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Tensor Calculus and Analytical Dynamics provides a concise,
comprehensive, and readable introduction to classical tensor
calculus - in both holonomic and nonholonomic coordinates - as well
as to its principal applications to the Lagrangean dynamics of
discrete systems under positional or velocity constraints. The
thrust of the book focuses on formal structure and basic
geometrical/physical ideas underlying most general equations of
motion of mechanical systems under linear velocity
This book presents fundamental theories, design and testing methodologies, and engineering applications concerning spacecraft thermal control systems, helping readers gain a comprehensive understanding of spacecraft thermal control systems and technologies. With abundant design methods, advanced technologies and typical applications to help them grasp the basic concepts and principles of engineering applications, it is mainly intended for engineering and technical staff engaged in spacecraft thermal control areas. The book discusses the thermal environments commonly used for space flight missions, rules and regulations for system design, thermal analysis and simulation, and thermal testing methods, as well as the design and validation of the thermal control systems for Chinese spacecraft, such as the Shenzhou spacecraft and Chang'e Lunar Lander and Rover. It also introduces them to communication and remote sensing satellites and presents advanced thermal control technologies developed in recent years, including heat transfer, heat insulation, heating, refrigeration and thermal sensor technologies. Addressing the design and validation of thermal control systems for various types of Chinese spacecraft, the book offers a valuable theoretical and practical reference guide for researchers and engineers alike.
This book offers a genuinely practical introduction to the most commonly encountered optical and non-optical systems used for the metrology and characterization of surfaces, including guidance on best practice, calibration, advantages and disadvantages, and interpretation of results. It enables the user to select the best approach in a given context. Most methods in surface metrology are based upon the interaction of light or electromagnetic radiation (UV, NIR, IR), and different optical effects are utilized to get a certain optical response from the surface; some of them record only the intensity reflected or scattered by the surface, others use interference of EM waves to obtain a characteristic response from the surface. The book covers techniques ranging from microscopy (including confocal, SNOM and digital holographic microscopy) through interferometry (including white light, multi-wavelength, grazing incidence and shearing) to spectral reflectometry and ellipsometry. The non-optical methods comprise tactile methods (stylus tip, AFM) as well as capacitive and inductive methods (capacitive sensors, eddy current sensors). The book provides: Overview of the working principles Description of advantages and disadvantages Currently achievable numbers for resolutions, repeatability, and reproducibility Examples of real-world applications A final chapter discusses examples where the combination of different surface metrology techniques in a multi-sensor system can reasonably contribute to a better understanding of surface properties as well as a faster characterization of surfaces in industrial applications. The book is aimed at scientists and engineers who use such methods for the measurement and characterization of surfaces across a wide range of fields and industries, including electronics, energy, automotive and medical engineering.
Residual Stress, Thermomechanics & Infrared Imaging and Inverse Problems, Volume 6 of the Proceedings of the 2019 SEM Annual Conference & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, the sixth volume of six from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on a wide range of areas, including: Test Design and Inverse Method Algorithms Inverse Problems: Virtual Fields Method Residual Stresses: Measurement, Uncertainty & Validation Residual Stresses: Eigenvalues, Modeling, & Crack Growth Material Characterizations Using Thermography Fatigue, Damage & Fracture Evaluation Using Infrared Thermography
The book covers in particular state-of-the-art scientific research about product quality control and related health and environmental safety topics, including human, animal and plant safety assurance issues. These conference proceedings provide contemporary information on the general theoretical, metrological and practical issues of the production and application of reference materials. Reference materials play an integral role in physical, chemical and related type of measurements, ensuring their uniformity, comparability and the validity of quantitative analysis as well as, as a result, the objectivity of decisions concerning the elimination of technical barriers in commercial and economic, scientific and technical and other spheres of cooperation. The book is intended for researchers and practitioners in the field of chemistry, metrologists, technical physics, as well as for specialists in analytical laboratories, or working for companies and organizations involved in the production, distribution and use of reference materials.
This volume gathers the latest advances, innovations, and applications in the field of accelerated pavement testing (APT), presented at the 6th International Conference on Accelerated Pavement Testing, in Nantes, France, in April 2022. Discussing APT, which involves rapid testing of full-scale pavement constructions for structural deterioration, the book covers topics such as APT facilities, APT of asphalt concrete and sustainable/innovative materials, APT for airfield pavements, testing of maintenance and rehabilitation solutions, testing of smart and multi-functional pavements, data analysis and modeling, monitoring and non-destructive testing, and efficient means of calibrating/developing pavement design methods. Featuring peer-reviewed contributions by leading international researchers and engineers, the book is a timely and highly relevant resource for materials scientists and engineers interested in determining the performance of pavement structures during their service life (10+ years) in a few weeks or months.
This book highlights the latest advances in AFM nano-manipulation research in the field of nanotechnology. There are numerous uncertainties in the AFM nano-manipulation environment, such as thermal drift, tip broadening effect, tip positioning errors and manipulation instability. This book proposes a method for estimating tip morphology using a blind modeling algorithm, which is the basis of the analysis of the influence of thermal drift on AFM scanning images, and also explains how the scanning image of AFM is reconstructed with better accuracy. Further, the book describes how the tip positioning errors caused by thermal drift and system nonlinearity can be corrected using the proposed landmark observation method, and also explores the tip path planning method in a complex environment. Lastly, it presents an AFM-based nano-manipulation platform to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method using theoretical research, such as tip positioning and virtual nano-hand.
This book addresses perovskite quantum dots, discussing their unique properties, synthesis, and applications in nanoscale optoelectronic and photonic devices, as well as the challenges and possible solutions in the context of device design and the prospects for commercial applications. It particularly focuses on the luminescent properties, which differ from those of the corresponding quantum dots materials, such as multicolor emission, fluorescence narrowing, and tunable and switchable emissions from doped nanostructures. The book first describes the characterization and fabrication of perovskite quantum dots. It also provides detailed methods for analyzing the electrical and optical properties, and demonstrates promising applications of perovskite quantum dots. Furthermore, it presents a series of optoelectronic and photonic devices based on functional perovskite quantum dots, and explains the incorporation of perovskite quantum dots in semiconductor devices and their effect of the performance. It also explores the challenges related to optoelectronic devices, as well as possible strategies to promote their commercialization. As such, this book is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in the field of solid-state materials and electronics wanting to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of quantum dots, and the fundamental optoelectronic properties and operation mechanisms of the latest perovskite quantum dot-based devices.
This is a comprehensive reference on cathodic protection. A new translation from the original German, this handbook covers all aspects of cathodic protection in terms of both practice and theory. The study of corrosion reactions, and the methods used to prevent metallic corrosion, are economically significant in many industrial applications, including buried pipelines, storage tanks, telecommunications, power, gas-pressurized cables, ships and harbour installations This revised edition updates the economic considerations in light of more stringent regulations and standards, and also provides the latest developments in electrochemical protection technology.
This book presents studies on the inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loads. It focuses on the description of new effects like purely thermal cycles or cases of non-trivial damages. The various models are based on different approaches and methods and scaling aspects are taken into account. In addition to purely phenomenological models, the book also presents mechanisms-based approaches. It includes contributions written by leading authors from a host of different countries.
"Neutron Applications in Materials for Energy "collects results and conclusions of recent neutron-based investigations of materials that are important in the development of sustainable energy. Chapters are authored by leading scientists with hands-on experience in the field, providing overviews, recent highlights, and case-studies to illustrate the applicability of one or more neutron-based techniques of analysis. The theme follows energy production, storage, and use, but each chapter, or section, can also be read independently, with basic theory and instrumentation for neutron scattering being outlined in the introductory chapter.
Whilst neutron scattering is extensively used to understand properties of condensed matter, neutron techniques are exceptionally-well suited to studying how the transport and binding of energy and charge-carrying molecules and ions are related to their dynamics and the material s crystal structure. These studies extend to "in situ" and "in operando" in some cases. The species of interest in leading energy-technologies include H2, H+, and Li+ which have particularly favourable neutron-scattering properties that render these techniques of analysis ideal for such studies and consequently, neutron-based analysis is common-place for hydrogen storage, fuel-cell, catalysis, and battery materials. Similar research into the functionality of solar cell, nuclear, and CO2 capture/storage materials rely on other unique aspects of neutron scattering and again show how structure and dynamics provide an understanding of the material stability and the binding and mobility of species of interest within these materials.
Scientists and students looking for methods to help them understand the atomic-level mechanisms and behaviour underpinning the performance characteristics of energy materials will find "Neutron Applications in Materials for Energy "a valuable resource, whilst the wider audience of sustainable energy scientists, and newcomers to neutron scattering should find this a useful reference. "
This book is a primer on the interplay between plasma and materials in a fusion reactor, so-called plasma-materials interactions (PMIs), highlighting materials and their influence on plasma through PMI. It aims to demonstrate that a plasma-facing surface (PFS) responds actively to fusion plasma and that the clarifying nature of PFS is indispensable to understanding the influence of PFS on plasma. It describes the modern insight into PMI, namely, relevant feedback to plasma performance from plasma-facing material (PFM) on changes in a material surface by plasma power load by radiation and particles, contrary to a conventional view that unilateral influence from plasma on PFM is dominant in PMI. There are many books and reviews on PMI in the context of plasma physics, that is, how plasma or plasma confinement works in PMI. By contrast, this book features a materials aspect in PMI focusing on changes caused by heat and particle load from plasma: how PFMs are changed by plasma exposure and then, accordingly, how the changed PFM interacts with plasma.
This book presents a method for replicating natural butterfly wing scales using a variety of metals for state-of-the-art applications requiring high surface-enhancement properties. During the past decade, three dimensional (3D) sub-micrometer structures have attracted considerable attention for optical applications. These 3D subwavelength metallic structures are, however, difficult to prepare. By contrast, the 3D superstructures of butterfly wing scales, with more than 175 000 morphologies, are efficiently engineered by nature. Natural butterfly wing scales feature 3D sub-micrometer structures that are superior to many human designs in terms of structural complexity, reproducibility, and cost. Such natural wealth offers a versatile chemical route via the replication of these structures into functional metals. A single versatile chemical route can be used to produce butterfly scales in seven different metals. These synthesized structures have the potential for catalytic (Au, Pt, Pd), thermal (Ag, Au, Cu), electrical (Au, Cu, Ag), magnetic (Co, Ni), and optical (Au, Ag, Cu) applications. Plasmon-active Au, Cu, Ag butterfly scales have exhibited excellent properties in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The Au scales as SERS substrates have ten times the analyte detection sensitivity and are one-tenth the cost of their human-designed commercial counterparts (KlariteTM). Preliminary mechanisms of these surface-enhancement phenomena are also reviewed.
This second edition of a successful and highly-accessed monograph has been extended by more than 100 pages. It includes an enlarged coverage of applications for materials characterization and analysis. Also a more detailed description of strategies for determining free energies of ion transfer between miscible liquids is provided. This is now possible with a "third-phase strategy" which the authors explain from theoretical and practical points of view. The book is still the only one detailing strategies for solid state electroanalysis. It also features the specific potential of the techniques to use immobilized particles (for studies of solid materials) and of immobilized droplets of immiscible liquids for the purpose of studying the three-phase electrochemistry of these liquids. This also includes studies of ion transfer between aqueous and immiscible non-aqueous liquids. The bibliography of all published papers in this field of research has been expanded from 318 to now 444 references in this second edition. Not only are pertinent references provided at the end of each chapter, but the complete list of the cited literature is also offered as a separate chapter for easy reference.
This volume introduces a comprehensive theory of deformation and fracture to engineers and applied scientists. Here "comprehensive" means that the theory can describe all stages of deformation from elastic to plastic and plastic to fracturing stage on the same basis (equations). The comprehensive approach is possible because the theory is based on a fundamental physical principle called the local symmetry, or gauge invariance, as opposed to phenomenology. Professor Yoshida explains the gist of local symmetry (gauge invariance) intuitively so that engineers and applied physicists can digest it easily, rather than describing physical or mathematical details of the principle. The author also describes applications of the theory to practical engineering, such as nondestructive testing in particular, with the use of an optical interferometric technique called ESPI (Electronic Speckle-Pattern Interferometry).The book is not a manual of applications. Instead, it provides information on how to apply physical concepts to engineering applications.
This book can be roughly divided into three parts: fundamental physico-chemical and physical principles of Nanoscience, chemistry and synthesis of nanoparticles, and techniques to study nanoparticles. The first chapter is concerned with the origin of the size dependence of the properties of nanomaterials, explaining it in terms of two fundamental nanoscale effects. This chapter also serves as a general introduction to the book, briefly addressing the definition and classification of nanomaterials and the techniques used to fabricate and study them. Chapter 2 lays out the theoretical framework within which to understand size effects on the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals, with particular emphasis on the quantum confinement effect. The optical properties of metal nanoparticles and metal nanostructures (periodic lattices) are discussed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 is devoted to nanoporous materials, treating in detail their synthesis, structure and functional properties, as well as the physical properties of liquids confined in nanopores. The preparation methods, characterization techniques, and applications of supported nanoparticles are covered in Chapter 5. The sixth Chapter presents the essential physical-chemical concepts needed to understand the preparation of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles, and the remarkable degree of control that has been achieved over their composition, size, shape and surface. The last four Chapters are dedicated to a few selected characterization techniques that are very valuable tools to study nanoparticles. Chapter 7 concentrates on electron microscopy techniques, while Chapter 8 focuses on scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) based spectroscopic techniques and their application to nanoparticles are explored in Chapter 9. Finally, Chapter 10 shows how solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques can be used to unravel the surface chemistry of colloidal nanoparticles.
In this book, advanced steel technologies mainly developed at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan, for structure control, mechanical properties, and the related mechanisms are introduced and discussed. NIMS has long worked on developing advanced steel techniques, namely, producing advanced steels by using only simple alloying elements such as carbon, manganese, and silicon, and also by utilizing steel scrap. The hope is that this approach will lead to a technology of a so-called steel-to-steel recycling process, with the ultimate goal of a recycling process such as an automotive-steel-to-automotive-steel recycling process to take the place of the current cascade-type recycling system. The main idea is to utilize ultra-grain refining structures and hetero structures as well as martensite structures. In particular, the focus of this book is on tensile strength and toughness of advanced steels from both the fundamental and engineering points of view. Fundamentally, a unique approach to analysis is taken, based on fracture surface energy as effective grain size is employed to better understand the mechanism of property improvement. From the engineering point of view, in fracture toughness such factors as crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) of advanced steels are evaluated in comparison with those of conventional steels.
This book on micromechanics explores both traditional aspects and the advances made in the last 10-15 years. The viewpoint it assumes is that the rapidly developing field of micromechanics, apart from being of fundamental scientific importance, is motivated by materials science applications. The introductory chapter provides the necessary background together with some less traditional material, examining e.g. approximate elastic symmetries, Rice's technique of internal variables and multipole expansions. The remainder of the book is divided into the following parts: (A) classic results, which consist of Rift Valley Energy (RVE), Hill's results, Eshelby's results for ellipsoidal inhomogeneities, and approximate schemes for the effective properties; (B) results aimed at overcoming these limitations, such as volumes smaller than RVE, quantitative characterization of "irregular" microstructures, non-ellipsoidal inhomogeneities, and cross-property connections; (C) local fields and effects of interactions on them; and lastly (D) - the largest section - which explores applications to eight classes of materials that illustrate how to apply the micromechanics methodology to specific materials.
This book is written for scientists involved in the calibration of viscometers. A detailed description for stepping up procedures to establish the viscosity scale and obtaining sets of master viscometers is given in the book. Uncertainty considerations for standard oils of known viscosity are presented. The modern viscometers based on principles oftuning fork, ultrasonic, PZT, plate waves, Love waves, micro-cantilever and vibration of optical fiber are discussed to inspire the reader to further research and to generate improved versions. The primary standard for viscosity is pure water. Measurements of its viscosity with accuracy/uncertainty achieved are described. The principles of rotational and oscillation viscometers are explained to enhance the knowledge in calibration work. Devices used for specific materials and viscosity in non SI units are discussed with respect to the need to correlate viscosity values obtained by various devices. The description of commercial viscometers meets the needs of the user."
Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist.
This unique book covers the fundamental principle of electron diffraction, basic instrumentation of RHEED, definitions of textures in thin films and nanostructures, mechanisms and control of texture formation, and examples of RHEED transmission mode measurements of texture and texture evolution of thin films and nanostructures. Also presented is a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode called RHEED pole figure technique that can be used to monitor the texture evolution in thin film growth and nanostructures and is not limited to single crystal epitaxial film growth. Details of the construction of RHEED pole figures and the interpretation of observed pole figures are presented. Materials covered include metals, semiconductors, and thin insulators. This book also: Presents a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode Introduces a variety of textures from metals, semiconductors, compound semiconductors, and their characteristics in RHEED pole figures Provides examples of RHEED measurements of texture and texture evolution, construction of RHEED pole figures, and interpretation of observed pole figures RHEED Transmission Mode and Pole Figures: Thin Film and Nanostructure Texture Analysis is ideal for researchers in materials science and engineering and nanotechnology.
ZnO has been the central theme of research in the past decade due to its various applications in band gap engineering, and textile and biomedical industries. In nanostructured form, it offers ample opportunities to realize tunable optical and optoelectronic properties and it was also termed as a potential material to realize room temperature ferromagnetism. This book presents 17 high-quality contributory chapters on ZnO related systems written by experts in this field. These chapters will help researchers to understand and explore the varied physical properties to envisage device applications of ZnO in thin film, heterostructure and nanostructure forms.
"Evaluating Measurement Accuracy, 2nd Edition" is intended for those who are concerned with measurements in any field of science or technology. It reflects the latest developments in metrology and offers new results, but is designed to be accessible to readers at different levels: scientists who advance the field of metrology, engineers and experimental scientists who use measurements as tool in their professions, students and graduate students in natural sciences and engineering, and, in parts describing practical recommendations, technicians performing mass measurements in industry, quality control, and trade. This book presents material from the practical perspective and offers solutions and recommendations for problems that arise in conducting real-life measurements. This new edition adds a method for estimating accuracy of indirect measurements with independent arguments, whose development Dr. Rabinovich was able to complete very recently. This method, which is called the Method of Enumeration, produces estimates that are no longer approximate, similar to the way the method of reduction described in the first edition removed approximation in estimating uncertainty of indirect measurements with dependent arguments. The method of enumeration completes addressing the range of problems whose solutions signify the emergence of the new theory of accuracy of measurements. A new method is added for building a composition of histograms, and this method forms a theoretical basis for the method of enumeration.Additionally, as a companion to this book, a concise practical guide that assembles simple step-by-step procedures for typical tasks the practitioners are likely to encounter in measurement accuracy estimation is available at SpringerLink.
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