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This book highlights how the properties and structure of materials are affected by dynamic high pressures generated by explosions, projectile impacts, laser compression, electric discharge or ball milling. Starting with the basics of shock-wave physics and an outline of experimental techniques, it then surveys dynamic compressibility and equations of state of various substances, phase transitions and syntheses of novel compounds under shock. It covers various industrial applications including hardening of metals and grinding (fragmentation) of solids, saturation of solids with defects for use as catalysts, production of superhard materials (synthetic diamond, BN (boron nitride)) and nanomaterials, especially nanodiamond, and discusses state-of-the-art techniques such as combining dynamic and static compression to obtain monolithic materials.
This volume covers the recent advances and research on the modeling and simulation of materials. The primary aim is to take the reader through the mathematical analysis to the theories of electricity and magnetism using multiscale modelling, covering a variety of numerical methods such as finite difference time domain (FDTD), finite element method (FEM) and method of moments. The book also introduces the multiscale Green's function (GF) method for static and dynamic modelling and simulation results of modern advanced nanomaterials, particularly the two-dimensional (2D) materials. This book will be of interest to researchers and industry professionals working on advanced materials.
This collection of recent activities provides researchers and scientists with the latest trends in characterization and developments of composed materials and structures. Here, the expression 'composed materials' indicates a wider range than the expression 'composite material' which is many times limited to classical fibre reinforced plastics. The idea of composed structures and materials is to join different components in order to obtain in total better properties than one of the single constituents can provide. In this collection, well known experts present their research on composed materials such as textile composites, sandwich plates, hollow sphere structures, reinforced concrete as well as classical fibre reinforced materials.
Laser-enabled measurements are valuable tools for the investigation of surfaces and interfaces or for the in situ investigation of interfacial processes including electrode processes. The understanding of the thermodynamics of solid/liquid surfaces is important for surface science and electrochemistry. In the first part of this book, the authors describe a range of techniques for investigating interfacial tension and surface stress, which is important for coatings, thin films, and fuel cells. The techniques covered comprise bending beam (bending plate, bending cantilever, wafer curvature) methods with different detection techniques. Special attention is given to methods using optical detection by laser beam deflection or interferometry. The second part is devoted to the techniques based on the detection of refractive index gradients in the solution. The refractive index changes could be related to concentration gradients (Probe Beam Deflection, PBD) or light-induced thermal gradients (Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy, PDS). The application of the techniques to surface-confined and solution electrochemical systems is described. Subsequently, a comparison with others techniques able to monitor ion fluxes is performed.
Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to sensible substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation. The book also focuses on the preparation, characterization and bio-applications of piezoelectric nanoparticles.
Dipolar Recoupling, by Niels Chr. Nielsen, Lasse A. Strasso and Anders B. Nielsen.-
Solid-State NMR Techniques for the Structural Determination of Amyloid Fibrils, by Jerry C. C. Chan.-
Solid-State 19F-NMR of Peptides in Native Membranes, by Katja Koch, Sergii Afonin, Marco Ieronimo, Marina Berditsch and Anne S. Ulrich.-
Probing Quadrupolar Nuclei by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Recent Advances, by Christian Fernandez and Marek Pruski.-
Solid State NMR of Porous Materials Zeolites and Related Materials, by Hubert Koller and Mark Weiss.-
Solid-State NMR of Inorganic Semiconductors, by James P. Yesinowski.-"
This book is a collection of experimental studies demonstrating structure-function relationships in various biological systems having particular surface specialization to increase/decrease friction and adhesion. Studies on snake skin, adhesive pads, wing-interlocking devices and sticky mouthparts of insects as well as anti-adhesive and adhesive surfaces of plants are included in the volume containing four main subsections: (1) adhesion, (2) friction, (3) attachment-devices, (4) attachment-related behavior. Numerous experimental methods for characterizing tribological properties of biological surfaces at macro-, micro-, and nanoscale levels are demonstrated. This book is an excellent collection of publications on biotribology for both engineers and physicists working with biological systems as well as for biologists studying friction and adhesion. Inspirations from biology reported here may be also potentially interesting for biomimetics.
F.K. Lehner: A Review of the Linear Theory of Anisotropic Poroelastic Solids. - J.W. Rudnicki: Eshelby's Technique for Analyzing Inhomogeneities in Geomechanics. - Y. Gueguen, M. Kachanov: Effective Elastic Properties of Cracked and Porous Rocks - an Overview. - J.L. Raphanel: 3D Morphology Evolution of Solid-Fluid Interfaces by Pressure Solution. - Y.M. Leroy: An Introduction to the Finite-Element Method for Linear and Non-linear Static Problems.
The mechanical behaviour of the earth's upper crust enters into a great variety of questions in different areas of the geological and geophysical sciences as well as in the more applied geotechnical disciplines. This volume presents a selection of papers from a CISM course in Udine on this topic. While each of these chapters will make for a useful contribution in its own right, the present bundle also illustrates, by way of examples, the variety of theoretical concepts and tools that are currently brought to bear on earth deformation studies, ranging from reviews of poroelastic field theory to micro-mechanical and homogenization studies, chemomechanics and interfacial stability theory of soluble solids under stress, and finally to an introduction to the finite element method.
This book, "Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Media," presents a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena in a porous medium domain, as well as related material properties and their measurements. The book contents include both theoretical and experimental developments, providing a self-contained major reference that is appealing to both the scientists and the engineers. At the same time, these topics will encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemical, civil, agricultural, mechanical engineering, etc. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a short monograph in which the authors summarize the current state of knowledge for benefit of professionals.
David I.A. Millar's thesis explores the effects of extreme conditions on energetic materials. His study identifies and structurally characterises new polymorphs obtained at high pressures and/or temperatures. The performance of energetic materials (pyrotechnics, propellants and explosives) can depend on a number of factors including sensitivity to detonation, detonation velocity, and chemical and thermal stability. Polymorphism and solid-state phase transitions may therefore have significant consequences for the performance and safety of energetic materials. In order to model the behaviour of these important materials effectively under operational conditions it is essential to obtain detailed structural information at a range of temperatures and pressures.
This volume contains select papers presented during the Functional Textiles and Clothing Conference 2020 held at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. The volume covers recent developments, challenges and opportunities in the field of functional and protective clothing; functional printing and finishing; sustainable production and supply chain; and testing and characterisation. This volume will be of interest to researchers, professional engineers, entrepreneurs, and market stakeholders interested in functional textiles and clothing.
Archaeological chemistry is a subject of great importance to the study and methodology of archaeology. This comprehensive text covers the subject with a full range of case studies, materials, and research methods. With twenty years of experience teaching the subject, the authors offer straightforward coverage of archaeological chemistry, a subject that can be intimidating for many archaeologists who do not already have a background in the hard sciences. With clear explanations and informative illustrations, the authors have created a highly approachable text, which will help readers overcome that intimidation. Topics covered included: Materials (rock, pottery, bone, charcoal, soils, metals, and others), Instruments (microscopes, NAA, spectrometers, mass spectrometers, GC/MS, XRF & XRD, Case Studies (Provinience, Sediments, Diet Reconstruction, Past Human Movement, Organic Residues). The detailed coverage and clear language will make this useful as an introduction to the study of archaeological chemistry, as well as a useful resource for years after that introduction.
The objective of this book is to discuss the current status of research and development of boron-rich solids as sensors, ultra-high temperature ceramics, thermoelectrics, and armor. Novel biological and chemical sensors made of stiff and light-weight boron-rich solids are very exciting and efficient for applications in medical diagnoses, environmental surveillance and the detection of pathogen and biological/chemical terrorism agents. Ultra-high temperature ceramic composites exhibit excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance for hypersonic vehicle applications. Boron-rich solids are also promising candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion. Armor is another very important application of boron-rich solids, since most of them exhibit very high hardness, which makes them perfect candidates with high resistance to ballistic impact. The following topical areas are presented: *Boron-rich solids: science and technology *Synthesis and sintering strategies of boron rich solids *Microcantilever sensors *Screening of the possible boron-based thermoelectric conversion materials; *Ultra-high temperature ZrB2 and HfB2 based composites *Magnetic, transport and high-pressure properties of boron-rich solids *Restrictions of the sensor dimensions for chemical detection *Armor
This is the first book on lock-in thermography, an analytical method applied to the diagnosis of microelectronic devices. This useful introduction and guide reviews various experimental approaches to lock-in thermography, with special emphasis on the lock-in IR thermography developed by the authors themselves.
Micromechanisms of Fracture and Fatigue forms the culmination of 20 years of research in the field of fatigue and fracture. It discusses a range of topics and comments on the state of the art for each. The first part is devoted to models of deformation and fracture of perfect crystals. Using various atomistic methods, the theoretical strength of solids under simple and complex loading is calculated for a wide range of elements and compounds, and compared with experimental data. The connection between the onset of local plasticity in nanoindentation tests and the ideal shear strength is analysed using a multi-scale approach. Moreover, the nature of intrinsic brittleness or ductility of perfect crystal lattices is demonstrated by the coupling of atomistic and mesoscopic approaches, and compared with brittle/ductile behaviour of engineering materials. The second part addresses extrinsic sources of fracture toughness of engineering materials, related to their microstructure and microstructurally-induced crack tortuosity. Micromechanisms of ductile fracture are also described, in relation to the fracture strain of materials. Results of multilevel modelling, including statistical aspects of microstructure, are used to explain remarkable phenomena discovered in experiments. In the third part of the book, basic micromechanisms of fatigue cracks propagation under uniaxial and multiaxial loading are discussed on the basis of the unified mesoscopic model of crack tip shielding and closure, taking both microstructure and statistical effects into account. Applications to failure analysis are also outlined, and an attempt is made to distinguish intrinsic and extrinsic sources of materials resistance to fracture. Micromechanisms of Fracture and Fatigue provides scientists, researchers and postgraduate students with not only a deep insight into basic micromechanisms of fracture behaviour of materials, but also a number of engineering applications.
Neutrons are extremely versatile probes for investigating structure and dynamics in condensed matter. Due to their large penetration depth, they are ideal for in-situ measurements of samples situated in sophisticated and advanced environments. The advent of new high-intensity neutron sources and instruments, as well as the development of new real-time techniques, allows the tracking of transformation processes in condensed matter on a microscopic scale. The present volume provides a review of the state of the art of this new and exciting field of kinetics with neutrons.
The edge and surface inspection is one of the most important and most challenging tasks in quality assessment in industrial production. Typical defects are cracks, inclusions, pores, surface flakings, partial or complete tears of material surface and s.o. These defects can occur through defective source material or through extreme strain during machining process. Detection of defects on a materialc surface can be complicated due to extremely varying degrees of material brightness or due to shadow areas, caused by the folding of the surface. Furthermore, impurities or surface discolourations can lead to artefacts that can be detected as pseudo-defects. The brightness conditions on the edge of material defects are interpreted as a Gauss distribution of a radiation and used for a physical model. Basing on this model, an essentially new set of adaptive edge-based algorithms was developed. Using these methods, different types of defects can be detected, without the measurements being dependent on local or global brightness conditions of the image taken. The new adaptive edge-based algorithms allow a defect detection on different materials, like metal, ceramics, plastics and stone. These methods make it possible to explicitly detect all kinds of different defects independently of their size, form and position and of the surface to be inspected. The adaptive edge-based methods provide a very wide spectrum of applications.
This book collects several contributions presented at the 2019 meeting of the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Society (SILS), held in Camerino, Italy, from 9 to 11 September 2019. Topics included are recent developments in synchrotron radiation facilities and instrumentation, novel methods for data analysis, applications in the fields of materials physics and chemistry, Earth and environmental science, coherence in x-ray experiments. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers interested in synchrotron-based techniques and their application in diverse fields.
This book discusses the impact of different range of velocities (low, high, ballistic and hyper-velocity impact) on composites. Presented through experimental and numerical analysis, the book goes beyond impact event analysis and also covers the after-impact phenomena, including flexural and compression and damage analysis through destructive and non-destructive evaluations. The analyses presented from either experimental or numerical simulations are composed of micro and macrographs images, illustrations, tables and figures with inclusive discussions and supportive evidences from recent studies on composites. This book also highlights the potential applications of composites through the lens of their impact properties, in different industries such as automotive and defence applications. Generally, this book benefits wider range of readers including the industrial practitioners, researchers, lecturer and students, who are working in the fields related to impact and damage analysis, including the structural health monitoring of composites, either experimentally or numerically.
This book presents the select proceedings of the International Conference on Functional Material, Manufacturing and Performances (ICFMMP) 2019. The book provides the state-of-the-art research, development, and commercial prospective of recent advances in materials science and engineering. The contents cover various synthesis and fabrication routes of functional and smart materials for applications in mechanical engineering, manufacturing, metrology, nanotechnology, physics, chemical and biological sciences, civil engineering, food science among others. It also provides the evolutionary behavior of materials science for industrial applications. This book will be a useful resource for researchers as well as professionals interested in the highly interdisciplinary field of materials science.
This book presents machine learning as a set of pre-requisites, co-requisites, and post-requisites, focusing on mathematical concepts and engineering applications in advanced welding and cutting processes. It describes a number of advanced welding and cutting processes and then assesses the parametrical interdependencies of two entities, namely the data analysis and data visualization techniques, which form the core of machine learning. Subsequently, it discusses supervised learning, highlighting Python libraries such as NumPy, Pandas and Scikit Learn programming. It also includes case studies that employ machine learning for manufacturing processes in the engineering domain. The book not only provides beginners with an introduction to machine learning for applied sciences, enabling them to address global competitiveness and work on real-time technical challenges, it is also a valuable resource for scholars with domain knowledge.
ways in which the magnetic interaction between neutrons and magnetic moments can yield information on the magnetization densities of thin ?lms and multilayers. I commend the organizers for having organized a group of expert lecturers to present this subject in a detailed but clear fashion, as the importance of the subject deserves. Argonne, IL S. K. Sinha Contents 1 The Interaction of X-Rays (and Neutrons) with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 F. de Bergevin 1. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 2 Generalities and De?nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. 3 From the Scattering by an Object to the Propagation in a Medium . 14 1. 4 X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1. 5 X-Rays: Anisotropic Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 1. A Appendix: the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2 Statistical Aspects of Wave Scattering at Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 A. Sentenac and J. Daillant 2. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2. 2 Description of Randomly Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2. 3 Description of a Surface Scattering Experiment, Coherence Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2. 4 Statistical Formulation of the Diffraction Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 2. 5 Statistical Formulation of the Scattered Intensity Under the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3 Specular Re?ectivity from Smooth and Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 A. Gibaud and G. Vignaud 3. 1 The Re?ected Intensity from an Ideally Flat Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3. 2 X-Ray Re?ectivity in Strati?ed Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 3. 3 From Dynamical to Kinematical Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 3. 4 In?uence of the Roughness on the Matrix Coef?cients . . . . . . . . . . 111 3. A Appendix: The Treatment of Roughness in Specular Re?ectivity . . 113 3. B Appendix: Inversion of re?ectivity data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analytical chemists and materials scientists will find this a useful addition to their armory. The contributors have sought to highlight the present state of affairs in the validation and quality assurance of fluorescence measurements, as well as the need for future standards. Methods included range from steady-state fluorometry and microfluorometry, microscopy, and micro-array technology, to time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence depolarization imaging techniques.
"Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering" is an up-to-date treatment of ceramic science, engineering, and applications in a single, comprehensive text. Building on a foundation of crystal structures, phase equilibria, defects, and the mechanical properties of ceramic materials, students are shown how these materials are processed for a wide diversity of applications in today's society. Concepts such as how and why ions move, how ceramics interact with light and magnetic fields, and how they respond to temperature changes are discussed in the context of their applications. References to the art and history of ceramics are included throughout the text, and a chapter is devoted to ceramics as gemstones. This course-tested text now includes expanded chapters on the role of ceramicsin industry and their impact on the environment as well asa chapter devoted to applications of ceramic materials in clean energy technologies. Also new are expanded sets of text-specific homework problems and other resources for instructors. The revised and updated Second Editionis further enhanced with color illustrations throughout the text."
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