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This book offers essential insights into c-Si based solar cells and fundamentals of reflection, refraction, and light trapping. The basic physics and technology for light trapping in c-Si based solar cells are covered, from traditional to advanced light trapping structures. Further, the book discusses the latest developments in plasmonics for c-Si solar cell applications, along with their future scope and the requirements for further research. The book offers a valuable guide for graduate students, researchers and professionals interested in the latest trends in solar cell technologies.
Hands-on guide for scientists and engineers on how to use SQUID technology This practical book covers SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) readout electronics and magnetometric systems. It illustrates their many practical applications in measuring extremely subtle magnetic fields and shows how the technique is developing into an enabling technology for many applications, such as biomagnetic imaging and geophysical prospecting. Clear and comprehensive, the book builds a bridge for scientists and engineers to fill in potential know-how gaps for all who work on SQUID systems and their practical applications. It helps make key words like readout electronics, flux quantization, Josephson effects, and noise contributions completely understandable to all who design and use simple and robust SQUID systems. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, SQUID Readout Electronics and Magnetometric Systems for Practical Applications offers in-depth chapter coverage of: Josephson junctions; dc SQUID's I-V characteristics and its bias modes; functions of the SQUID's readout electronics; direct readout scheme (DRS); SQUID magnetometry system and SQUID parameters; flux modulation scheme (FMS); and flux feedback concepts and parallel feedback circuit. Other sections examine: analyses of the series feedback coil (circuit) (SFC); weakly damped SQUID; two-stage and double relaxation oscillation readout schemes; and radio-frequency (rf) SQUID. - Provides a unique view of how simplicity and robustness are crucial for practical SQUID systems in applications - Focuses on the readout electronics of SQUID systems, particularly the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems - Helps materials scientists, physicists, and engineers overcome various major know-how barriers in order to understand the important challenges and to design practical SQUID systems - Largely documents the joint achievements accomplished in the cooperation between SIMIT and FZJ in the field of superconducting electronics SQUID Readout Electronics and Magnetometric Systems for Practical Applications is an excellent book for all materials scientists, electrical engineers, and physicists who can benefit from SQUID systems and their applications. It will also be of great benefit to analytical laboratories in industry, manufacturers of laboratory equipment, and systems engineers.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of a series of bismuth oxyhalide compounds of BiOX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), in terms of their microstructure, electronic/band structure, preparation techniques, optical properties and their applications. The book brings together, for the first time, a compilation of advances in this area, including results achieved at the authors' lab (such as ultra-microscopy characterization by means of aberration-corrected STEM), offering a valuable guide for researchers and students alike.
Fully Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator provides an in-depth presentation of the fundamental and pragmatic concepts of this increasingly important technology. There are two main technologies in the marketplace of advanced CMOS circuits: FinFETs and fully depleted silicon-on-insulators (FD-SOI). The latter is unchallenged in the field of low-power, high-frequency, and Internet-of-Things (IOT) circuits. The topic is very timely at research and development levels. Compared to existing books on SOI materials and devices, this book covers exhaustively the FD-SOI domain. Fully Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator is based on the expertise of one of the most eminent individuals in the community, Dr. Sorin Cristoloveanu, an IEEE Andrew Grove 2017 award recipient "For contributions to silicon-on-insulator technology and thin body devices." In the book, he shares key insights on the technological aspects, operation mechanisms, characterization techniques, and most promising emerging applications. Early praise for Fully Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator "It is an excellent written guide for everyone who would like to study SOI deeply, specially focusing on FD-SOI." --Dr. Katsu Izumi, Formerly at NTT Laboratories and then at Osaka Prefecture University, Japan "FDSOI technology is poised to catch an increasingly large portion of the semiconductor market. This book fits perfectly in this new paradigm [...] It covers many SOI topics which have never been described in a book before." --Professor Jean-Pierre Colinge, Formerly at TSMC and then at CEA-LETI, Grenoble, France "This book, written by one of the true experts and pioneers in the silicon-on-insulator field, is extremely timely because of the growing footprint of FD-SOI in modern silicon technology, especially in IoT applications. Written in a delightfully informal style yet comprehensive in its coverage, the book describes both the device physics underpinning FD-SOI technology and the cutting-edge, perhaps even futuristic devices enabled by it." --Professor Alexander Zaslavsky, Brown University, USA "A superbly written book on SOI technology by a master in the field." --Professor Yuan Taur, University of California, San Diego, USA "The author is a world-top researcher of SOI device/process technology. This book is his masterpiece and important for the FD-SOI archive. The reader will learn much from the book." --Professor Hiroshi Iwai, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan From the author "It is during our global war against the terrifying coalition of corona and insidious computer viruses that this book has been put together. Continuous enlightenment from FD-SOI helped me cross this black and gray period. I shared a lot of myself in this book. The rule of the game was to keep the text light despite the heavy technical content. There are even tentative FD-SOI hieroglyphs on the front cover, composed of curves discussed in the book."
Plasmonics is an important branch of optics concerned with the interaction of metals with light. Under appropriate illumination, metal nanoparticles can exhibit enhanced light absorption, becoming nanosources of heat that can be precisely controlled. This book provides an overview of the exciting new field of thermoplasmonics and a detailed discussion of its theoretical underpinning in nanophotonics. This topic has developed rapidly in the last decade, and is now a highly-active area of research due to countless applications in nanoengineering and nanomedicine. These important applications include photothermal cancer therapy, drug and gene delivery, nanochemistry and photothermal imaging. This timely and self-contained text is suited to all researchers and graduate students working in plasmonics, nano-optics and thermal-induced processes at the nanoscale.
Design and build awesome audio amps. Amateur and professional audiophiles alike can now design and construct superior quality amplifiers at a fraction of comparable retail prices with step-by-step instruction from the High-Power audio Amplifier Construction Manual. Randy Slone, professional audio writer and electronics supply marketer, delivers the nuts-and-bolts know-how you need to optimize performance for any audio system--from home entertainment to musical instrument to sound stage. Build a few simple projects or delve into the physics of audio amplifier operation and design. This easy to understand guide walks you through: Building the optimum audio power supply; Audio amplifier power supplies and construction: Amplifier and loudspeaker protection methods; Stability, distortion, and performance; Audio amplifier cookbook designs; Construction techniques; Diagnostic equipment and testing procedures; Output stage configurations, classes, and device types; Crossover distortion physics; Mirror-image input stage topologies.
This comprehensive and accessible text teaches the fundamentals of digital communication via a top-down-reversed approach, specifically formulated for a one-semester course. The unique approach focuses on the transmission problem and develops knowledge of receivers before transmitters. In doing so it cuts straight to the heart of the digital communication problem, enabling students to learn quickly, intuitively, and with minimal background knowledge. Beginning with the decision problem faced by a decoder and going on to cover receiver designs for different channels, hardware constraints, design trade-offs, convolutional coding, Viterbi decoding, and passband communication, detail is given on system-level design as well as practical applications in engineering. All of this is supported by numerous worked examples, homework problems, and MATLAB simulation exercises to aid self-study, providing a solid basis for students to specialize in the field of digital communication and making it suitable for both traditional and flipped classroom teaching.
This book deals with a new class of magnetic materials, spin ice. Spin ice has become the canonical example of modern frustrated magnetism where competing interactions between spins set the rules for an emergent magnetostatic gauge field theory. Excitations take the form of magnetic monopoles or can condense via a Higgs mechanism. Beyond classical spin ice, the book describes the new physics emerging when quantum coherence (spin liquids, photon-like excitations) and itinerant electrons (anomalous Hall effect) are included in artificial systems. This first book dedicated to spin ice is a review of the current understanding of the field, both on the theoretical and experimental levels, written by leading experts. The book is written in a linear way with very few prerequisites. It also contains textbook-like descriptions of theoretical methods to help advanced students and researchers to enter the field.
This book features chapters based on lectures presented by world-leading researchers of photon science from Russia and Japan at the first "STEPS Symposium on Photon Science" held in Tokyo in March 2015. It describes recent progress in the field of photon science, covering a wide range of interest to experts in the field, including laser-plasma interaction, filamentation and its applications, laser assisted electron scattering, exotic properties of light, ultrafast imaging, molecules and clusters in intense laser fields, photochemistry and spectroscopy of novel materials, laser-assisted material synthesis, and photon technology.
This book provides a broad examination of redox-based resistive switching memories (ReRAM), a promising technology for novel types of nanoelectronic devices, according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, and the materials and physical processes used in these ionic transport-based switching devices. It covers defect kinetic models for switching, ReRAM deposition/fabrication methods, tuning thin film microstructures, and material/device characterization and modeling. A slate of world-renowned authors address the influence of type of ionic carriers, their mobility, the role of the local and chemical composition and environment, and facilitate readers' understanding of the effects of composition and structure at different length scales (e.g., crystalline vs amorphous phases, impact of extended defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries). ReRAMs show outstanding potential for scaling down to the atomic level, fast operation in the nanosecond range, low power consumption, and non-volatile storage. The book is ideal for materials scientists and engineers concerned with novel types of nanoelectronic devices such as memories, memristors, and switches for logic and neuromorphic computing circuits beyond the von Neumann concept.
This book brings together a collection of chapters that focus on the relationship among electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties and the study of adjusting one property through the control of another, namely, Electro-Chemo-Mechanics (ECM). The authors examine how this relationship can result in beneficial properties, such as mixed ionic and electronic conductivity, in oxides, upon oxygen deficiency or lithium insertion (electro-chemo) and/or changes in ionic and electronic mobility observed in strained systems (electro-mechano). They also consider how ECM interactions can be responsible for large stresses from non-stoichiometry induced lattice dilation (chemo-mechano). While many volumes are available devoted to the study of the origins and characteristics of electro-chemical relationships, they form the well-known field of electrochemistry, this volume is highly novel in its examination of the corresponding electro-mechanical, chemo-mechanical, and electro-chemo-mechanical relationships. The book is ideal for researchers and design engineers interested in energy storage and conversion and the electrical and mechanical properties of materials.
Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP), Second Edition provides the latest information on a mainstream process that is critical for high-volume, high-yield semiconductor manufacturing, and even more so as device dimensions continue to shrink. The second edition includes the recent advances of CMP and its emerging materials, methods, and applications, including coverage of post-CMP cleaning challenges and tribology of CMP. This important book offers a systematic review of fundamentals and advances in the area. Part one covers CMP of dielectric and metal films, with chapters focusing on the use of current and emerging techniques and processes and on CMP of various materials, including ultra low-k materials and high-mobility channel materials, and ending with a chapter reviewing the environmental impacts of CMP processes. New content addressed includes CMP challenges with tungsten, cobalt, and ruthenium as interconnect and barrier films, consumables for ultralow topography and CMP for memory devices. Part two addresses consumables and process control for improved CMP and includes chapters on CMP pads, diamond disc pad conditioning, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for characterization of surface processes and approaches for defection characterization, mitigation, and reduction. Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP), Second Edition is an invaluable resource and key reference for materials scientists and engineers in academia and R&D.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in laser techniques for micro-nano-manufacturing and an in-depth analysis of applications, such as 3D printing and nanojoining. Lasers have gained increasing significance as a precise tool for advanced manufacturing. Written by world leading scientists, the first part of the book presents the fundamentals of laser interaction with materials at the micro- and nanoscale, including multiphoton excitation and nonthermal melting, and allows readers to better understand advanced processing. In the second part, the authors focus on various advanced fabrications, such as laser peening, surface nanoengineering, and plasmonic heating. Finally, case studies are devoted to special applications, such as 3D printing, microfluidics devices, energy devices, and plasmonic and photonic waveguides. This book integrates both theoretical and experimental analysis. The combination of tutorial chapters and concentrated case studies will be critically attractive to undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the relevant fields. Readers will grasp the full picture of the application of laser for micro-nanomanufacturing and 3D printing.
This book deals with the synthesis of nanomaterials with a strong focus on the underlying reaction kinetics and various synthesis mechanisms. It gives a detailed description of all major synthesis routes of many types of novel nanomaterials including nanowires, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor nanotubes, carbon nanobelts, nanofibers, nanorings, nanodots and quantum dots. In addition, it articulates the fundamental mechanisms of nanomaterials synthesis via vapor-phase, liquid-phase and solid-phase processes, highlighting the various strengths and weaknesses of each mechanism. This monograph provides the reader with a thorough review of the known state-of-the-art, along with a detailed comparison and analysis of all possible nanomaterials synthesis mechanisms. An important element of the book is how to obtain critical knowledge for controlling the morphology of nanomaterials and thereby fine tune their materials properties. The book is an ideal guide for graduate students and researchers new to the field seeking to establish or enhance their understanding of the physical and chemical fundamentals of nanomaterials synthesis mechanisms.
This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems
Switchmode RF and Microwave Power Amplifiers, Third Edition is an essential reference book on developing RF and microwave switchmode power amplifiers. The book combines theoretical discussions with practical examples, allowing readers to design high-efficiency RF and microwave power amplifiers on different types of bipolar and field-effect transistors, design any type of high-efficiency switchmode power amplifiers operating in Class D or E at lower frequencies and in Class E or F and their subclasses at microwave frequencies with specified output power, also providing techniques on how to design multiband and broadband Doherty amplifiers using different bandwidth extension techniques and implementation technologies. This book provides the necessary information to understand the theory and practical implementation of load-network design techniques based on lumped and transmission-line elements. It brings a unique focus on switchmode RF and microwave power amplifiers that are widely used in cellular/wireless, satellite and radar communication systems which offer major power consumption savings.
PEDOT is currently the most widely used polymeric material in research and development. Over the past 10 years, PEDOT has been investigated for potential organic thermoelectric applications because of its superior thermoelectric and mechanical properties compared with other conductive polymers. However, many challenges remain to be solved before it is translated into key technologies. Advanced PEDOT Thermoelectric Materials summarizes current progress and the challenges of PEDOT thermoelectric materials, while clarifying directions for future development. This book provides a comprehensive overview of chemical, physical, and technical information about this organic thermoelectric polymer. The authors also give details about the theoretical basis of PEDOT, including preparation and characterization, and its development as a high-performance thermoelectric material.
Functional Tactile Sensors: Materials, Devices and Integrations focuses on the subject of novel materials design and device integration of tactile sensors for functional applications. The book addresses the design, materials characteristics, device operation principles, specialized device application and mechanisms of the latest reported tactile sensors. The emphasis of the book lies in the materials science aspects of tactile sensors-understanding the relationship between material properties and device performance. It will be an ideal resource for researchers working in materials science, engineering and physics.
About the Book: Prepare for Microsoft Exam 70-743-and demonstrate that your skills are upgraded for Windows Server 2016. Designed for experienced IT pros ready to advance their status, this Exam Ref focuses on the critical-thinking and decision-making acumen needed for success at the MCSA level. Focus on the skills measured on the exam: * Install Windows servers in host and compute environments * Implement storage solutions * Implement Hyper-V * Implement Windows containers * Implement high availability * Implement Domain Name System (DNS) * Implement IP Address Management (IPAM) * Implement network connectivity and remote access solutions * Implement an advanced network infrastructure * Install and configure Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) * Implement identity federation and access solutions This Microsoft Exam Ref: * Organizes its coverage by the "Skills measured" posted on the exam webpage * Features strategic, what-if scenarios to challenge you * Points to in-depth material by topic for exam candidates needing additional review * Assumes you are an IT pro looking to validate your skills in and knowledge of installing and configuring Windows Server 2016
This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is possible on the basis of modern characterization methods of nanostructures, such as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. A high level of complexity is demonstrated to be needed for a dedicated theoretical model to adequately represent the specific features of quantum rings. The findings presented in this book contribute to develop low-cost high-performance electronic, spintronic, optoelectronic and information processing devices based on quantum rings.
This book is devoted to a thorough investigation of the physics and applications of the vacuum arc - a highly-ionized metallic plasma source used in a number of applications - with emphasis on cathode spot phenomena and plasma formation. The goal is to understand the origins and behavior of the various complex and sometimes mysterious phenomena involved in arc formation, such as cathode spots, electrode vaporization, and near-electrode plasma formation. The book takes the reader from a model of dense cathode plasma based on charge-exchange ion-atom collisions through a kinetic approach to cathode vaporization and on to metal thermophysical properties of cathodes. This picture is further enhanced by an in-depth study of cathode jets and plasma acceleration, the effects of magnetic fields on cathode spot behavior, and electrical characteristics of arcs and cathode spot dynamics. The book also describes applications to space propulsion, thin film deposition, laser plasma generation, and magnetohydrodynamics, making this comprehensive and up-to-date volume a valuable resource for researchers in academia and industry.
Winner, 2013 PROSE Award, Engineering and Technology Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IRE electron devices committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field. * Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society * Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community * A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms * Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists; circuit designers; Masters students in power electronics; and members of the IEEE Electron Device Society.
This significantly extended second edition addresses the important physical phenomenon of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) or Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP) in thin metal films, a phenomenon which is exploited in the design of a large variety of physico-chemical optical sensors. In this treatment, crucial materials aspects for design and optimization of SPR sensors are investigated and described in detail. The text covers a selection of nanometer thin metal films, ranging from free-electron to the platinum-type conductors, along with their combination with a large variety of dielectric substrate materials, and associated individual layer and opto-geometric arrangements. Whereas the first edition treated solely the metal-liquid interface, the SP-resonance conditions considered here are expanded to cover the metal-gas interface in the angular and wavelength interrogation modes, localized and long-range SP's and the influence of native oxidic ad-layers in the case of non-noble metals. Furthermore, a selection of metal grating structures that allow SP excitation is presented, as are features of radiative SP's. Finally, this treatise includes as-yet hardly explored SPR features of selected metal-metal and metal-dielectric superlattices. An in-depth multilayer Fresnel evaluation provides the mathematical tool for this optical analysis, which otherwise relies solely on experimentally determined electro-optical materials parameters.
This book provides an overview of the current state of the art in novel piezo-composites based on ferroelectrics. Covering aspects ranging from theoretical materials simulation and manufacturing and characterization methods, to the application and performance of these materials, it focuses on the optimization of the material parameters. Presenting the latest findings on modern composites and highlighting the applications of piezoelectric materials for sensors, transducers and hydro-acoustics, the book addresses an important gap in the physics of active dielectrics and materials science and describes new trends in the research on ferroelectric composites.
Organic Ferroelectric Materials and Applications aims to bring an up-to date account of the field with discussion of recent findings. This book presents an interdisciplinary resource for scientists from both academia and industry on the science and applications of molecular organic piezo- and ferroelectric materials. The book addresses the fundamental science of ferroelectric polymers, molecular crystals, supramolecular networks, and other key and emerging organic materials systems. It touches on important processing and characterization methods and provides an overview of current and emerging applications of organic piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics for electronics, sensors, energy harvesting, and biomedical technologies. Organic Ferroelectric Materials and Applications will be of special interest to those in academia or industry working in materials science, engineering, chemistry, and physics.
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