Co. v. Shirley (2001) and Nevada v. Hicks (2001), for example, the Court all but obliterated tribal authority over non-Indians on Native land. By drawing on the private papers of Chief Justice Earl Warren and Justices Harry A. Blackmun, William J. Brennan, Thurgood Marshall, William O. Douglas, Lewis F. Powell Jr., and Hugo L. Black, Ball offers crucial insight into federal Indian law from the perspective of the justices themselves. The Erosion of Tribal Power shines much-needed light on crucial changes to federal Indian law between 1959 and 2001 and discusses how tribes have dealt with the political and economic consequences of the Court's decisions.
Regime Consolidation and Transitional Justice explores the effect of transitional justice measures on 'regime consolidation', or the means by which a new political system is established in a post-transition context. Focusing on the long-term impact of transitional justice mechanisms in three countries over several decades, the gradual process by which these political systems have been legitimatised is revealed. Through case studies of East and West Germany after World War II, Spain after the end of the Franco dictatorship in 1975 and Turkey's long journey to achieving democratic reform, Regime Consolidation and Transitional Justice shows how transitional justice and regime consolidation are intertwined. The interdisciplinary study, which will be of interest to scholars of criminal law, human rights law, political science, democracy, autocracies and transformation theories, demonstrates, importantly, that the political systems in question are not always 'more' democratic than their predecessors and do not always enhance democracy post-regime consolidation.
When considering the structures that drive the global diffusion of human rights norms, Brian Greenhill argues that we need to look beyond institutions that are explicitly committed to human rights and instead focus on the dense web of international government organizations (IGOs)-some big, some small; some focused on human rights; some not-that has arisen in the last two generations. While most of these organizations have no direct connection to human rights issues, their participation in broader IGO networks has important implications for the human rights practices of their member states. Featuring a rigorous empirical analysis, Transmitting Rights shows that countries tend to adopt similar human rights practices to those of their IGO partners, whether for better or worse. Greenhill argues that IGOs constitute a tightly-woven fabric of ties between states and that this network provides an important channel through which states can influence the behavior of others. Indeed, his analysis suggests that a policy of isolating "rogue" states is probably self-defeating given that this will reduce their exposure to some of the more positive IGO-based influences on their human rights. Greenhill's analysis of the role of IGOs in rights diffusion will not only increase our understanding of the international politics of human rights; it will also reshape how we think about the role of international institutions in world politics.
Ever since its inception, one of the essential tasks of the EU has been to establish the internal market. Despite the impressive body of case law and legislation regarding the internal market, legal and factual barriers still exist for citizens seeking to exercise their full rights under EU law. This book analyses these barriers and proposes ways in which they may be overcome. In addition to analysing the key barriers to exercising economic rights more generally, this book focuses on three areas which represent the applications of the four basic freedoms (movement of goods, persons, services and capital): consumer rights, the rights of professionals in gaining access to the market and intellectual property rights in the Digital Single Market. With chapters from leading researchers, the main pathways towards the reduction and removal of these barriers are considered. Taking into account important factors, including the global financial crisis, and practical barriers, such as multilingualism, the solutions provided in this book present a pathway to enhancing cross-border realization of European citizens' access to their economic rights, while increasing in the cultural richness of the EU. EU Citizens' Economic Rights in Action is an important book, which will be an essential resource for students of EU citizenship and economics as well as for EU policy-makers and practitioners interested in the field.
Human rights are at a crossroads. This book considers how these rights can be reconstructed in challenging times, with changes in the pathways to the realization of human rights and new developments in human rights law and policy, illustrated with case studies from Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Contesting Human Rights traces the balance between the dynamics of diffusion, resistance and innovation in the field. The book examines a range of issues from the effectiveness of norm-promotion by advocacy campaigns to the backlash facing human rights advocates. The expert contributors suggest that new opportunities at and below the state level, and creative contests of global governance, can help reconstruct human rights in the face of modern challenges. Critical case studies trace new pathways emerging in the United Nations' Universal Periodic Review, regional human rights courts, constitutional incorporation of international norms, and human rights cities. With its innovative approach to human rights and comprehensive coverage of global, national and regional trends, Contesting Human Rights will be an invaluable tool for scholars and students of human rights, global governance, law and politics. It will also be useful for human rights advocates with a keen interest in the evolution of the human rights landscape.
Data not only represent an integral part of the identity of a person, they also represent, together with other essentials, an integral part of the identity of a state. Keeping control over such data is equally important for both an individual and for a state to retain their sovereign existence. This thought-provoking book elaborates on the assumption that information privacy is, in its essence, comparable to information sovereignty. This seemingly rudimentary observation serves as the basis for an analysis of various information instruments in domestic and international law. Information Sovereignty combines a philosophical and methodological analysis of the phenomena of information, sovereignty and privacy. Providing insights into previously unexplored parallels between information privacy and information sovereignty, it examines cross-border discovery, cybersecurity and cyber-defence operations, and legal regimes for cross-border data transfers, encompassing practical discussions from a fresh perspective. In addition, it offers an accessible overview of complex theoretical matters in the domain of Internet legal theory and international law and, crucially, a method to resolve situations where informational domains of individuals and/or states collide. This pioneering state-of the-art assessment of information law and legal theory is a vital resource for students, academics, policy-makers and practitioners alike, seeking a guide to the phenomena of information, sovereignty and privacy.
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