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The Light Metals symposia at the TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition present the most recent developments, discoveries, and practices in primary aluminum science and technology. The annual Light Metals volume has become the definitive reference in the field of aluminum production and related light metal technologies. The 2020 collection includes papers from the following symposia: * Alumina and Bauxite* Aluminum Alloys, Processing and Characterization* Aluminum Reduction Technology* Cast Shop Technology* Cast Shop Technology: Recycling and Sustainability Joint Session* Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production
This volume presents novel and innovative contributions in the domain specific to nanocomposites, specifically on aspects both related and relevant to the following: * science at the nanoscale level * innovations and advances in processing * characterization, quantification, and analysis * mechanical property evaluation and rationalization * failure analysis * technological applications at the nanoscale level The collection brings together a range of developments in areas spanning basic science, processing, analysis, characterization, mechanical property evaluation, and failure analysis rationalization of composite materials.
This collection highlights materials research and innovations for a wide breadth of energy systems and technologies. The volume includes papers organized into the following sections:Energy and Environmental Issues in Materials Manufacturing and ProcessingMaterials in Clean PowerMaterials for Coal-Based PowerMaterials for Energy Conversion with Emphasis on SOFCMaterials for Gas TurbinesMaterials for Nuclear EnergyMaterials for Oil and Gas
This handbook delivers an up-to-date, comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the broad field of surface science, encompassing a range of important materials such metals, semiconductors, insulators, ultrathin films and supported nanoobjects. Over 100 experts from all branches of experiment and theory review in 39 chapters all major aspects of solid-state surfaces, from basic principles to applications, including the latest, ground-breaking research results. Beginning with the fundamental background of kinetics and thermodynamics at surfaces, the handbook leads the reader through the basics of crystallographic structures and electronic properties, to the advanced topics at the forefront of current research. These include but are not limited to novel applications in nanoelectronics, nanomechanical devices, plasmonics, carbon films, catalysis, and biology. The handbook is an ideal reference guide and instructional aid for a wide range of physicists, chemists, materials scientists and engineers active throughout academic and industrial research.
This collection presents papers from the 149th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.
This two-volume set represents a collection of papers presented at the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors. The purpose of this conference series is to foster an exchange of ideas about problems and their remedies in water-cooled nuclear power plants of today and the future. Contributions cover problems facing nickel-based alloys, stainless steels, pressure vessel and piping steels, zirconium alloys, and other alloys in water environments of relevance. Components covered include pressure boundary components, reactor vessels and internals, steam generators, fuel cladding, irradiated components, fuel storage containers, and balance of plant components and systems.
This book provides a simplified, practical, and innovative approach to understanding the design and manufacture of plastic products in the World of Plastics. The concise and comprehensive information defines and focuses on past, current, and future technical trends. The handbook reviews over 20,000 different subjects; and contains over 1,000 figures and more than 400 tables. Various plastic materials and their behavior patterns are reviewed. Examples are provided of different plastic products and relating to them critical factors that range from meeting performance requirements in different environments to reducing costs and targeting for zero defects. This book provides the reader with useful pertinent information readily available as summarized in the Table of Contents, List of References and the Index.
Established in 1970, the PbZn symposium series is considered the leading international technical forum for the lead and zinc processing industries. The PbZn 2020 volume addresses all aspects of current processing technologies for primary and secondary lead and zinc, as well as emerging technologies for both metals.
In recent years, global metallurgical industries have experienced fast and prosperous growth. High-temperature metallurgical technology is the backbone to support the technical, environmental, and economical needs for this growth. This collection features contributions covering the advancements and developments of new high-temperature metallurgical technologies and their applications to the areas of processing of minerals; extraction of metals; preparation of refractory and ceramic materials; sintering and synthesis of fine particles; treatment and recycling of slag and wastes; and saving of energy and protection of environment. The volume will have a broad impact on the academics and professionals serving the metallurgical industries around the world.
This reference work offers a comprehensive overview of the synthesis, properties and biomedical applications of functional biopolymers. Chapters from expert contributors cover topics such as synthetic biopolymers, blood-compatible polymers, ophthalmic polymers and stimuli responsive polymers. An up-to-date review of cell encapsulation strategies and cell surface and tissue engineering is also included in this work, and readers will discover more about hydrogels and polymers from renewable resources. Edited by an international team of experts in the field, this reference work will appeal to researchers, scientists, and practitioners working in this field, or entering this vibrant research area.
This book details two elements of textile chemistry namely- sustainable/eco-friendly dyes and green chemistry. It presents latest topics in sustainable dyeing techniques, low impact dyeing methods, wool dyeing techniques and green chemistry. Certain case studies are also highlighted.
This book is intended to help engineers analyze service condition and potential mechanisms of surface degradation. This will enable engineers select suitable materials for improved service-life and performance of engineering components. The book comprises 7 chapters, and is well illustrated with schematics, photographs, microstructure, XRD patterns, EDAX mapping, and technical data tables. The book focuses on the influence of materials and methods of surface engineering on structure, properties, and wear-performance of engineering components. It begins with the need to study the subject of surface engineering, scope of surface engineering, and classification of techniques of surface engineering. The book covers conventional material system (steel, cast iron, stellite, WC-Co, PCDs, etc.) and new materials like multilayer structures, functionally gradient materials (FGMs), intermetallic barrier coatings, and thermal barrier coating. The book covers most conventional as well as advanced surface engineering techniques, such as burnishing, shot peening, flame and induction hardening, laser and electron beam hardening, plasma and TIG melting, carburizing, nitriding, cyaniding, boronizing, vanadizing, ion implantation, laser alloying, chemical vapor deposition, PE chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, weld overlays, laser cladding, hot dip galvanizing, hot dip lead tin coating, hot dip aluminizing, hot dip chromizing, electroplating, electroless plating (Ni-P and Ni-B), mechanical plating, roll bonding, explosive bonding, and hot isostatic. The book also includes an introductory chapter on friction-stir processing of aluminum and titanium alloys. Further, it discusses studies on structure, mechanical and wear properties of weld surfacing, flame spray coating, HVOF sprayed coating, laser cladding of ferrous metals, nickel and cobalt based alloys and their composites in as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions. The book provides a comprehensive overview of various destructive and nondestructive techniques used for characterization of engineered surfaces. The materials in the book will be useful to undergraduate and graduate students. In addition, the contents of this book can also be used for professional development courses for practicing engineers.
This book presents a detailed study on the vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric actuators excited under the shear effect. Two types of actuator geometries viz. beam and annular plate are considered, where the material properties are assumed to have a continuous variation in accordance with a power law distribution. The generalized differential quadrature method is used to obtain the solutions, and is compared to exact analytical results. The methodology reported and the numerical results presented will be useful for the design of devices utilizing functionally graded piezoelectric actuators under the influence of shear.
ONE OF A FOUR-BOOK COLLECTION SPOTLIGHTING CLASSIC ARTICLES Original research findings and reviews spanning all aspects of the science and technology of casting Since 1971, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society has published the Light Metals proceedings. Highlighting some of the most important findings and insights reported over the past four decades, this volume features the best original research papers and reviews on cast shop science and technology for aluminum production published in Light Metals from 1971 to 2011. Papers have been divided into ten subject sections for ease of access. Each section has a brief introduction and a list of recommended articles for researchers interested in exploring each subject in greater depth. Only 12 percent of the cast shop science and technology papers ever published in Light Metals were chosen for this volume. Selection was based on a rigorous review process. Among the papers, readers will find landmark original research findings and expert reviews summarizing current thinking on key topics at the time of publication. From basic research to industry standards to advanced applications, the articles published in this volume collectively represent a complete overview of cast shop science and technology, supporting the work of students, researchers, and engineers around the world.
This volume compiles topics from the REWAS 2013 symposium at the TMS Annual Meeting, focusing on different aspects of sustainability. It discusses how to realize sustainability in such areas as transportation, the built environment, electrical and electronic equipment and infrastructure, energy production, and water systems. Enabling sustainability topics include the use of metals and materials processing, recycling and recovery, as well as process design and modeling. The book focuses on understanding sustainability through life cycle management and analysis, systems modeling and design, and education and consumer awareness.
This updated, second edition retains its classroom-tested treatment of physical chemistry of metallurgical topics, such as roasting of sulfide minerals, matte smelting, converting, structure, properties and theories of slag, reduction of oxides and reduction smelting, interfacial phenomena, steelmaking, secondary steelmaking, role of halides in extraction of metals, refining, hydrometallurgy and electrometallurgy, and adds new data in worked-out examples as well as up-to-date references to the literature. The book further explains the physical chemistry of various metallurgical topics, steps involved in extraction of metals, such as roasting, matte smelting/converting, reduction smelting, steelmaking reactions, deoxidation, stainless steelmaking, vacuum degassing, refining, leaching, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, cementation, gaseous reduction and electrowinning. Each topic is illustrated with appropriate examples of applications of the technique in extraction of some common, reactive, rare, or refractory metal together with worked out problems explaining the principle of the operation. The problems require imagination and critical analyses and also encourage readers for creative application of thermodynamic data in metal extraction. Updates and condenses text throughout the book by sequential arrangement of paragraphs in different chapters; Maximizes readers' understanding of the physicochemical principles involved in extraction/production of common and rare/reactive metals by pyro- as well as hydrometallurgical routes; Reinforces concepts presented with worked examples in each chapter explaining the process steps; Explains the physical chemistry of various metallurgical steps, such as roasting, matte smelting/converting, and reduction smelting, steelmaking, aqueous processing etc. in extraction of metals; Collects and uniformly presents scattered information on physicochemical principles of metal production from various books and journals.
This collection gives broad and up-to-date results in the research and development of materials characterization and processing. Topics covered include advanced characterization methods, minerals, mechanical properties, coatings, polymers and composites, corrosion, welding, magnetic materials, and electronic materials. The book explores scientific processes to characterize materials using modern technologies, and focuses on the interrelationships and interdependence among processing, structure, properties, and performance of materials.
This book focuses on characterization of organic coatings by different testing methods and understanding of structure formation and materials properties. The knowledge of protective organic coatings and current test methods is based largely on empirical experience. This book aims at explaining the coating property changes during film drying and curing in terms of chemical and physical transformations. Current test methods are reviewed with emphasis on understanding their physical basis and expressing the test results in terms of comparable physical quantities. In general, this book provides readers a deeper understanding of the binder design, coating film formation process, properties build-up, appearance and defect formation, and automotive paint application. It also suggests manifold ways to improving the coatings performance. This book is designed for coating professionals to gain deeper understanding of characterization techniques and to select the right ones to solve their coating problems. It is ideal for both experienced and early career scientists and engineers. Also, it is useful for graduate students in the general area of protective coatings.
The Magnesium Technology Symposium, the event on which this collection is based, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers in this collection represent all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling. Moreover, papers explore everything from basic research findings to industrialization. This volume covers a broad spectrum of current topics, including alloys and their properties; cast products and processing; wrought products and processing; forming, joining, and machining; corrosion and surface finishing; ecology; and structural applications. In addition, there is coverage of new and emerging applications in such areas as hydrogen storage.
This book is a collection of select proceedings of the FOMMS 2015 conference. FOMMS 2015 was the sixth triennial FOMMS conference showcasing applications of theory of computational quantum chemistry, molecular science, and engineering simulation. The theme of the 2015 meeting was on Molecular Modeling and the Materials Genome. This volume comprises chapters on many distinct applications of molecular modeling techniques. The content will be useful to researchers and students alike.
This volume highlights the latest advances, innovations, and applications in bituminous materials and structures and asphalt pavement technology, as presented by leading international researchers and engineers at the RILEM International Symposium on Bituminous Materials (ISBM), held in Lyon, France on December 14-16, 2020. The symposium represents a joint effort of three RILEM Technical Committees from Cluster F: 264-RAP "Asphalt Pavement Recycling", 272-PIM "Phase and Interphase Behaviour of Bituminous Materials", and 278-CHA "Crack-Healing of Asphalt Pavement Materials". It covers a diverse range of topics concerning bituminous materials (bitumen, mastics, mixtures) and road, railway and airport pavement structures, including: recycling, phase and interphase behaviour, cracking and healing, modification and innovative materials, durability and environmental aspects, testing and modelling, multi-scale properties, surface characteristics, structure performance, modelling and design, non-destructive testing, back-analysis, and Life Cycle Assessment. The contributions, which were selected by means of a rigorous international peer-review process, present a wealth of exciting ideas that will open novel research directions and foster new multidisciplinary collaborations.
This book introduces the peridynamic (PD) differential operator, which enables the nonlocal form of local differentiation. PD is a bridge between differentiation and integration. It provides the computational solution of complex field equations and evaluation of derivatives of smooth or scattered data in the presence of discontinuities. PD also serves as a natural filter to smooth noisy data and to recover missing data. This book starts with an overview of the PD concept, the derivation of the PD differential operator, its numerical implementation for the spatial and temporal derivatives, and the description of sources of error. The applications concern interpolation, regression, and smoothing of data, solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations, single- and multi-field partial differential equations and integro-differential equations. It describes the derivation of the weak form of PD Poisson's and Navier's equations for direct imposition of essential and natural boundary conditions. It also presents an alternative approach for the PD differential operator based on the least squares minimization. Peridynamic Differential Operator for Numerical Analysis is suitable for both advanced-level student and researchers, demonstrating how to construct solutions to all of the applications. Provided as supplementary material, solution algorithms for a set of selected applications are available for more details in the numerical implementation.
In this book the authors show that it is possible to construct efficient computationally oriented models of multi-parameter complex systems by using asymptotic methods, which can, owing to their simplicity, be directly used for controlling processes arising in connection with composite material systems. The book focuses on this asymptotic-modeling-based approach because it allows us to define the most important out of numerous parameters describing the system, or, in other words, the asymptotic methods allow us to estimate the sensitivity of the system parameters. Further, the book addresses the construction of nonlocal and higher-order homogenized models. Local fields on the micro-level and the influence of so-called non-ideal contact between the matrix and inclusions are modeled and investigated. The book then studies composites with non-regular structure and cluster type composite conductivity, and analyzes edge effects in fiber composite materials. Transition of load from a fiber to a matrix for elastic and viscoelastic composites, various types of fiber composite fractures, and buckling of fibers in fiber-reinforced composites is also investigated. Last but not least, the book includes studies on perforated membranes, plates, and shells, as well as the asymptotic modeling of imperfect nonlinear interfaces.
This volume addresses the specific subject of fatigue, a subject not familiar to many engineers, but still relevant for proper and good design of numerous steel structures. It explains all issues related to the subject: Basis of fatigue design, reliability and various verification formats, determination of stresses and stress ranges, fatigue strength, application range and limitations. It contains detailed examples of applications of the concepts, computation methods and verifications.
This handbook presents the development of synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers as well as new scientific applications. Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century had such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen's seminal discovery of X-rays in the year 1895. X-ray tubes soon became established as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and even public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher and higher brilliance and much extended spectral range for an ever widening field of research resulted in stunning developments like the electron storage ring and the free-electron laser. This second edition includes both updated chapters and new contributions highlighting the most recent developments in the field. Reports on operation experience of the new FEL facilities are complemented by discussions of new developments in X-ray beamline optics and detectors. Contributions on applications now include high pressure work, catalytic processes and engineering materials, medical applications and studies of cultural heritage. New contributions on IR spectroscopy, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and studies of liquids complete this second edition.
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