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This book provides a review of the roles of specific nutrients in maintaining the immune response and host protection against infection. It also considers the influence of various factors, such as exercise and ageing, on the interaction between nutrition and immune function. The main emphasis is on humans, but comparative mammalian data are also presented.The contents include methods for studying nutrient-immune function interactions, the impact of undernutrition on immune function and infection, the influences of fatty acids, amino acids, antioxidant vitamins, and various minerals on immunity, immunological effects of changes throughout the life cycle, and public health policy implications.
Now for the first time, one comprehensive book summarizes and analyzes the numerous scientific papers and reviews covering selected aspects of the structure, biological activities, and clinical effects of immune interferon, also known as interferon-gamma(IFN-gamma). Immune Interferon: Properties and Clinical Applications is essential reading for anyone working with interferons.
Target pattern recognition in innate immunity is responsible for the immediate, usually protective, responses shown against invading microorganisms, and it is the principal feature of self and non-self recognition by virtue of the recognition of structures on the microbial pathogens, which are not found on host cells. This is an area that has been very actively researched, over approximately the past 12 years, and therefore this volume provides a timely comprehensive, and up to date, summary of the types and range of cell surface, intracellular, and secreted, host proteins involved in the recognition of microbial products, and of the protective mechanisms triggered as a result of the recognition events.
The Toll-like receptors, first described in Drosophila and now well-characterised on human cells, provide an excellent demonstration of the wide range of different microbial products recognised by this family of receptors and of the signalling pathways which are triggered thus leading to induction of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of genes producing antimicrobial products. In addition, several cell surface proteins involved in target pattern recognition have been described on the surfaces of macrophages (macrophage mannose receptor and macrophage scavenger receptors), and on dendritic cells (DEC205), and to be involved with the uptake and clearance of whole microorganisms and polyanioic ligands. Pattern recognition is also utilised by intracellular receptors, with NOD-like receptors in the cytosol recognizing microbial molecules and activating the production of inflammatory cytokines or pathways that induce the production of inflammatory molecules. Secreted proteins, such as the pentraxins, which includes the acute phase reacting, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid protein (SAP), and the collectins (mannan binding lectin, lung surfactant protein A and D) and ficolins can also readily recruit killing and clearance systems. Indeed, the serum complement system, which is one of the major defence systems in the bloodstream, is efficiently activated by CR P on its binding to the phosphocholine groups of microbial phospholipids and the subsequent interaction of the bound CR P with C1q to give classical pathway activation, or MBL, or ficolin, binding to arrays of mannose or N-acetyl-glucosamine residues, respectively, on the surfaces of microorganisms to give lectin pathway activation. Also, in addition to the activation and clearance events associated with complement activation by some of the secreted pattern recognition receptors, it is accepted that all these pattern recognition receptors can generally accelerate the uptake and clearance of microbes via phagocytic cells.
In view of the growing interest in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity, a thorough understanding of the initial recognition and triggering events, mediated via innate immune receptors, as addressed in this volume, is clearly very useful in helping to also fully understand the mechanisms of activation and control of the adaptive immune system and to allow a full assessment of the relative roles played by innate immunity and adaptive immunity against a particular infection in higher organisms."
The 8th volume in the Proteases in Biology and Disease series focuses on the role of proteases in virus function and their potential as anti-viral targets. Viral infections are still difficult to threat and some remained life-threatening diseases in spite of antiviral drug research over decades. Proteases are still regarded as an Achilles heel of the pathogens and, thus, protease inhibitors may help to handle the known and the emerging viral threads. The book discusses viral proteases of the most important pathogenic viruses, responsible for severe diseases: AIDS, SARS, Hepatitis, Cytomegalovirus, T-cell lymphotropic virus, Picornavirus. This book focuses specifically on the viral proteases, crucial prerequisites for viral entry into cells and viral replication. Viral proteases represent an important pharmaceutical target. The current stage of protease inhibitor development and therapy are summarised and discussed by experts in the field. This volume represents a timely and valuable continuation of the Proteases in Biology and Disease series. The reader will learn the potential for proteases as targets for effective anti-virals. This book will be a valuable source of information on viral proteases and provoke further research in this important field."
Cushings syndrome is a rare disorder that is associated with many co-morbidities such as systemic hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, impaired immune function, and psychiatric disease, all of which severely reduce quality of life and life expectancy. This book reviews the role of cortisol in the human body, focusing on the effects of excess cortisol due to Cushing's syndrome as well as the role of the HPA axis in metabolism, inflammation, and neuropsychiatric function. The volume will cover basic mechanistic data, clinical outcomes data, and novel therapies. Also discussed are everything from abnormalities of the HPA axis, to the role of the HPA axis in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders and metabolic disorders, to new definitions of Cushing's remission and recurrence. The Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis in Health and Disease will provide a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary review of the pathophysiology and outcomes of excess cortisol in the human body and brain as well as the role of the HPA axis in other disease states.
The immune system is highly complex system with large number of macromolecules, signaling pathways, protein-protein interactions, and gene expressions. Studies from genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics are generating huge high throughput data that needs to be analyzed for understanding the Immune system in Health and Disease. Computational approaches arehelping in understanding the study of complex biology of immunology and thereby enabling design of therapeutic strategies in diseases like infectious diseases, immunodeficiency, allergic, hypersensitive, autoimmune disorders and diseases like Cancer, HIV etc. Computational Immunology: Basics highlights the basics of the immune system and function in health and disease. This book offers comprehensive coverage of the most essential topics, including Overview of Immunology and computational Immunology Immune organs and cells, antigen, antibody, B, cell, T cell Antigen Processing and presentation Diseases due to abnormalities of the immune system Cancer Biology Shyamasree Ghosh (MSc, PhD, PGDHE, PGDBI), is currently working in the School of Biological Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), Bhubaneswar, DAE, Govt of India, graduated from the prestigious Presidency College Kolkata in 1998. She was awarded the prestigious National Scholarship from the Government of India. She has worked and published extensively in glycobiology, sialic acids, immunology, stem cells and nanotechnology. She has authored several publications that include books and encyclopedia chapters in reputed journals and books.
Wie funktioniert die Immunantwort? Was sind Effektorreaktionen? Verstandlich und kompakt fuhrt Jurgen Neumann Studenten der Biologie, Medizin, Biomedizin und Biochemie in die Immunbiologie ein. Daruber hinaus geht er auf aktuelle Themen ein, wie z.B. Autoimmunitat, Allergie und AIDS sowie wesentliche Prinzipien der Immunitat von Invertebraten und prinzipielle Fragen nach der Steuerung von Immunantworten. Fur alle wissenschaftlich Interessierten, die uber elementare Kenntnisse in Biologie und Biochemie verfugen, ist dieses Buch eine ideale Einfuhrung. Einpragsame Tafelbilder veranschaulichen den Lehrstoff und vermitteln die Zusammenhange."
Intended for specialists in B cell immunology, this is an investigation of such topics as the movement of a monoclonal antibody from the laboratory into the clinic, the field of Fc receptors, the impact of monoclonal antibodies on the diagnosis and treatment of human cancer, and detailed analyses of specific antibody systems: mouse lambda and human kappa. Antibodies have always been vital to any major progress within immunology. From diagnostic tools to vehicles for modern therapy against cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases, antibodies serve many purposes, yet our knowledge of them, their properties and structural characteristics is incomplete. "The Antibodies" series seeks to provide the scientific community with a platform for a comprehensive review of topics of contemporary interest for specialists in this area.
Interleukins in Cancer Biology responds to the growing need for credible and up-to-date information about the impact of interleukins on occurrence, development and progression of cancer. It provides reliable information about all known interleukins (38), describes recent discoveries in the field, and moreover, suggests further directions of research on the most promising aspects of this topic. The structure and presentation of the work is very understandable and clear with attention to detail maintained throughout. There are multiple illustrations throughout to help in comprehending and remembering the most important facts. .
The skin and the eye share vulnerabilities to various autoimmune and immunopathogenic disorders, yet display immunity in strikingly different ways. This book presents up-to-date information on disorders and explores the mechanisms by which immunological processes affect these two organ systems.
This volume is focused on the development of vaccines which generate immune effectors capable of blocking mucosal entry or peripheral pathogen spread. A critical first step in the design of mucosal vaccines is the selection of administration route. Not all mucosal immunization routes are created equally when it comes to eliciting immune responses in multiple body compartments. This subject and situations when a mucosal route may not be required for vaccine delivery are reviewed here with an emphasis on the sublingual immunization route, which may offer a safer alternative to the nasal route for induction of broadly disseminated immune responses. External host defenses that inhibit entry of microorganisms at mucosal surfaces also pose obstacles to the efficient internalization of mucosally-applied vaccines. Transcutaneous immunization with appropriate adjuvants and permeation enhancers can induce mucosal immune responses and may be advantageous for bypassing these luminal barriers. Other chapters describe strategies for enhancing uptake of mucosal vaccines, for instance through targeted delivery to antigen-sampling M cells, construction of virus-like particles which mimic natural pathogens, addition of mucoadhesives or formulation as nanoparticles. Topics include edible vaccines as well as plant-based production of subunit or particulate vaccines that could be administered by any route. Dry powder vaccines that could be insufflated or directly applied to mucosal surfaces may be particularly ideal for mass vaccination in developing countries. The manufacture, stability and efficacy of powder formulations is comprehensively reviewed. We conclude with chapters on two of the greatest challenges facing mucosal vaccine development: human immunodeficiency virus and bioterrorist agents. This monograph highlights progress and information that should prove invaluable for the development of contemporary vaccines that prevent infection by these and other mucosal pathogens.
What counts as an individual in the living world? What does it mean for a living thing to remain the same through time, while constantly changing? These questions are the province of immunology, one of the most dynamic fields in biology. Immunology answers these questions with its theory of "self" and "nonself" which has dominated the field since the 1940s. Thomas Pradeu argues that this theory is inadequate, because immune responses to self constituents and immune tolerance of foreign entities are the rule, not the exception. Instead Pradeu advances an alternative theory, the continuity theory, which offers a new way to answer the question of what triggers an immune response. It also echoes the recent realization that all organisms, and not only higher vertebrates, have an immune system. Pradeu's main thesis is that the self-nonself theory should be abandoned, but that immunology still proves to be decisive for delineating the boundaries of the organism. Articulating an evolutionary and an immunological perspective, he offers an original conception of the organism. Tolerance of the fetus by the mother and of countless bacteria on the body's surfaces proves that every organism is heterogeneous, that is, made of entities of different origins. In other words, every organism appears as a chimera , a mixed living thing-the cohesiveness of which is ensured by the constant action of its immune system. The Limits of the Self, will be essential reading for anyone interested in the definition of biological individuality and the understanding of the immune system.
This introductory text provides a comprehensive, systemic, up-to-date and balanced treatment of the scientific and clinical basis of antibody therapy. It explains the principles of antibody therapy, and describes recent advances, both in technology and in the clinic.
Inflammatory Disorders - Part B, Volume 120 explores inflammation in the immune system and how the body's own cells or tissues may cause abnormal inflammation, thus resulting in chronic pain, redness, swelling, stiffness, and damage to normal tissues. Chapters in this updated volume include Proteins in monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, Virulence factors and their roles in periodontal disease pathogenesis, Role of Heat shock proteins in Inflammatory disorder Rheumatoid Arthritis, Novel targeted therapies for Crohn's disease: Recent progress and future perspectives, Dietary plant flavonoids in prevention of obesity and diabetes, Small RNAs in allergic diseases, Inflammation and inflammasome during ageing and age-related diseases, and more.
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