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This book presents the select proceedings of the International Conference on Functional Material, Manufacturing and Performances (ICFMMP) 2019. The book primarily covers recent research, theories, and practices relevant to surface engineering and processing of materials. It focuses on the lesser-known technologies and advanced manufacturing methods which may not be standardized yet but are highly beneficial to material and manufacturing industrial engineers. The book includes current advances in the field of coating, deposition, cladding, nanotechnology, surface finishing, precision machining, processing, and emerging advanced manufacturing technologies which enhance the performance of materials in terms of corrosion, wear and fatigue. The book can be a valuable reference for beginners, researchers, and professionals interested in materials processing and allied fields.
This book delivers a comprehensive overview of units of measurement. Beginning with a historical look at metrology in Ancient India, the book explains fundamental concepts in metrology such as basic, derived and dimensionless quantities, and introduces the concept of quantity calculus. It discusses and critically examines various three and four-dimensional systems of units used both presently and in the past, while explaining why only four base units are needed for a system of measurement. It discusses the Metre Convention as well as the creation of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, and gives a detailed look at the evolution of the current SI base units of time, length, mass, electric current, temperature, intensity of illumination and substance. This updated second edition is extended with timely new chapters discussing past efforts to redefine the SI base units as well as the most recent 2019 redefinitions based entirely on the speed of light and other fundamental physical constants. Additionally, it provides biographical presentations of many of the historical figures behind commonly used units of measurements, such as Newton, Joule and Ohm, With its accessible and comprehensive treatment of the field, together with its unique presentation of the underlying history, this book is well suited to any student and researcher interested in the practical and historical aspects of the field of metrology.
This book presents contributions on the current problems in a number of topical areas of nonlinear dynamics and physics, written by experts from Russia, Ukraine, Israel, Germany, Poland, Italy, the Netherlands, the USA, and France. The book is dedicated to Professor Leonid I. Manevitch, an outstanding scholar in the fields of Mechanics of Solids, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Polymer Physics, on the occasion of his 80th birthday.
This book describes the development of three dimensional electroactive fibres using a novel coaxial wet-spinning approach from organic conductors in combination with non-conducting hydrogel polymers. This book also presents the characterization and evaluation of multiaxial biofibres in terms of mechanical, physical, electrochemical and biological properties, and explores their use in a diverse range of applications including implantable electrodes, drug delivery systems and energy-storage systems. In the first chapter, the author highlights the significance of engineering three dimensional fibres, introduces the involved hydrogels and organic conductors with emphasis on their biomedical application, and collects some of the previously established methods for fabrication of biofibres. In the second chapter, particular attention is given to the overall experimental fabrication methods and characterization analyses conducted in the work. Chapters three to five present the main findings of this work, in which readers will discover how novel hybrid hydrogel fibres with an inner core of chitosan and alginate were prepared and characterized, how graphene was incorporated into coaxial wet-spun biofibres, and how one-dimensional triaxial fibres were developed using a novel coaxial wet-spinning fibre production method and applied as potential battery devices. In the final chapter of this work, the author summarizes the main achievements of the work and outlines some recommendations for future research.
This textbook presents all the mathematical and physical concepts needed to visualize and understand representation surfaces, providing readers with a reliable and intuitive understanding of the behavior and properties of anisotropic materials, and a sound grasp of the directionality of material properties. They will learn how to extract quantitative information from representation surfaces, which encode tremendous amounts of information in a very concise way, making them especially useful in understanding higher order tensorial material properties (piezoelectric moduli, elastic compliance and rigidity, etc.) and in the design of applications based on these materials. Readers will also learn from scratch concepts on crystallography, symmetry and Cartesian tensors, which are essential for understanding anisotropic materials, their design and application. The book describes how to apply representation surfaces to a diverse range of material properties, making it a valuable resource for material scientists, mechanical engineers, and solid state physicists, as well as advanced undergraduates in Materials Science, Solid State Physics, Electronics, Optics, Mechanical Engineering, Composites and Polymer Science. Moreover, the book includes a wealth of worked-out examples, problems and exercises to help further understanding.
This SpringerBrief discusses the determination and classification of the ambient temperature corrosion and stress corrosion properties of aerospace structural alloys, with emphasis on (1) aluminium alloys, modern (3rd generation) aluminium-lithium alloys, stainless steels and titanium alloys and (2) some of the issues involved. Standard /reference data on environmental properties, including corrosion and stress corrosion, are mandatory for the qualification and certification of materials for aerospace vehicles, and also for the design of actual structures and components. Recommendations for further testing and evaluation are given at appropriate points in the text. The book concludes with a summary of the main topics.
This book is devoted to various aspects of self-assembly of gold nanoparticles at liquid-liquid interfaces and investigation of their properties. It covers primarily two large fields: (i) self-assembly of nanoparticles and optical properties of these assemblies; and (ii) the role of nanoparticles in redox electrocatalysis at liquid-liquid interfaces. The first part aroused from a long-lasting idea to manipulate adsorption of nanoparticles at liquid-liquid with an external electric field to form 'smart' mirrors and/or filters. Therefore, Chapters 3 to 5 are dedicated to explore fundamental aspects of charged nanoparticles self-assembly and to investigate optical properties (extinction and reflectance) in a through manner. Novel tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-assisted method leads to self-assembly of nanoparticles into cm-scale nanofilms or, so-called, metal liquid-like droplets (MeLLDs) with remarkable optical properties. The second part (Chapters 6 to 8) clarifies the role of nanoparticles in interfacial electron transfer reactions. They demonstrate how nanoparticles are charged and discharged upon equilibration of Fermi levels with redox couples in solution and how it can be used to perform HER and ORR. Finally, Chapter 9 gives a perspective outlook, including applications of suggested methods in fast, one-step preparation of colloidosomes, SERS substrates as well as pioneer studies on so-called Marangony-type shutters drive by the electric field.
Diagnostic Communication with Road-Vehicles and Non-Road Mobile Machinery examines the communication between a diagnostic tester and E/E systems of road-vehicles and non-road mobile machinery such as agricultural machines and construction equipment. The title also contains the description of E/E systems (control units and in-vehicle networks), the communication protocols (e.g. OBD, J1939 and UDS on CAN / IP), and a glimpse into the near future covering remote, cloud-based diagnostics and cybersecurity threats.
This book discusses the basic principles and traditional applications of fracture mechanics, as well as the cutting-edge research in the field over the last three decades in current topics like composites, thin films, nanoindentation, and cementitious materials. Experimental methods play a major role in the study of fracture mechanics problems and are used for the determination of the major fracture mechanics quantities such as stress intensity factors, crack tip opening displacements, strain energy release rates, crack paths, crack velocities in static and dynamic problems. These methods include electrical resistance strain gauges, photoelasticity, interferometry techniques, geometric and interferometry moire, and the optical method of caustics. Furthermore, numerical methods are often used for the determination of fracture mechanics parameters. They include finite and boundary element methods, Green's function and weight functions, boundary collocation, alternating methods, and integral transforms continuous dislocations. This third edition of the book covers the basic principles and traditional applications, as well as the latest developments of fracture mechanics. Featuring two new chapters and 30 more example problems, it presents a comprehensive overview of fracture mechanics, and includes numerous examples and unsolved problems. This book is suitable for teaching fracture mechanics courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels. A "solutions manual" is available for course instructors upon request.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. It presents the results of the ComBoNDT European project, which aimed at the development of more secure, time- and cost-saving extended non-destructive inspection tools for carbon fiber reinforced plastics, adhered surfaces and bonded joints. The book reports the optimal use of composite materials to allow weight savings, reduction in fuel consumptions, savings during production and higher cost efficiency for ground operations.
This book presents the proceedings of Fatigue Durability India 2016, which was held on September 28-30 at J N Tata Auditorium, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. This 2nd International Conference & Exhibition brought international industrial experts and academics together on a single platform to facilitate the exchange of ideas and advances in the field of fatigue, durability and fracture mechanics and its applications. This book comprises articles on a broad spectrum of topics from design, engineering, testing and computational evaluation of components and systems for fatigue, durability, and fracture mechanics. The topics covered include interdisciplinary discussions on working aspects related to materials testing, evaluation of damage, nondestructive testing (NDT), failure analysis, finite element modeling (FEM) analysis, fatigue and fracture, processing, performance, and reliability. The contents of this book will appeal not only to academic researchers, but also to design engineers, failure analysts, maintenance engineers, certification personnel, and R&D professionals involved in a wide variety of industries.
This book is a liber amicorum to Professor Sergei Konstantinovich Godunov and gathers contributions by renowned scientists in honor of his 90th birthday. The contributions address those fields that Professor Godunov is most famous for: differential and difference equations, partial differential equations, equations of mathematical physics, mathematical modeling, difference schemes, advanced computational methods for hyperbolic equations, computational methods for linear algebra, and mathematical problems in continuum mechanics.
The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience.Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.
This textbook offers readers an introduction to fracture mechanics, equipping them to grasp the basic ideas of the presented approaches to modeling in applied mechanics In the first part, the book reviews and expands on the classical theory of elastic and elasto-plastic material behavior. A solid understanding of these two topics is the essential prerequisite to advancing to damage and fracture mechanics. Thus, the second part of this course provides an introduction to the treatment of damage and fractures in the context of applied mechanics Wherever possible, the one-dimensional case is first introduced and then generalized in a following step. This departs somewhat from the more classical approach, where first the most general case is derived and then simplified to special cases. In general, the required mathematics background is kept to a minimum Tutorials are included at the end of each chapter, presenting the major steps for the solution and offering valuable tips and tricks. The supplementary problems featured in the book
This book mainly introduces some basic phenomena and laws of highly ductile materials during elastoplastic deformation, and their engineering applications, such as the transfer and relief of stress concentration in the notch root, the mitigation of possible brittle fracture, the ductile deformation and damage, fatigue, energy absorption, plastic buckling, thermal stress problems, etc. It shows a number of revolutions in modern applications and design, which are beneficial to the safety of modern equipment, and improve applicability. In addition, the first three chapters of this book also briefly introduce the basic knowledge of elastoplastic deformation and analysis as a preliminary knowledge. This book can be used as a textbook for advanced undergraduate students and postgraduate in non-mechanics majors such as mechanical engineering, power, material or civil engineering, as well as scholars and engineers in related fields.
This work presents an extensive experimental characterisation of two different ceramic brick blocks with different interface, at different heights, during the drying process. First, a laboratory characterization of the building material used (ceramic bricks and different mortars) is presented, showing their hygrothermal, mechanical and thermal properties, namely, bulk porosity and density, water vapour permeability, capillary absorption, retention curve, moisture diffusivity as a function of moisture content and thermal conductivity. Moreover, the moisture transfer in multi-layered systems was analysed in detail taking into account the interface contact between the building elements.
Fault detection and identification (FDI) play a fundamental role in most modern industrial systems and processes. They are essential in ensuring safe and reliable operation. In this book, Chapter One and Chapter Two discuss general systems and the use of linearisations for active fault detection in nonlinear differential algebraic equations. Chapter Three provides a comparative analysis and comprehensive review of the existing fault detection methods, including manual picking and computer-aided automatic/semi-automatic extraction. Chapter Four studies self-adaptive expert systems for process monitoring and fault detection. The final chapter provides a review of an integrated Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) system for HVAC&R based on virtual sensors.
This comprehensive book reports on recent investigations of lattice imperfections in semiconductors by means of positron annihilation. It reviews positron techniques, and describes the application of these techniques to various kinds of defects, such as vacancies, impurity vacancy complexes and dislocations.
This book is devoted to the development of the shape memory materials and their applications. It covers many aspects of smart materials. It also describes the method on how we can obtain not only large recovery strains but also high recovery stress, energy storage and energy dissipation in applications. This volume treats the mechanical properties of shape memory alloys, shape memory polymers and the constitutive equations of the materials which are necessary to design the shape memory elements in applications. It also deals with the fatigue properties of materials, the method to design the shape memory elements, and the shape memory composites. The authors are international experts on shape memory alloys and shape memory polymers in the metallurgical, chemical, mechanical and engineering fields. The book will be of interest to graduate students, engineers, scientists and designers who are working in the field of electric and mechanical engineering, industries, medical engineering, aerospace engineering, robots, automatic machines, clothes and recycling for research, design and manufacturing.
This book expands on the subject matter of 'Computational Electromagnetics and Model-Based Inversion: A Modern Paradigm for Eddy-Current Nondestructive Evaluation.' It includes (a) voxel-based inversion methods, which are generalizations of model-based algorithms; (b) a complete electromagnetic model of advanced composites (and other novel exotic materials), stressing the highly anisotropic nature of these materials, as well as giving a number of applications to nondestructive evaluation; and (c) an up-to-date discussion of stochastic integral equations and propagation-of-uncertainty models in nondestructive evaluation. As such, the book combines research started twenty-five years ago in advanced composites and voxel-based algorithms, but published in scattered journal articles, as well as recent research in stochastic integral equations. All of these areas are of considerable interest to the aerospace, nuclear power, civil infrastructure, materials characterization and biomedical industries. The book covers the topic of computational electromagnetics in eddy-current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) by emphasizing three distinct topics: (a) fundamental mathematical principles of volume-integral equations as a subset of computational electromagnetics, (b) mathematical algorithms applied to signal-processing and inverse scattering problems, and (c) applications of these two topics to problems in which real and model data are used. It is therefore more than an academic exercise and is valuable to users of eddy-current NDE technology in industries as varied as nuclear power, aerospace, materials characterization and biomedical imaging.
This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in vehicle engineering, mechanical engineering, especially in the field of advanced manufacturing technology. The book also provides a useful reference for other new technology related temperature and phase transformation, such as aluminum-magnesium alloy hot stamping.
This book deals with the application of techniques and methods of chemical analysis for the study of biomass and its conversion processes, aiming to fill the current gap in the book literature on the subject. The use of various techniques and analytical methods is presented and discussed in a straightforward manner, providing the reader with the possibility of choosing the most appropriate methodologies for analysis of the major classes of plant biomass and its products. In the present volume, a select group of international specialists describes different approaches to understand the biomass structure, their physical and chemical properties, the parameters of conversion processes, the products and by-products formation and quantification, quality parameters, etc. Modern chemistry plays a strong economic role in industrial activities based on biomass, with an increasing trend of the importance of its application from the deployment of biorefineries and the principles of green chemistry, which make use of the potential of biomass with decreasing impact negative environmental. In this context, analytical chemistry can contribute significantly to the supply chains of biomass, be it plant or animal origin; however, with the first offering the greatest challenges and the greatest opportunity for technical, scientific and economic progress, given its diversified chemical constitution. Thus, the chemical analysis can be used to examine the composition for characterizing physicochemical properties and to monitor their conversion processes, in order to obtain better products and uses of biomass. The quality of the biomass used determines the product quality. Therefore, reliable information is required about the chemical composition of the biomass to establish the best use (e.g., most suitable conversion process and its conditions), which will influence harvest and preparation steps. Conversion processes should be monitored for their yield, integrity, safety, and environmental impact. Effluent or residues should be monitored and analyzed for environmental control. Co-products need to be monitored to avoid interference with the product yield and product purity; however, co-products are also a good opportunity to add value to the biomass chain. Finally, products need to be monitored and analyzed to determine their yields and purity and to ensure their quality. In this context, analytical chemistry can contribute significantly to the biomass supply chains, be it of plant or animal origin.
This book covers a variety of topics in mechanics, with a special emphasis on material mechanics. It reports on fracture mechanics, fatigue of materials, stress-strain behaviours, as well as transferability problems and constraint effects in fracture mechanics. It covers different kind of materials, from metallic materials such as ferritic and austenitic steels, to composites, concrete, polymers and nanomaterials. Additional topics include heat transfer, quality control and reliability of structures and components. Furthermore, the book gives particular attention to new welding technologies such as STIR welding and spray metal coating, and to novel methods for quality control, such as Taguchi design, fault diagnosis and wavelet analysis. Based on the 2015 edition of the Algerian Congress of Mechanics (Congres Algerien de Mecanique, CAM), the book also covers energetics, in terms of simulation of turbulent reactive flow, behaviour of supersonic jet, turbulent combustion, fire induced smoke layer, and heat and mass transfer, as well as important concepts related to human reliability and safety of components and structures. All in all, the book represents a complete, practice-oriented reference guide for both academic and professionals in the field of mechanics.
This book focuses on the latest scientific and technological advancements in the field of railway turnout engineering. It offers a holistic approach to the scientific investigation of the factors and mechanisms determining performance degradation of railway switches and crossings (S&Cs), and the consequent development of condition monitoring systems that will enable infrastructure managers to transition towards the implementation of predictive maintenance. The book is divided into three distinct parts. Part I discusses the modelling of railway infrastructure, including switch and crossing systems, while Part II focuses on metallurgical characterization. This includes the microstructure of in-field loaded railway steel and an analysis of rail screw failures. In turn, the third and final part discusses condition monitoring and asset management. Given its scope, the book is of interest to both academics and industrial practitioners, helping them learn about the various challenges characterizing this engineering domain and the latest solutions to properly address them.
The present doctoral dissertation contributes to the analysis of glass panels subjected to blast load, concentrating on monolithic and laminated glass prior to glass fracture. A straightforward graphical solution for monolithic glass is presented to identify maximum deformation and maximum principal stress for small and large deformations for static and idealized blast load without software. On the basis of experimental tests, load duration factors kmod for impact and blast load design for annealed glass, heat strengthened glass and fully tempered glass are proposed. In addition, design strength values for impact and blast design based on the European and German standards are suggested. As a result, blast pressure capacity charts for monolithic fully tempered glass plates subjected to idealized blast load are presented. Moreover, design temperatures of interlayer in blast design situation based on empirical data in accordance with Eurocode are determined for vertical double glazed and triple glazed units for Germany, showing that laminated glass should not be regarded with monolithic glass approach in general.
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