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The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate a practical technique to indicate the probability of the presence of bacterial pathogens in receiving waters. A "practical" method was defined as one that would limit the use of defined culture-based microbiological methods, and would be based on: (1) validating indicator organisms that predicted the presence of pathogens, or (2) detection of pathogens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays. The study also assessed the utility of PCR-based technology for bacterial pathogen detection with respect to technology transfer to a wider range of water and wastewater facilities.
Utilities must decide whether to modify their existing treatment practices to achieve compliance with the D/DBP regulations. A regulatory impact analysis predicted that up to 70% of large surface-water systems would need to make some treatment modifications. Meeting multiple water-quality objectives plays an important role in the decision-making process of water utilities. Utilities must meet other regulatory requirements and secondary drinking-water standards. In addition, there are operational, financial, and engineering issues that affect the selection of treatment technologies. Because of the uncertainty of how stringent certain regulations will be and the high costs of advanced treatment technologies, many utilities have implemented treatment modifications in stages. Most utilities have made treatment modifications that have been cost-effective to meet their site-specific needs and objectives, while continuing to study or implement long-term treatment changes to meet more stringent future regulations. Utilities must factor in other regulatory requirements and secondary drinking-water standards when selecting a treatment modification for compliance with the D/DBP Rule. Some utilities chose advanced treatment processes (e.g., ozonation, membranes) that would enable them to satisfy other current and anticipated future regulations or other water quality objectives. Some systems chose ozone, in part because of its ability to destroy taste-and-odor-causing contaminants. Likewise, granular activated carbon was added to filters for taste-and-odor control. In addition, space and retrofit considerations affected technology choices. Many utilities have implemented treatment modifications in stages. To meet Stage 1 of the D/DBP Rule, most utilities have made treatment modifications that have been cost-effective to meet their site-specific needs and objectives, while continuing to study or implement long-term treatment changes to meet more stringent future regulations. The major disadvantage to staged implementation was that the treatment process was re-optimized each time treatment modifications were made. However, this problem was minimized if the full range of changes in treatment was envisioned in advance and if incremental modifications were made that were part of and consistent with long-term modifications. Originally published by AwwaRF for its subscribers in 2003 This publication can be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
This research attempts to evaluate nitrification treatment performance in combined carbon/nitrogen municipal wastewater reactors using traditional physical/chemical methods and modern molecular techniques. Bench scale activated sludge reactors were operated at different SRTs under varying DO levels and temperatures over a 21-month period. Real-time PCR assays were used to determine cell concentrations of total bacterial 16S rDNA, a gross measure of biomass content, the amoA gene, a measure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and the Nitrospira 16S rDNA gene, a measure of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). As expected, gravimetric biomass and total bacterial 16S rDNA levels increased with increasing SRT. Ammonia oxidation rates and N. oligotropha-type AOB concentrations did not follow similar trends with respect to changes in SRT, temperature, and DO nor were they highly correlated. The concentration of available nitrite and SRT were positively correlated with Nitrospira cell densities, while DO concentration and temperature were negatively correlated with NOB levels. The percentage of the total population comprised of AOB and NOB obtained with the real-time PCR assays were compared to predicted values estimated from design equations using typical kinetic parameters. While the percentages of NOB measured using the real-time PCR assay corresponded very well with the predicted values, the measured percentages of AOB were much lower than those estimated from the design equations, suggesting that N. oligotropha-type AOB were not the dominant ammonia-oxidizing species in these reactors. This publication can be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
Anaerobic/aerobic (AnA) and completely aerobic (CA) laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors operating on an acetate- and casamino acids-based synthetic wastewater were used to investigate the suitability of the AnA process for treating nutrient?deficient wastewaters in plants that have stringent effluent nutrient requirements. Of particular interest is the case where phosphorus (P)-deficient wastewaters with highly variable influent COD loading are being treated to meet both effluent TSS and P limits. At a 4 d mean cell residence time, AnA activated sludge had an approx. 20% lower P requirement than CA activated sludge. The difference between the end-of-aerobic cycle polyhydroxyalkanoate and carbohydrate contents of the sludges indicated that the AnAsludge used more influent carbon than the CA sludge for synthesis of non-P-containing storage products. The nitrogen requirements of AnA sludge were similar to those of the CA sludge. The AnA and CA SBRs were subjected to three different transient influent COD loading patterns that simulated (#1) daily COD Loading fluctuations, (#2) low weekend COD loading, and (#3) extended low COD loading periods. During the Loading Pattern #1 experiment, the average effluent soluble P concentrations for the AnA and CA SBRs were 0.4 and 1.0 mgP/L respectively, and complete removal of influent acetate was observed. During the Loading Pattern #2 experiment, the average effluent soluble P concentrations for the AnA and CA SBRs were 0.3 and 0.9 mgP/L respectively, but effluent acetate was detected during the first high COD loading cycle following the low weekend COD loading period. During the Loading Pattern #3 experiment, the VSS content of both reactors dropped sharply, effluent acetate breakthrough occurred, and effluent P concentrations exceeding 1 mgP/L were detected in both the AnA and CA SBRs. Based on these findings, the AnA process has potential as a technologically and economically superior alternative for wastewater treatment plants treating P-deficient wastewasters to meet stringent effluent TSS and P limits. This publication can also be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
Biological wastewater treatment plants can be adversely affected by influent toxicity. The effects can range from poor clarifier biomass settling and elevated effluent BOD and ammonia levels to total plant kills. These problems could be minimized or eliminated if an effective method existed for continuously monitoring biological wastewater treatment plant influent for toxicity to the treatment plant microorganisms. Current influent screening methods have not been proven to be adequate for adaptation to continuous screening in the field. The primary reasons include the batch-wise nature of the assays and an inadequate correlation between the assays and plant performance. The goal of the research team was to create new bioluminescent biosensors from different types of bacteria found in biological wastewater treatment plants for the development of a multi-channel continuous monitoring system. A system built from multiple biosensors would make it possible to differentiate between potential influent toxicity effects to different classes of bacteria (such as nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria). The research team found it unexpectedly challenging to apply common microbiological transformation methods for laboratory strains to the wastewater treatment plant strains. The research team generated six new bioluminescent bioreporters from bacteria that are typical constituents of activated sludge. Of particular significance is a bioreporter developed using a Hyphomicrobium sp., which is a slow growing bacterium known to be present in significant numbers in some activated sludge plants. Of the six generated, initial bioluminescence and toxicity screening indicated that one strain (a Pseudomonad) was a particularly promising candidate due to its ease of cultivation and high light production. Further toxicity testing, however, determined that the response of the strain to 48 organic compounds and 8 metals commonly found in wastewater was similar to that of a previously created strain, Shk1 (also a Pseudomonad). Further work is therefore needed in the generation of appropriate biosensors and test conditions for populations not represented by the new heterotrophic biosensor.
This investigation reviewed and evaluated methodologies used for microbial risk assessment with respect to their applicability for reclaimed water applications. The investigation was comprised of five primary components: a comprehensive database of articles, reports and books describing microbial risk assessment methodologies was established and reviewed. Risk assessment techniques and models were identified for estimating the public health risk from exposure to microorganisms via reclaimed water applications. Two models were identified for further evaluation: a static (individual based) and a dynamic (population based). In the third component, the two models were evaluated to differentiate between the conditions under which models predict similar and substantially different estimations of risk. Through numerical simulation, exposure/pathogen combinations were identified when it may be appropriate to use the less complex, static model. Case study risk assessment scenarios demonstrated the model selection process for three realistic, yet hypothetical reclaimed water scenarios.The fourth component presents a constraint analysis for existing reuse regulations. The constraint analysis is carried out by documenting the existing reuse regulations. The constraint analysis is carried out by documenting the existing regs in three states for landscape irrigation and uses that comparison as a starting point to identify how microbial risk assessment may be useful within the context of existing and potential future water reuse regulations. The investigation concludes by identifying criteria for a computer interface that would allow regulatory and/or municipal agencies/utilities to take advantage of the analysis discussed in the report. This publication can also be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
This research focused on the use of sonication to destroy surfactants and surface tension properties in industrial wastewaters that affect traditional water treatment processes. We have investigated the sonochemical destruction of surfactants and a chelating agent to understand the release of metals from surfactants during sonication. In addition, the effects of physical properties of surfactants and the effect of ultrasonic frequency were investigated to gain an understanding of the factors affecting degradation. Successful partial or total destruction of surfactants resulting in the release of metals bound to surfactants may result in a significant cost savings of treatment plants. Sonochemical degradation of surfactants was observed to be more effective than nonsurfactant compounds. In addition, as the concentration is increased the degradation rate constant does not decrease as significantly as with nonsurfactant compounds in the NAP reactor. In fact, the total number of molecules degraded increases with concentration. The degradation of metal complexes is not as effective as in the absence of the metal. However, this is likely an artifact of the model complexing agent used at the hot bubble interface, significantly increasing ligand exchange kinetics and thus degradation of the complex. This publication can also be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
The purpose of this research project was to examine construction projects that successfully reduced Rainfall Dependent Infiltration/Inflow (RDII). The research began with a literature review of all published records describing RDII removal projects. Initially, the review identified many projects; however, subsequent evaluation of available information revealed several important realities. First, most RDII removal projects in the country go undocumented. Second, of the RDII removal project summaries that have been published, few provide good data. Third, data gathering and analyses for this report were hampered by lack of documentation, lost or unavailable monitoring data, and weaknesses in monitoring techniques. Projects with sufficient information describing the conditions before the RDII removal project received a detailed analysis. In all, the case studies from the six agencies presented in this report (1) document before-and-after RDII levels, (2) quantify the RDII reduction achieved, and (3) describe the cost-effectiveness of the removal. As more than one project was documented for some agencies, a total of 12 RDII projects received review. The projects examined include both those that ?successfully? reduced RDII and those that did not. In general, the conclusion was that utilities run the risk of not removing significant RDII unless they address private sewer laterals. The only cases examined where significant RDII was removed were those that addressed private sewers or inflow sources. A major recommendation of this report was to establish a standard reporting protocol for documenting RDII removal projects. This protocol details what specific information should be provided when documenting an RDII removal project and how to perform an evaluation of RDII removal effectiveness. The protocol touches on issues ranging from flow meter maintenance to statistical analysis of flow data. By using the proper documentation recommended in this report, communities allow others who are preparing to perform similar work to examine and utilize the results of any RDII removal project. This publication can also be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
A scientifically sound approach is needed to ensure that flushable consumer products are compatible with household plumbing fixtures, as well as wastewater collection and treatment systems. In addition to assessing disposal system compatibility, an assessment approach should also ensure that flushable consumer products do not become an aesthetic nuisance in surface waters and soil environments. This document presents an overall approach for assessing the fate and compatibility of consumer products in wastewater disposal systems. While the focus of this document is on the United States, it is believed that the conceptual approach and many of the test methods could be used to assess the compatibility of flushable consumer products in wastewater disposal systems throughout the world.
This project examined the development of ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for the protection of wildlife for mercury. Mercury is considered a serious risk to wildlife in many areas. As a result, the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative and others have developed AWQC. These AWQC have been controversial, however, because (1) the AWQC were single values that did not account for site-specific conditions; (2) derivation of the AWQC relied on a single NOAEL, and (3) the AWQC had an unknown level of conservatism because of reliance on both average and conservative assumptions and uncertainty factors. Rather than develop a single value AWQC for total mercury, we derive an AWQC model that explicitly incorporates factors controlling bioavailability, methylation rates and bioaccumulation in the aquatic environment (e.g., pH, DOC, sulfate). To derive our AWQC model, field data was collected including numerous water quality parameters and total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in whole body fish tissue from 31 lakes in Ontario and an additional 10 lakes in Nova Scotia. An independent dataset consisting of 51 water bodies in the United States was then used to confirm the validity and robustness of the AWQC model. Next we combined the results of chronic-feeding studies with similar protocols and endpoints, in a meta-analysis to derive a dose-response curve for mink exposed to mercury in the diet. Using this approach, one can derive an LD5 or other similar endpoint that can then be used as the basis for deriving -wildlife AWQC. In the final step, we used a probabilistic risk model to estimate the concentrations of methylmercury in water that would lead to levels in fish sufficient for there to be a 10% probability of exceeding the mink LD5. This analysis was repeated for various combinations of pH and DOC. The result is an AWQC model for mercury for the protection of wildlife that can be used for a variety of site-specific conditions. This publication can also be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
Rapid growth of cities and industries in China is having a dramatic impact on the environment. To counteract further decrease of water quality of rivers, lakes and groundwater bodies, an ambitious environmental remediation programme needs to be designed and brought into action. Intensive research and development activity are required to provide tailored solutions.The articles compiled in the book describe the current situation in China with respect to surface water quality and wastewater treatment, and provide results of specific research projects, leading the way to a China-specific up-to-date water treatment technology. Discussed are lessons to be learnt from the experience made in other countries, particularly with respect to regulations and management practices.
Non-potable and potable (principally in-direct potable) water reuse initiatives in the United States have faced increasing public opposition. Several high-profile initiatives have been halted after several years of planning and tremendous expenditures. To understand why the public holds the perceptions they do and what public participation options exist to address water reuse more constructively, a multidisciplinary analysis was undertaken by a team of social scientists, engineers, and water professionals. Through a comprehensive literature review, three in-depth case studies, and a 2-day interactive symposium this framework was developed for water professionals. The framework summarizes five underlying principles that contribute to shaping public perception and acts as a guide for water professionals in their selection of public outreach, education, and participation activities. Adhering to the principles outlined in this report contributes to building public confidence and trust, which in turn helps water utilities engage constructively with the public on challenging, contentious issues. The five principles are: ? Manage information for all ? Maintain individual motivation and demonstrate organizational commitment ? Promote communication and public dialog ? Ensure fair and sound decision making and decisions ? Build and maintain trust However, no checklist of "to-do's" exists for establishing public confidence and trust. Quite the opposite, this research suggests that a one-size-fits-all model cannot work because the most appropriate ways to achieve the principles can vary from case to case. Thus, the framework includes an analytical structure to assess the community in which a water reuse initiative is underway. Using diagnostic questions and analytical techniques, a comprehensive picture of the community can be generated and monitored over time. Through application of the diagnostic tools and a commitment to the principles outlined above, water professionals can build the public confidence and trust they need to engage with the public on difficult water reuse issues.
Under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), many municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities must perform Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) Testing. Regulatory agencies determine the level of compliance of each facility by making inferences about the results of these tests. There has been some concern regarding appropriate ways to integrate WET tests into NPDES permits. The central issue of this concern involves determining the relationship between WET tests and instream biological conditions. Previous research (WERF project 95-HHE-1) has examined this issue using historical data. Because of issues with data comparability, i.e. questionable data quality, and project design, results were inconclusive. This study plan was designed to collect new data on method performance for both WET and bioassessment that would help answer the outstanding question. The study plan was designed using a Data Quality Objective (DQO) approach in which DQOs and MQOs were defined. These DQOs and MQOs were characterized using technical input from many scientists from federal, state, and private organizations. It was through this effort that certain technical design issues arose that needed further investigation before implementing the definitive study. Among these issues were determining if DQOs and MQOs were achievable, and determining appropriate biological assessment methods for various ecoregions (e.g. effluent dependent streams in the arid west). In order to appropriately address these issues, it was determined that a pilot study would be implemented before the definitive study. The pilot study is designed as a one-year study in which participating facilities will perform quarterly WET tests (Ceriodaphnia, P. promelas, Selenastrum) and at least one bioassessment (macroinvertebrate, fish, algae) as well as providing other prescribed data requirements. Results of the pilot will provide answers to technique design issues and will ultimately determine the most appropriate study design for the definitive study.
The objectives of this project were to develop (1) a better understanding of the effects of storage on reclaimed water quality, (2) a methodology to help understand/predict water quality changes during storage, and (3) effective management tools for minimizing water quality problems. The research team reviewed approximately 120 published articles, conducted a gray literature survey to analyze the impact of surface storage on reclaimed water quality. The team also evaluated federal guidelines for reclaimed water and developed a brief update on what individual states are doing. It was determined that state and federal water quality objectives can be met at the treatment site. However, because of the seasonal nature of reclaimed water use, water often must be stored in open reservoirs, where changes occur that can affect water quality. The nature of these changes was evaluated, including physical, chemical, and biological processes. The research team evaluated several reservoir management strategies to improve water quality, and reviewed water quality models to assess their applicability for open reclaimed water storage reservoirs. It also developed procedures to evaluate and select management strategies and reservoir water, along with matrices to distill the information learned in the study into a useful format for risk assessors and water quality managers. These tools will enable users to readily equate their specific storage reservoirs to representative examples, and to identify actions most applicable to their specific reclaimed water systems.
Newport Bay (Orange County, California) is listed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as a water quality limited receiving water body because of sporadic exceedances of the fecal coliform water quality objectives for body contact recreation. Consistent with federal and state requirements, a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is being implemented in the watershed. The fecal coliform TMDL in Newport Bay is a phased approach for understanding and controlling the microbiological water quality in the to ensure the reasonable protection of the Bay?s beneficial uses. An important initial step within that TMDL was to assess the impairment of the body contact recreation beneficial use (REC-1) of Newport Bay receiving waters through characterizing the risk of illness associated with REC-1 exposure. A health risk assessment investigation was developed to characterize that risk. The health risk assessment investigation involved the integration of a population based model of disease transmission, a water quality modeling component necessary for estimating pathogen dose as part of the exposure assessment, and site-specific population use and receiving water data collection. The Water Environment Research Foundation funded the water quality modeling component of the health risk assessment investigation, which is the focus of this report. Also provided within this report is an overview of the health risk assessment methodology, a summary of the major findings from the risk assessment investigation, and a discussion of how the health risk methodology may be applied to other watersheds where impairment of the REC-1 beneficial use is in question. The major findings of the health risk assessment investigation indicated that (1) the risk of illness from REC-1 use in Newport Bay, estimated using two separate methods was generally below levels considered tolerable by US EPA, and (2) the reduction of controllable sources of pollution would not appreciably reduce the existing risk. Based on the collection of site-specific exposure data and the health risk characterization, it was determined that evaluating the impairment of the REC-1 beneficial use requires a more rigorous and comprehensive health based approach than that prescribed by the current regulations for recreational waters.
During wet weather events, separate and combined wastewater collection systems deliver substantial amounts of storm water runoff to wastewater treatment plants. Often these flows inundate collection systems and treatment works creating bypasses of untreated or partially treated wastewater. The federal Clean Water Act (CWA), its amendments, and associated regulations have been attempting to address these concerns for nearly 30 years. These regulations, coupled with the wastewater treatment standards under the CWA, are posing immense challenges to the owner/operators of wastewater systems, who are also driven to provide the most cost-effective service to customers. This project (WERF Project 00-CTS-6, "Best Practices for the Treatment of Wet Weather Wastewater Flows") undertook a review of currently available technologies to improve the performance and efficiency of wet weather wastewater treatment and also identified potentially beneficial technologies and methodologies that are emerging in this area. The project report includes the types and characteristics of current technologies and methodologies available to ensure treatment of wet weather wastewater flows. The following are the categories of technologies are assessed in report: vortex separation, enhanced clarification, operational enhancements, flushing systems, and disinfection.
Process Science and Engineering for Water and Wastewater Treatment is the first in a new series of distance learning course books from IWA Publishing. The new series intends to help readers become familiar with design, operation and management of water and wastewater treatment processes without having to refer to any other texts. Process engineering is considered fundamental to successful water and wastewater treatment and Process Science and Engineering for Water and Wastewater Treatment provides the fundamental chemistry, biology and engineering knowledge needed to learn and understand the underlying scientific principles directly relevant to water and wastewater treatment processes. Units in the text covering chemistry and biology include: fundamentals of water chemistry; chemical kinetics and equilibria; colloid and surface chemistry; fundamentals of microbiology; fundamentals biochemistry and microbial kinetics. The concept of Process Engineering is introduced through units on: mass and heat balances; mass and heat transfer; reactor design theory; engineering hydraulics and particle settlement. The text is designed for individual study at the learner?s own pace. Each section contains multiple features to aid learning, including: boxes highlighting key learning points exercises and problems with fully worked solutions to help the reader test their understanding as they progress through the text a comprehensive set of self-assessment questions (with answers) at the end of each unit Designed as a starting point for the other books in the Water and Wastewater Process Technologies Series, this book also provides a self-contained course of learning in the science and engineering for water and wastewater treatment processes. It forms part of the Masters degree programme taught in the School of Water Sciences at Cranfield University, UK.
Oil Spill Dispersants: Mechanisms of Action and Laboratory Tests
provides a comprehensive summary of current information available
regarding the general formulation of commercial dispersants and
their function to lower oil-water interfacial tension. The book
considers how chemical dispersants work for oil spills, the
properties and chemistry of oils (including weathering state), the
variables that affect dispersant performance, and the relationships
between laboratory methods and field situations.
This chapters in this book highlight the breadth of smart water technologies and applications. From the use of classical machine learning and data transformation methods for process improvement, to data management and assimilation in models for better monitoring control, a selection of these chapters describes the acquisition and preparation of data as an initial step in its use as part of a digital framework for smart water applications. Importantly, several chapters examine the use of smart tools and contemporary AI technologies, such as neural networks and Internet of Things, that demonstrate value in non-conventional or remote environments. This collection demonstrates the innovation possible through the entire 'pipeline' of the process of applying smart water techniques, from data measurement and collection, through initial analysis to the application of machine learning and AI techniques and finally through to system deployment. Each of these steps plays an important role in the application of data science and AI techniques to water problems. Collectively, the book showcases the innovation required to leverage modern data science and AI approaches in the water sector and collectively point the way towards a future of new measurement techniques, innovative methodologies, and intuitive human interaction to truly 'Make Water Smart'. In Focus - a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.
Water utilities of all sizes find this guidebook very helpful as they assess and upgrade the physical and operational security of their systems. This book describes measures a water utility can take for better security against man-made threats. It covers: * emergency preparedness plans * vulnerability assessments * mitigation measures for critical components * emergency response and recovery * crisis communicationsSupplied forms include security checklist, system component list, potential biological and chemical threats, emergency contacts, and more. Forms are provided in print and on an enclosed CD-ROM.
Improving and managing universal services of water and sanitation in a holistic manner is critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, and addressing the needs of millions of people around the world. Ensuring access to water services is a key factor in working towards the SDGs, and water service delivery planning can support utilities in improving provision of these services. A service delivery plan identifies the actions required and associated costs for achieving a defined level of water services delivery over a defined period of time. This publications is a guideline or how-to manual on preparing water service delivery plans with a focus on small to medium sized organised water utilities having with approximately 5,000 to over 100,000 connections mainly in areas with limited capacity and resources. The manual is simplified enough to ensure that these utilities are able to move from a situation where they are struggling to deliver water services to where basic service levels in terms of water quality, quantity, accessibility, reliability, affordability, and acceptability are met. Meeting these basic service levels provides a strong foundation for the utility to progressively move up the ladder of delivering improved services.
The book aims to provide a comprehensive view of advanced environmental approaches for wastewater treatment, heavy metal removal, pesticide degradation, dye removal, waste management, microbial transformation of environmental contaminants etc. With advancements in the area of Environmental Biotechnology, researchers are looking for the new opportunities to improve quality standards and environment. Recent technologies have given impetus to the possibility of using renewable raw materials as a potential source of energy. Cost intensive and eco-friendly technology for producing high quality products and efficient ways to recycle waste to minimize environmental pollution is the need of hour. The use of bioremediation technologies through microbial communities is another viable option to remediate environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, pesticides and dyes etc. Since physico-chemical technologies employed in the past have many potential drawbacks including higher cost, and lower sustainability. So there is need of efficient biotechnological alternatives to overcome increasing environmental pollution. Hence, there is a need for environmental friendly technologies that can reduce the pollutants causing adverse hazards on humans and surrounding environment.
This book offers a comprehensive and accessible guide covering various aspects of trace metal contamination in abiotic and biotic matrices of an iconic Indian tropical mangrove wetland - Sundarban. Divided into nine chapters, the book begins by discussing the fundamental concepts of sources, accumulation rate and significance of trace metal speciation, along with the impact of multiple stressors on trace metal accumulation, taking into account both tourist activities and the exacerbating role of climate change. The second chapter presents a detailed account of the sampling strategy and preservation of research samples, followed by exhaustive information on sediment quality assessment and ecological risk, instrumental techniques in environmental chemical analyses, quality assurance and quality control, along with the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). Using raw data, the sediment quality assessment indices (e.g., pollution load index, index of geoaccumulation, Nemerow Pollution Load Index etc.) and conventional statistical analyses are worked out and interpreted precisely, allowing students to readily evaluate and interpret them. This is followed by chapters devoted to trace metal accumulation in sediments and benthic organisms, as well as acid-leachable and geochemical fractionation of trace metals in sediments. The book then focuses on chemical speciation of butylin and arsenic in sediments as well as macrozoobenthos (polychaetous annelids). Finally, potential positive role of the dominant mangrove Avicennia in sequestering trace metals from rhizosediments of Sundarban Wetland is elaborately discussed. This timely reference book provides a versatile and in-depth account for understanding the emerging problems of trace metal contamination - issues that are relevant for many countries around the globe.
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology provides concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. Chapter "Natural Purification Through Soils: Risks and Opportunities of Sewage Effluent Reuse in Sub-surface Irrigation" is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
An intimate reckoning with aquifer depletion in America's heartland The Ogallala aquifer has nourished life on the American Great Plains for millennia. But less than a century of unsustainable irrigation farming has taxed much of the aquifer beyond repair. The imminent depletion of the Ogallala and other aquifers around the world is a defining planetary crisis of our times. Running Out offers a uniquely personal account of aquifer depletion and the deeper layers through which it gains meaning and force. Anthropologist Lucas Bessire journeyed back to western Kansas, where five generations of his family lived as irrigation farmers and ranchers, to try to make sense of this vital resource and its loss. His search for water across the drying High Plains brings the reader face to face with the stark realities of industrial agriculture, eroding democratic norms, and surreal interpretations of a looming disaster. Yet the destination is far from predictable, as the book seeks to move beyond the words and genres through which destruction is often known. Instead, this journey into the morass of eradication offers a series of unexpected discoveries about what it means to inherit the troubled legacies of the past and how we can take responsibility for a more inclusive, sustainable future. An urgent and unsettling meditation on environmental change, Running Out is a revelatory account of family, complicity, loss, and what it means to find your way back home.
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