Your cart is empty
This book is intended to provide a course of infrared spectroscopy for quantitative analysis, covering both bulk matter and surface/interface analyses. Although the technology of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was established many years ago, the full potential of infrared spectroscopy has not been properly recognized, and its intrinsic potential is still put aside. FT-IR has outstandingly useful characteristics, however, represented by the high sensitivity for monolayer analysis, highly reliable quantitativity, and reproducibility, which are quite suitable for surface and interface analysis. Because infrared spectroscopy provides rich chemical information-for example, hydrogen bonding, molecular conformation, orientation, aggregation, and crystallinity-FT-IR should be the first choice of chemical analysis in a laboratory. In this book, various analytical techniques and basic knowledge of infrared spectroscopy are described in a uniform manner. In particular, techniques for quantitative understanding are particularly focused for the reader's convenience.
This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements. The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and seismology communities. A unique feature of this book is that it presents a unified theory of imaging with phased arrays that shows how common imaging methods such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), the total focusing method (TFM), and the physical optics far field inverse scattering (POFFIS) imaging method are all simplified versions of more fundamental and quantitative imaging approaches, called imaging measurement models. To enhance learning, this book first describes the fundamentals of phased array systems using 2-D models, so that the complex 3-D cases normally found in practice can be more easily understood. In addition to giving a detailed discussion of phased array systems, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays also provides MATLAB (R) functions and scripts, allowing the reader to conduct simulations of ultrasonic phased array transducers and phased array systems with the latest modeling technology.
This monograph analyses in detail the physical aspects of the elastic waves radiation during deformation or fracture of materials. It presents the methodological bases for the practical use of acoustic emission device, and describes the results of theoretical and experimental researches of evaluation of the crack growth resistance of materials, selection of the useful AE signals. The efficiency of this methodology is shown through the diagnostics of various-purpose industrial objects. The authors obtain results of experimental researches with the help of the new methods and facilities.
This book shows impressively how complex mathematical modeling of materials can be applied to technological problems. Top-class researchers present the theoretical approaches in modern mechanics and apply them to real-world problems in solid mechanics, creep, plasticity, fracture, impact, and friction. They show how they can be applied to technological challenges in various fields like aerospace technology, biological sciences and modern engineering materials.
This volume deals with topical problems concerning technology and design in construction of modern metamaterials. The authors construct the models of mechanical, electromechanical and acoustical behavior of the metamaterials, which are founded upon mechanisms existing on micro-level in interaction of elementary structures of the material. The empiric observations on the phenomenological level are used to test the created models. The book provides solutions, based on fundamental methods and models using the theory of wave propagation, nonlinear theories and composite mechanics for media with micro- and nanostructure. They include the models containing arrays of cracks, defects, with presence of micro- and nanosize piezoelectric elements and coupled physical-mechanical fields of different nature. The investigations show that the analytical, numerical and experimental methods permit evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative properties of the materials of this sort, with diagnosis of their effective characteristics, frequency intervals of effective energetic cutting and passing, as well as effective regimes of damage evaluation by the acoustic methods.
This collection presents the papers from a symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Paper topics include the extraction and processing of elements like antimony, arsenic, calcium, chromium, hafnium, gold, indium, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, rare earth metals, rhenium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Rare processing techniques presented include bio leaching, molecular recognition technology, recovery of valuable components of commodity metals such as magnesium from laterite process wastes, titanium from ilmenites, and rare metals from wastes such as phosphors and LCD monitors.
The papers in this volume cover a broad spectrum of topics that represent the truly diverse nature of the field of composite materials. In recent years, composite materials have grown in strength, stature, and significance to become a key material of enhanced scientific interest and resultant research into understanding their behavior for selection and safe use in a wide spectrum of technology-related applications. This collection presents research and findings relevant to the latest advances in composites materials, specifically their use in aerospace, maritime, and even land applications. The editors have made every effort to bring together authors who put forth recent advances in their research while concurrently both elaborating on and thereby enhancing our prevailing understanding of the salient aspects related to the science, engineering, and far-reaching technological applications of composite materials.
Topics covered in this collection include the following: *Enabling & Understanding Sustainability - Ferrous & Non-ferrous Metals Processing *Understanding & Enabling Sustainability - (Rechargeable) Batteries *Enabling & Understanding Sustainability - Rare Earth Element Applications *Enabling & Understanding Sustainability - Building Materials & Slag Valorisation *Designing Materials and Systems for Sustainability *Understanding & Enabling Sustainability - Light Metals Recycling & Waste Valorisation *Understanding & Enabling Sustainability - Education Research Innovation I *Understanding & Enabling Sustainability - Education Research Innovation II + Electronic Equipment
This collection focuses on the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials as well as the application of characterization results on the processing of these materials. Papers cover topics such as clays, ceramics, composites, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, minerals, electronic materials, magnetic materials, environmental materials, advanced materials, and soft materials. In addition, papers covering materials extraction, materials processing, corrosion, welding, solidification, and method development are included. This book provides a current snapshot of characterization in materials science and its role in validating, informing, and driving current theories in the field of materials science. This volume will serve the dual purpose of furnishing a broad introduction of the field to novices while simultaneously serving to keep subject matter experts up-to-date.
This book covers various technological aspects of sustainable energy ecosystems and processes that improve energy efficiency, and reduce and sequestrate carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse emissions. Papers emphasize the need for sustainable technologies in extractive metallurgy, materials processing and manufacturing industries with reduced energy consumption and CO2 emission. Industrial energy efficient technologies include innovative ore beneficiation, smelting technologies, recycling, and waste heat recovery. The book also contains contributions from all areas of non-nuclear and non-traditional energy sources, including renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and biomass. Papers from the following symposia are presented in the book: Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management Recycling and Sustainability Update Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications V Sustainable Energy and Layered Double Hydroxides
The papers in this volume cover a broad spectrum of topics that represent the truly diverse nature of the field of composite materials. This collection presents research and findings relevant to the latest advances in composites materials, specifically their use in aerospace, maritime, and even land applications. The editors have made every effort to bring together authors who put forth recent advances in their research while concurrently both elaborating on and thereby enhancing our prevailing understanding of the salient aspects related to the science, engineering, and far-reaching technological applications of composite materials.
This collection focuses on all aspects of science and technology related to friction stir welding and processing.
This collection presents papers on the science, engineering, and technology of shape castings, with contributions from researchers worldwide. Among the topics that are addressed are structure-property-performance relationships, modeling of casting processes, and the effect of casting defects on the mechanical properties of cast alloys.
This collection features papers presented at the 146th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.
This thesis addresses elementary dislocation processes occurring in single-crystalline alloys based on Fe-Al, and investigates correspondences between dislocation distribution inside crystals characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface patterns observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fe-Al alloys with different degrees of ordering were prepared and deformed in compression at ambient temperature in-situ inside the AFM device. The evolution of slip line structures was captured in the sequences of AFM images and wavy slip bands, while cross slip at the tip of the slip band and homogeneous fine slip lines were also identified. Further, the thesis develops a technique for constructing 3D representations of dislocations observed by TEM without the prohibitive difficulties of tomography, and creates 3D models of dislocation structures. Generally speaking, the thesis finds good agreement between AFM and TEM observations, confirming the value of AFM as a relevant tool for studying dislocations.
The thesis investigates a polymeric laminate consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) experimentally and numerically with regard to its impact behaviour and applicability. After a basic characterization of the monolithic materials, PMMA-TPU-PMMA laminates were subjected to impact loadings at velocities up to 5 m/s using threepoint bending and dart impact tests. Based on the experimental basis, different material models for the Finite Element simulation are presented, which are able to capture the time and temperature dependent behaviour of the laminate. Final validation experiments, consisting of head-dummy impacts at 10 m/s on automotive side windows, were conducted for PMMA and the laminate in order to investigate their applicability as glass substitution products.
This collection represents a cross-section of the papers presented at the 6th International Conference on Recrystallization and Grain Growth. The volume is divided into nine sections: * Grain growth theory and simulation * Recrystallization theory and simulation * Low carbon and IF steels * High strength steels * Electrical steels * Stainless steels * Aluminum and magnesium alloys * Nickel and nickel based superalloys * Unconventional and advanced materials
This books presents a current look at friction stir welding technology from application to characterization and from modeling to R&D. It is a compilation of the recent progress relating to friction stir technologies including derivative technologies, high-temperature applications, industrial applications, dissimilar alloy/materials, lightweight alloys, simulation, and characterization. With contributions from leaders and experts in industry and academia, this will be a comprehensive source for the field of Friction Stir Welding and Processing.
This book collects the theoretical derivation of a recently presented general variational macroscopic continuum theory of multiphase poroelasticity (VMTPM), together with its applications to consolidation and stress partitioning problems of interest in several applicative engineering contexts, such as in geomechanics and biomechanics. The theory is derived based on a purely-variational deduction, rooted in the least-Action principle, by considering a minimal set of kinematic descriptors. The treatment herein considered keeps a specific focus on the derivation of most general medium-independent governing equations. It is shown that VMTPM recovers paradigms of consolidated use in multiphase poroelasticity such as Terzaghi's stress partitioning principle and Biot's equations for wave propagation. In particular, the variational treatment permits the derivation of a general medium-independent stress partitioning law, and the proposed variational theory predicts that the external stress, the fluid pressure, and the stress tensor work-associated with the macroscopic strain of the solid phase are partitioned according to a relation which, from a formal point of view, turns out to be strictly compliant with Terzaghi's law, irrespective of the microstructural and constitutive features of a given medium. Moreover, it is shown that some experimental observations on saturated sandstones, generally considered as proof of deviations from Terzaghi's law, are ordinarily predicted by VMTPM. As a peculiar prediction of VMTPM, the book shows that the phenomenon of compression-induced liquefaction experimentally observed in cohesionless mixtures can be obtained as a natural implication of this theory by a purely rational deduction. A characterization of the phenomenon of crack closure in fractured media is also inferred in terms of macroscopic strain and stress paths. Altogether the results reported in this monograph exemplify the capability of VMTPM to describe and predict a large class of linear and nonlinear mechanical behaviors observed in two-phase saturated materials.
This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.
This book addresses the need for a fundamental understanding of the physical origin, the mathematical behavior and the numerical treatment of models which include microstructure. Leading scientists present their efforts involving mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, computational mechanics, material modelling and experiment. The mathematical analyses are based on methods from the calculus of variations, while in the numerical implementation global optimization algorithms play a central role. The modeling covers all length scales, from the atomic structure up to macroscopic samples. The development of the models ware guided by experiments on single and polycrystals and results will be checked against experimental data.
The research and its outcomes presented here is devoted to the use of x-ray scattering to study correlated electron systems and magnetism. Different x-ray based methods are provided to analyze three dimensional electron systems and the structure of transition-metal oxides. Finally the observation of multipole orderings with x-ray diffraction is shown.
This book presents studies on the inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loads. It focuses on the description of new effects like purely thermal cycles or cases of non-trivial damages. The various models are based on different approaches and methods and scaling aspects are taken into account. In addition to purely phenomenological models, the book also presents mechanisms-based approaches. It includes contributions written by leading authors from a host of different countries.
The book presents interesting examples of recent developments in this area. Among the studied materials are bulk metallic glasses, metamaterials, special composites, piezoelectric smart structures, nonwovens, etc. The last decades have seen a large extension of types of materials employed in various applications. In many cases these materials demonstrate mechanical properties and performance that vary significantly from those of their traditional counterparts. Such uniqueness is sought - or even specially manufactured - to meet increased requirements on modern components and structures related to their specific use. As a result, mechanical behaviors of these materials under different loading and environmental conditions are outside the boundaries of traditional mechanics of materials, presupposing development of new characterization techniques, theoretical descriptions and numerical tools. The book presents interesting examples of recent developments in this area. Among the studied materials are bulk metallic glasses, metamaterials, special composites, piezoelectric smart structures, nonwovens, etc.
This book represents the first rigorous treatment of thermoelectrochemistry, providing an overview that will stimulate electrochemists to develop and apply modern thermoelectrochemical methods. While classical static approaches are also covered, the emphasis lies on methods that make it possible to independently vary temperature such as in-situ heating of electrodes by means of electric current, microwaves or lasers. For the first time, "hot-wire electrochemistry" is examined in detail. The theoretical background presented addresses all aspects of temperature impacts in the context of electrochemistry.
You may like...
Fatigue Design of Steel and Composite…
ECCS - European Convention Paperback R1,275 Discovery Miles 12 750
Nanocomposites VI: Nanoscience and…
T. S. Srivatsan, Manoj Gupta Hardcover R4,694 Discovery Miles 46 940
Asymptotical Mechanics of Composites…
Igor V. Andrianov, Jan Awrejcewicz, … Hardcover R3,534 Discovery Miles 35 340
Proceedings of the 18th International…
John H. Jackson, Denise Paraventi, … Hardcover R11,581 Discovery Miles 115 810
Springer Handbook of Surface Science
Mario Rocca, Talat Rahman, … Hardcover R7,078 Discovery Miles 70 780
Plastics Institute of America Plastics…
D. V Rosato, Nick R. Schott, … Paperback R23,658 Discovery Miles 236 580
Energy Materials 2017
Xingbo Liu, Zhengdong Liu, … CD-ROM R1,518 Discovery Miles 15 180
Essential Readings in Light Metals…
John Grandfield, Dmitry Eskin Hardcover R7,361 Discovery Miles 73 610
11th International Symposium on…
Zhiwei Peng, Jiann-Yang Hwang, … Hardcover R6,654 Discovery Miles 66 540
Vibration Analysis of Functionally…
Pankaj Sharma Paperback R1,523 Discovery Miles 15 230