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This unique publication was written by experts who have made significant contributions to the development of reconstructive microsurgery and vascularized composite allotransplantation and are likely to shape its future. The book is divided into three major sections. The first presents the state-of-the-art of autologous microsurgical reconstruction. It summarizes current achievements, highlights the shortcomings of currently available techniques, and prepares the reader for the next evolutionary step: allotransplantation. Section two is a comprehensive review of allotransplantation, from immunology to surgical techniques. Finally, for those interested in establishing a comprehensive center for vascularized composite allotransplantation, section three provides important lessons from the successful Chang Gung Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation Center. From Auto- to Allotransplantation is indeed the only up-to-date and complete reference available on the topic. Scholars and research fellows interested in transplantation will benefit greatly from this work. It is also an invaluable resource for plastic, orthopedic, hand, ENT, oromaxillofacial, and general surgeons as well as for residents.
In recent years there have been many technical developments in immunology that have potential or actual applications in many other branches of the life sciences. These developments include a number of ultrasensitive systems for the detection and assay of a wide range of biological materials, including micro-organisms and their products, as well as techniques for isolating and purifying micro-organisms and other antigenic materials. Two developments in particular have greatly extended the scope and applicability of immunological methods. These are the production of monoclonal antibodies and the introduction of enzyme linked immunoassay as a simple, safe and economical alternative to radioimmunoassay. This book is based on information gathered at the Society for Applied Bacteriology Autumn Demonstration Meeting held at the South Bank Polytechnic, London on October 15th, 1986.
Disorders associated with cortisol excess and insufficiency, although rare, deserve the attention of the entire medical community because of high associated morbidity and mortality. Both diagnosis and management of hypo- and hypercortisolism are challenging, and disease presentation, at both clinical and laboratory level is not always definite. New tools are available for non-invasive and early diagnosis, and the choice of treatment should be tailored to each patient to improve quality of life through the regulation of the levels and rhythm of hormonal secretion, while limiting complications associated with the disease and therapies. In this new volume, top experts have contributed chapters on the pathognomonic, epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and laboratory aspects of the various disorders associated with altered cortisol secretion. They also present information on still debated standpoints on management. Cortisol Excess and Insufficiency is a valuable reference book for those wishing to have a reasoned and broad overview of the pathophysiology and management of disorders associated with hypo- and hypercortisolism.
This book aims to describe the achievements, policy and system of immunization management in China during the last 60 years. Immunization is one of the most effective and cost-effective means to prevent infectious diseases. The Chinese government has long attached great importance to immunization, and with several generations of effort, China has made great achievements through its immunization program.The book consists of 9 chapters, including the introduction of vaccination and immunization policy, immunization services, innovative vaccines, immunization activities in China. The book also demonstrates some of the hardships and difficulties behind the immunization achievements, and introduces the effort of Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) staff and the support and assistance from the international community.
It is an honor and a pleasure to present the proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2010) held in Maribor, Slovenia. As always, the conference catered to a broad audience of members of industry and academia and consequently o?ered a mix of results in both applied andtheoreticalresearchinobjectorientation. Inall,24technicalpapers,12wo- shops,6tutorials,adoctoralsymposiumandaspecialsessiononempiricalme- ods were organized. Additionally, a seriesof seven summer school sessionsran in parallel with the technical paper sessions. A junior and a senior Dahl-Nygaard award were selected by AITO leading to two keynote talks, complemented by an invited keynote on the subject of empirical methods as applied to software practice. The banquet speech was given by Oscar Nierstrasz. The ECOOP P- gram Committee also selected a best paper award. These proceedings consist of 24 papers and one extended abstract selected from 108 submissions. Each paper received3 and as many as 6 reviewsfrom a ProgramCommittee consisting of 30 internationally reputed researchers. A long and intensive virtual discussion via CyberChairPROled to an author response period and to another week of online deliberation. This wasroundedo?by a ProgramCommittee meeting late Feb- aryinBrussels. Itwasagainshownthatnothingmatchesaphysicalmeeting,and that it in several instances is even indispensable, in spite of the huge e?ort that is required to organize it. The Program Committee discussions followed Oscar Nierstrasz' Champion pattern: for a paper to be accepted at least one manifest proponent is required. Program Committee members were allowed to submit a paper, but these were subjected to a higher level of scrutiny.
This book introduces and reviews several topics for each human herpesvirus. One of the most important features of the book is that it covers aspects of both basic research and clinical medicine. Herpesviridae, a family of double-strand DNA viruses, has unique biological features by which these viruses establish latency after primary infection and reactivate in later life. Nine human herpesviruses are known so far, and each of them causes a variety of diseases in both primary infection and reactivation. Since the discovery of each human herpesvirus, an abundance of findings related to them has accumulated in basic research and clinical medicine. However, the vast majority of biological features is still masked in mystery. Furthermore, a strategy of treatment and prevention has not yet been established for most human herpesviruses. A wide range of readers will be interested in this volume with its treatment of problematic points and latest findings in the field.
With all the complex issues of acceptance or rejection of a transplanted organ, immunology is a key subject for all transplantation clinicians. During recent years, there has been an explosion of research and knowledge in this area. Produced in association with the American Society of Transplantation, and written by experts within the field, Transplant Immunology provides a comprehensive overview of the topic in relation to clinical transplantation. Starting with the basic functionality of the immune system, it then moves on to cover the very latest developments in immunosuppressive drugs and protocols, as well as a look at all emerging technologies in the field. Key chapters include: * Transplant-related complications * Immune responses to transplants * Emerging issues in transplantation * Biomarkers of Allograft rejection and tolerance * T cells and the principles of immune responses In full colour throughout, over 100 outstanding diagrams support the text, all figures being fully downloadable via the book's companion website. The result is an essential tool for all those responsible for managing patients awaiting and undergoing organ transplantation, including transplant surgeons and clinicians, immunologists and researchers.
This graduate textbook serves as a highly readable guide on vaccines and vaccination in infants, children and adolescents from an European perspective. The first part of the book is dedicated to childhood and adolescent vaccine schedules, maternal and neonatal immunization and safety of vaccines. In a second part we focus on viral and bacterial vaccines. Further chapters discuss pediatric travel vaccines, vaccines in the pipeline and the European registration process. This book is intended to be a reference textbook and will help to standardize the information on vaccines and immunization program in the WHO European Region.
This book discusses the major clinical features of the antiphospholipid syndrome. With each chapter focusing on the different organs, the book provides a quick practical and reader-friendly reference for the different problems that might be encountered in clinical practice. Treatment is a major concern in an area where evidence-based medicine is sparse and there are chapters dedicated to diagnosis from a laboratory point of view. Further chapters focus on pregnancy management, arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis as well as chapters on paediatric antiphospholipid syndrome and prognosis and long-term outcome.
Due to the multi-disciplinary nature of this disease, the primary readership groups are general and internal medicine physicians and sub-specialities include rheumatologists, haematologists, cardiovascular physicians, neurologists, nephrologists, dermatologists, chest physicians and obstetric physicians and obstetricians.
This volume presents standard approaches and the most recent technical advances used to study innate immune activation. Chapters detail the assessment of macrophage activation, measuring innate immune responses to bacterial viability, quantification of secreted proteins, reporter systems, protocols examining specific innate immune activation by TLRs, RLRs, cGAS, and inflammasomes. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Innate Immune Activation: Methods and Protocols aims to be a useful and informative reference tool for further study into this vital field.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast and it is a common member of the human gut flora. It does not proliferate outside the human body. It is detected in the gastrointestinal tract and mouth in 40a60% of healthy adults. It is usually a commensal organism but can become pathogenic in immunocompromised individuals under a variety of conditions. Yeast infection is caused by a specific strain of yeast known as Candida. Although a small amount of yeast is found in the body, yeast infection occurs when there is an overgrowth of Candida. Most yeast infections is caused by Candida albicans. Fungal that affects different areas of the body like skin, mouth, genitals, throat and blood. The yeast Candida albicans lives inside every one of us. Normally it presents no problems, but today's widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, antacids, contraceptive pills, and steroids, as well as the all-too-common sugar-rich diet, can lead to a proliferation of this parasitic yeast within the body. Often overlooked by doctors, overgrowth of Candida has been linked to a wide variety of physical and mental problems such as: acne; heartburn; muscular pain; anxiety; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); fibromyalgia; bloating and constipation; chronic fatigue; migraine; cystitis irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); allergies; menstrual problems; irritability Candida that causes the human infection candidiasis results from an overgrowth of the fungus is for example often observed in HIV-infected patients. C. albicans is the most common fungal species isolated from biofilms either formed on (permanent) implanted medical devices or on human tissue. C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata are together responsible for 50 -- 90% of all cases of candidiasis in humans. A mortality rate of 40% has been reported for patients with systemic candidiasis due to C. albicans. Invasive candidiasis contracted in a hospital causes 2,800 to 11,200 deaths yearly in the U.S. C. albicans is commonly used as a model organism for biology. It is also known as sweet fungus and sugar inhibits its growth. It is generally referred to as a dimorphic fungus because it grows both as yeast and filamentous cells. However, it has several different morphological phenotypes. C. albicans was for a long time considered an obligate diploid organism without a haploid stage. This is, however, not the case. Next to a haploid stage C. albicans can also exist in a tetraploid stage. The latter is formed when diploid C. albicans cells mate when they are in the opaque form. Candida thrives well on sugar and needs an acidic environment to survive. Processed and refined foods high in gluten and sugar (including natural sugars) create an ideal home for Candida, so the most logical place to start battling the enemy is by restricting intake of alcohol, sweets, bread, vinegar and foods containing vinegar, peanuts and foods high in sugar a including sweet fruits such as bananas and dates. Include protein rich foods like avocados, chia seeds and wild-caught fish. Garlic and turmeric (also known as curcumin) is a natural anti-fungal that can kill Candida. The best potent and all-natural candida killer is coconut oil. It contains caprylic acid, which has anti-microbial properties that can kill yeasts and candida. Studies have shown that it is more effective in treating candidiasis than the prescription drug fluconazole. There are relatively few drugs that can successfully treat Candidiasis. Treatment commonly includes amphotericin B,echinocandin, or fluconazole for systemic infections. Nystatin for oral and esophageal infection and Clotrimazole for skin and genital yeast infections.
This book presents methodological and application research in detecting cellular and molecular biophysical properties based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanorobotics. Series methods for in situ label-free visualizing and quantifying the multiple physical properties of single cells and single molecules were developed, including immobilization strategies for observing fine structures of living cells, measurements of single-cell mechanics, force recognition of molecular interactions, and mapping protein organizations on cell surface. The biomedical applications of these methods in clinical lymphoma treatments were explored in detail, including primary sample preparation, cancer cell recognition, AFM detection and data analysis. Future directions about the biomedical applications of AFM are also given.
The definitive book on the neutralization of recombinant biopharmaceuticals
Recombinant biopharmaceuticals are an important tool for treating a range of illnesses; however, their efficacy can be severely impaired by their immunogenicity. When introduced into the body, these pharmaceuticals can cause the immune system to produce anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) that neutralize their effects.
The first and only book to cover neutralization in connection with biopharmaceuticals and the measurement and application of neutralizing antibodies in modern medicine at any real length, Detection and Quantification of Antibodies to Biopharmaceuticals: Practical and Applied Considerations offers a comprehensive and in-depth look at all the principal aspects of the detection and quantification of antibodies that are essential to understanding and responding to the challenges they present.
Bringing together a large-scale review of neutralization and biopharmaceuticals and the ability to measure, detect, and apply antibodies to modern science and medicine with international regulatory perspectives, the expectations of regulatory authorities, and the strengths and weaknesses of various assays, the book describes several novel ideas for detecting ADAs.
Designed to serve as a resource for biopharmaceutical drug development, the book provides biotechnology companies and pharmaceutical drug development specialists, as well as non-experts, with key insights into the design, optimization, and qualification of assays, the establishment of sampling strategies, the choice of appropriate assay end-points, and data analysis for the detection and quantification of neutralizing antibodies.
This volume provides an overview on the influence of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) on tumor progression. It covers topics such as signaling induced by structural ECM proteins including collagen and fibronectin, the control of ECM deposition and the turnover in tumors. Also discussed are the migration of cells through basement membranes and the function of proteoglycans including lumican and veriscan in tumor progression. Biomaterial-based in-vitro models as well as C. elegans models of the tumor microenvironment are used to show how these models can lead to a greater understanding of the disease mechanisms that promote cancer progression. The book addresses researchers working on cancer biology or ECM, and oncologists alike.
Cancer Immunology is intended as an up-to-date, clinically relevant review of cancer immunology and immunotherapy. This volume is focused on immunopathology of cancers. The interactions between cancerous cells and various components of the innate and adaptive immune system are fully described. The principal focus, however, is very much on clinical aspects, the aim being to educate clinicians in the clinical implications of the most recent research and new developments in the field. Over the past decade, understanding of the interactions between the immune system and cancerous cells has increased markedly, leading to the development of combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies to combat cancer. This translational, clinically oriented book will be of special value to clinical immunologists, hematologists and oncologists.
Ensure readiness for the USMLE (R) or any other high-stakes exam covering microbiology and immunology! Thieme Test Prep for the USMLE (R): Medical Microbiology and Immunology by Melphine Harriott, Michelle Swanson-Mungerson, Samia Ragheb, and Matthew Jackson covers major topics taught in immunology and microbiology courses during the first and second year of medical school. Readers will learn how to recall, analyze, integrate, and apply microbiology and immunology knowledge to solve clinical problems. Key Highlights 550 USMLE (R)-style multiple choice questions classified as easy, moderate, and difficult, including detailed explanations Microbiology questions organized by organ system that cover major infectious diseases Immunology questions organized by concept including chapters on inflammation, autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiency disorders, hypersensitivity reactions, and transplant rejection and anti-tumor responses This essential resource will help you assess your knowledge and fully prepare for the USMLE (R) Step 1 or COMLEX Level 1 exam. Be prepared for your board exam with the Thieme Test Prep for the USMLE (R) series! Das: Histology and Embryology Q&A Das and Baugh: Medical Neuroscience Q&A Fontes and McCarthy: Medical Biochemistry Q&A Hankin et al.: Clinical Anatomy Q&A Kemp and Brown: Pathology Q&A Waite and Sheakley: Medical Physiology Q&A Visit www.thieme.com/testprep to learn more about our online board review question bank.
This book is a practical, user-friendly guide for diagnosing and treating patients with rare rheumatic diseases of immunologic dysregulation. Covering uncommon diseases such as IgG4-Related Disease, Castleman's Disease, and Felty Syndrome, chapters aggregate information from case reports and anecdotal literature to create a single, comprehensive handbook for treating patients. Each chapter provides historical perspective and epidemiology; a literature review (including research trials, translational research, historical and current case reports, and case series); pathogenesis; clinical presentation; laboratory evaluation; imaging; histopathology; treatment; and outcomes. Rare Rheumatic Diseases of Immunologic Dysregulation is an invaluable resource for rheumatologists, rheumatology fellows, and clinical immunologists to better diagnose and treat patients with rare rheumatic diseases.
This book describes the demographic and clinical patterns of Zika infection and evaluates the risk of it spreading to Europe. It reflects the hands-on experience of the author, who as a physician, was faced with the first-ever cases reported in Europe. Providing essential background information on the viral vector, it addresses the various symptoms after infection, and places them in the epidemiological context of past outbreaks. The book addresses the needs of physicians attending patients with infectious diseases, including infectious-disease specialists, pediatricians, internal medicine specialists, general practitioners, obstetricians, tropical medicine and travel medicine specialists, preventive medicine and public health specialists, microbiologists, biologists and vectorial control specialists. It raises clinicians' and travel health clinics' awareness of the evolution of Zika virus outbreaks and the affected areas so that they can include this infection in their differential diagnoses for travelers from those areas.
This book provides an essential update on the startling array of novel insecticidal toxins and drugs produced by the fascinating bacterium Photorhabdus. The respective chapters describe everything from the detailed molecular biology of the 'Toxin complexes' or Tc's to the complexity of insect immune response in relation to both the bacterium and its nematode vector. The volume covers both primary (toxin production and regulation) and secondary (natural product synthesis and regulation) metabolism and emphasises the potential use of toxins and drugs in both agriculture and medicine. It also discusses in detail two totally novel quorum sensing mechanisms and the likely role of LuxR solos in sensing the presence of different bacterial hosts. Lastly, the book explores the unique case of P. asymbiotica, which seems to have evolved the ability to infect both insects and humans. This synthesis proves that Photorhabdus truly does offer a 'gold mine' for the discovery of novel insecticidal proteins and novel natural products with potential uses in agriculture and medicine alike.
This volume gives a state-of-the-art overview on macrophage functions in various invertebrate and vertebrate systems and diseases. It also covers various aspects of macrophage development and formation, behavior and response to nano- and biomaterials, the latter of which have become very important components of modern medicine. Macrophages are evolutionarily conserved phagocytotic cells. In recent years macrophages have emerged as one of the most versatile cells of immune system, which, depending on the milieu and circumstance, participate in development or inhibition of cancer, regeneration, wound healing, inflammation, organ rejection and interaction between mother and a fetus. This book will be of particular interest to researchers working in immunology, cancer research, developmental biology, or related fields.
In 1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet received the Noble Prize in Physiology and Medicine. He titled his Nobel Lecture "Immunological Recognition of Self" emphasizing the central argument of immunological tolerance in "How does the vertebrate organism recognize self from nonself in this the immunological sense-and how did the capacity evolve." The concept of self is linked to the concept of biological self identity. All organisms, from bacteria to higher animals, possess recognition systems to defend themselves from nonself. Even in the context of the limited number of metazoan phyla that have been studied in detail, we can now describe many of the alternative mechanism of immune recognition that have emerged at varying points in phylogeny. Two different arms-the innate and adaptive immune system-have emerged at different moments in evolution, and they are conceptually different. The ultimate goals of immune biology include reconstructing the molecular networks underlying immune processes.
The behavior of lymphocytes in the immune system depends on
encounters with antigens. These bind to immunoreceptors on the
surface of T-cells and B-cells, activating a variety of signal
transduction pathways that control cell survival, proliferation,
differentiation, and effector functions.
This practical collection examines methodologies originating from the benefits of genome-wide approaches to studying epigenetics, which has opened the emerging field of epigenomics. Focusing on the areas of cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, chapters discuss three main components of the epigenome and their role in the regulation of gene expression and present a detailed method section specific to studying each component, including data analyses, troubleshooting, and feasibility in different experimental settings. The main topics are high-throughput and targeted methods for DNA methylation analysis, nucleosome position mapping, studying epigenetic effects of gut microbiota, optical imaging for detection of epigenetic aberrations in living cells, methods for microRNA, and histone code profiling. Written for the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology series, the book includes the kind of detail and implementation advice to encourage success in the lab. Authoritative and easily applicable, Epigenetics and Gene Expression in Cancer, Inflammatory and Immune Diseases aims to provide pharmacologists, molecular biologists, bioinformaticians, and toxicologists with a vital background on epigenetics and state-of-the-art techniques in epigenomics.
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