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The new edition of this textbook presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The physics of semiconductor lasers is also described, including Einstein coefficients, stimulated emission, spontaneous emission, laser gain, double heterostructures, blue lasers, optical confinement, laser modes, and strained quantum well lasers, offering insights into the physics of various kinds of semiconductor lasers. In this third edition, energy band calculations in full band zone with spin-orbit interaction are presented, showing all the matrix elements and equipping the reader to prepare computer programs of energy band calculations. The Luttinger Hamiltonian is discussed and used to analyze the valence band structure. Numerical calculations of scattering rate, relaxation time, and mobility are presented for typical semiconductors, which are very helpful for understanding of transport. Energy band structures and effective masses of nitrides such as GaN, InN, AlN and their ternary alloys are discussed because they are very important materials for the blue light emission, and high power devices with and high frequency. Learning and teaching with this textbook is supported by problems and solutions in the end of the chapters. The book is written for bachelor and upper undergraduate students of physics and engineering.
Addresses fundamentals and advanced topics relevant to the behavior of materials under in-service conditions such as impact, shock, stress and high-strain rate deformations. Deals extensively with materials from a microstructure perspective which is the future direction of research today.
This book presents the proceedings of one of the major conferences in fatigue, fracture and structural integrity (NT2F). The papers are organized and divided in five different themes: fatigue and fracture mechanics of structures and advanced materials; fatigue and fracture in pressure vessels and pipelines: mechanical behavior and structural integrity of welded, bonded and bolted joints; residual stress and environmental effects on the fatigue behavior; and simulation methods, analytical and computation models in fatigue and fracture.
This book introduces the principles and techniques of crystal growth by the flux method, which is arguably the most useful way to obtain millimeter- to centimeter-sized single crystals for physical research. As it is possible to find an appropriate solvent ("flux") for nearly all inorganic materials, the flux method can be applied to the growth of many crystals ranging from transition metal oxides to intermetallic compounds. Both important principles and experimental procedures are described in a clear and accessible manner. Practical advice on various aspects of the experiment, which is not readily available in the literature, will assist the beginning graduate students in setting up the lab and conducting successful crystal growth. The mechanisms of crystal growth at an elementary level are also provided to better understand the techniques and to help in assessing the quality of the crystals. The book also contains many photographs of beautiful crystals with important physical properties of current interest, such as high-temperature superconductors, strongly correlated electronic systems, topological insulators, relaxor ferroelectrics, low-dimensional quantum magnets, non-linear optical materials, and multiferroics.
This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity, in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis of this book is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity. This is a compact book for a first year graduate course in viscoelasticity and modelling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is introduced as a particle-based method, relevant in modelling of complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed. The third edition has been updated and expanded with new results in the meso-scale modelling, links between the fluid modelling to its physical parameters and new matlab programs illustrating the modelling. Particle-based modelling techniques for complex-structure fluids are added together with some sample programs. A solution manual to the problems is included.
This book provides a comparison between melt electrospinning and meltblowing as techniques for the production of polypropylene nanofibers. The author compares the morphological, structural, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the different produced fibers. Moreover, the degree of thermal degradation of the different fibers is also analyzed. The book is useful to chemists and material scientists working on the synthesis of nanofibers by melt processes, showing the limitations of each technique for nanofiber fabrication.
This book highlights what is now achievable in terms of materials characterization with the new generation of cold-field emission scanning electron microscopes applied to real materials at high spatial resolution. It discusses advanced scanning electron microscopes/scanning- transmission electron microscopes (SEM/STEM), simulation and post-processing techniques at high spatial resolution in the fields of nanomaterials, metallurgy, geology, and more. These microscopes now offer improved performance at very low landing voltage and high -beam probe current stability, combined with a routine transmission mode capability that can compete with the (scanning-) transmission electron microscopes (STEM/-TEM) historically run at higher beam accelerating voltage
This book offers a snapshot of recent developments in improving the properties and performance of engineering materials and structures. It discusses modeling properties related to classical mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical fields as well as those related to surface-specific quantities (e.g. roughness, wear and modifications due to surface coatings). The material types presented range from classical metals and synthetic materials to composites. Competitiveness due to cost efficiency (e.g. lighter structures and the corresponding fuel savings for transportation systems) and sustainability (e.g. recyclability or reusability) are the driving factors for engineering developments. The outcomes of these efforts are difficult to be accurately monitored due to the ongoing evaluation cycles.
This thesis presents an experimental study of ordering phenomena in rare-earth nickelate-based heterostructures by means of inelastic Raman light scattering and elastic resonant x-ray scattering (RXS). Further, it demonstrates that the amplitude ratio of magnetic moments at neighboring nickel sites can be accurately determined by RXS in combination with a correlated double cluster model, and controlled experimentally through structural pinning of the oxygen positions in the crystal lattice. The two key outcomes of the thesis are: (a) demonstrating full control over the charge/bond and spin order parameters in specifically designed praseodymium nickelate heterostructures and observation of a novel spin density wave phase in absence of the charge/bond order parameter, which confirms theoretical predictions of a spin density wave phase driven by spatial confinement of the conduction electrons; and (b) assessing the thickness-induced crossover between collinear and non-collinear spin structures in neodymium nickelate slabs, which is correctly predicted by drawing on density functional theory.
Fracture, Fatigue, Failure and Damage Evolution, Volume 7 of the Proceedings of the 2017 SEM Annual Conference & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, the seventh volume of nine from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. Session organizers include: Jay Carroll, Shuman Xia, Allison Beese, Ryan Berke, Garrett Pataky, Samantha Daly, Kavan Hazeli, Antonios Kontsos, Omer Ozgur Capraz, Scott Grutzik, Onome Scott-Emaukpor The collection presents early findings and case studies on a wide range of areas, including: Mechanics of Energy & Energetic Materials Vibration Effects in Fracture & Fatigue Fracture & Fatigue of Additively Manufactured Materials In Situ Techniques for Fatigue & Fracture Microscale & Microstructural Effects on Mechanical Behavior Fracture & Fatigue of Composites Integration & Validation of Models with Experiments Fracture & Fatigue in Extreme Environments Novel Experimental Methods for Fatigue and Fracture Fracture of Brittle & Ductile Materials Interfacial Fracture
Professor Fenner's definitive text is now back in print, with added corrections. It serves as an introduction to finite element methods for engineering undergraduates and other students at an equivalent level. Postgraduate and practising engineers will also find it useful if they are comparatively new to finite element methods.The main emphasis is on the simplest methods suitable for solving two-dimensional continuum mechanics problems, particularly those encountered in the fields of stress analysis, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Complete FORTRAN programs are presented, described and discussed in detail, and several practical case studies serve to illustrate the methods developed in the book.Finite element methods are compared and contrasted with finite difference methods, and throughout the level of computer programming, continuum mechanics, numerical analysis, matrix algebra and other mathematics employed corresponds to that normally covered in undergraduate engineering courses.
This book represents a collection of papers presented at the 4th World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME 2017), a specialty conference organized by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). The contributions offer topics relevant to the global advancement of ICME as an engineering discipline. Topics covered include the following:ICME Success Stories and ApplicationsVerification, Validation, Uncertainty Quantification Issues and Gap AnalysisIntegration Framework and UsageAdditive ManufacturingPhase Field ModelingMicrostructure EvolutionICME Design Tools and ApplicationMechanical Performance Using Multi-Scale Modeling
This book presents a modern and unconventional introduction to anisotropy. The first part presents a general description of Anisotropic Elasticity theories while the second part focuses on the polar formalism: the theoretical bases and results are completely developed along with applications to design problems of laminated anisotropic structures. The book is based on lectures on anisotropy which have been held at Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions and are regarded as indispensable means of assistance. In this complete handbook of purified gases the physical foundations of purified gases and mixtures as well as their manufacturing, purification, analysis, storage, handling and transport are presented in a comprehensive way. This important reference work is accompanied with a large number of Data Sheets dedicated to the most important purified gases.
The Laser world consists basically of two areas, which are necessary and in many cases also sufficient for effective innovation: The right laser for the right application. For the individual application that means the determination of optimized process parameters in terms of laser power, peak power/ intensity, focus geometry and dimension, pulse length, pulse repetition rate and wavelength to name only the six most important ones. Once these parameters are identified, the corresponding Laser has to be selected on the basis of commercial availability. Obviously there is no such thing than "One Laser for all." The situation is rather comparable with electrical power, were depending on the demand of the application in terms of voltage, current and time corresponding power supplies need to be tailored, however, with the difference that in the case of the Laser the variety of parameters is even higher, thus the technology is more complex but on the other hand much more flexible in terms optimizing the source to the application.As a consequence it is suggested to generate two volumes on Lasers and Applications named "Tailored Light."
This volume features fundamental research and applications in the field of the design and application of engineering materials, predominantly within the context of mechanical engineering applications. This includes a wide range of materials engineering and technology, including metals, e.g., polymers, composites, and ceramics. Advanced applications would include manufacturing in the new or newer materials, testing methods, multi-scale experimental and computational aspects. This book features fundamental research and applications in the design of engineering materials, predominantly within the context of mechanical engineering applications such as automobile, railway, marine, aerospace, biomedical, pressure vessel technology, and turbine technology. It covers a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, composites, and ceramics. Advanced applications include the manufacturing of new materials, testing methods, multi-scale experimental and computational aspects. p>
This volume collects the papers from the World Conference on Acoustic Emission 2015 (WCAE-2015) in Hawaii. The latest research and applications of Acoustic Emission (AE) are explored, with particular emphasis on detecting and processing of AE signals, development of AE instrument and testing standards, AE of materials, engineering structures and systems, including the processing of collected data and analytical techniques as well as experimental case studies.
Characterization is an important and fundamental step in material research before and after processing. This bookfocuses on the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials as well as the application of characterization results on the processing of these materials. It is a highly authoritative collection of articles written by experts from around the world. The articles center on materials characterization, extraction, processing, corrosion, welding, solidification, and method development. In addition, articles focus on clays, ceramics, composites, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, minerals, electronic, magnetic, environmental, advanced and soft materials. This book will serve the dual purpose of furnishing a broad introduction of the field to novices while simultaneously serving to keep subject matter experts up-to-date.
This thesis presents a novel ultrasonic instrument for non-invasive and in-situ characterization of journal bearing lubricant viscosity. In particular, the application to journal bearings is described by non-invasively measuring the viscosity and localized power losses throughout operation. This ultrasonic viscometer is based on the reflection of polarized shear waves from a thin resonating coating layer to increase the measurement sensitivity, in comparison to conventional ultrasonic methods. This instrument allows for a full engine oil viscoelastic characterization in-situ. The book investigates the effects of temperature, pressure and shear rate, and describes in detail the ultrasonic setup and method. Further, it demonstrates that the same technique can be applied similarly to monitor the lubrication of other engine components. As such, it offers a unique instrument that can drive the research of oil formulations to improve engine performance and fulfill the requirements of international fuel economy regulations.
This book is intended to provide a course of infrared spectroscopy for quantitative analysis, covering both bulk matter and surface/interface analyses. Although the technology of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was established many years ago, the full potential of infrared spectroscopy has not been properly recognized, and its intrinsic potential is still put aside. FT-IR has outstandingly useful characteristics, however, represented by the high sensitivity for monolayer analysis, highly reliable quantitativity, and reproducibility, which are quite suitable for surface and interface analysis. Because infrared spectroscopy provides rich chemical information-for example, hydrogen bonding, molecular conformation, orientation, aggregation, and crystallinity-FT-IR should be the first choice of chemical analysis in a laboratory. In this book, various analytical techniques and basic knowledge of infrared spectroscopy are described in a uniform manner. In particular, techniques for quantitative understanding are particularly focused for the reader's convenience.
This collection focuses on energy efficient technologies including innovative ore beneficiation, smelting technologies, recycling and waste heat recovery. The volume also covers various technological aspects of sustainable energy ecosystems, processes that improve energy efficiency, reduce thermal emissions, and reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse emissions. Papers addressing renewable energy resources for metals and materials production, waste heat recovery and other industrial energy efficient technologies, new concepts or devices for energy generation and conversion, energy efficiency improvement in process engineering, sustainability and life cycle assessment of energy systems, as well as the thermodynamics and modeling for sustainable metallurgical processes are included. This volume also offers topics on CO2 sequestration and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from process engineering, sustainable technologies in extractive metallurgy, as well as the materials processing and manufacturing industries with reduced energy consumption and CO2 emission. Contributions from all areas of non-nuclear and non-traditional energy sources, such as solar, wind, and biomass are also included in this volume.Papers from the following symposia are presented in the book:Energy TechnologiesAdvances in Environmental Technologies: Recycling and Sustainability Joint SessionDeriving Value from Challenging Waste Materials: Recycling and Sustainability Joint SessionSolar Cell Silicon
This collection gives broad and up-to-date results in the research and development of materials characterization and processing. Coverage is well-rounded from minerals, metals, and materials characterization and developments in extraction to the fabrication and performance of materials. In addition, topics as varied as structural steels to electronic materials to plant-based composites are explored. The latest research presented in this wide area make this book both timely and relevant to the materials science field as a whole. The book explores scientific processes to characterize materials using modern technologies, and focuses on the interrelationships and interdependence among processing, structure, properties, and performance of materials. Topics covered include ferrous materials, non-ferrous materials, minerals, ceramics, clays, soft materials, method development, processing, corrosion, welding, solidification, composites, extraction, powders, nanomaterials, advanced materials, and several others.
The thesis investigates a polymeric laminate consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) experimentally and numerically with regard to its impact behaviour and applicability. After a basic characterization of the monolithic materials, PMMA-TPU-PMMA laminates were subjected to impact loadings at velocities up to 5 m/s using threepoint bending and dart impact tests. Based on the experimental basis, different material models for the Finite Element simulation are presented, which are able to capture the time and temperature dependent behaviour of the laminate. Final validation experiments, consisting of head-dummy impacts at 10 m/s on automotive side windows, were conducted for PMMA and the laminate in order to investigate their applicability as glass substitution products.
This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements. The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and seismology communities. A unique feature of this book is that it presents a unified theory of imaging with phased arrays that shows how common imaging methods such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), the total focusing method (TFM), and the physical optics far field inverse scattering (POFFIS) imaging method are all simplified versions of more fundamental and quantitative imaging approaches, called imaging measurement models. To enhance learning, this book first describes the fundamentals of phased array systems using 2-D models, so that the complex 3-D cases normally found in practice can be more easily understood. In addition to giving a detailed discussion of phased array systems, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays also provides MATLAB (R) functions and scripts, allowing the reader to conduct simulations of ultrasonic phased array transducers and phased array systems with the latest modeling technology.
This book shows impressively how complex mathematical modeling of materials can be applied to technological problems. Top-class researchers present the theoretical approaches in modern mechanics and apply them to real-world problems in solid mechanics, creep, plasticity, fracture, impact, and friction. They show how they can be applied to technological challenges in various fields like aerospace technology, biological sciences and modern engineering materials.
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