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Did you know that watching your favourite series on tv or just switching on your laptop for work, requires indirect water consumption? It's a proven fact that every time we use energy resources, water is also consumed. In the next few decades, global water and energy demands will increase significantly, but at this time there isn't a lot of information on expected global changes. The Water Research Institute (WRI) estimates that around 33 countries will experience very high water stress by 2040. Which means that as water scarcity rises due to rapid population growth, climate change and water deterioration, the global demand for pure water will also increase. We hope this book will help answer some of the challenges. The 13 chapters of this book were selected from multiple disciplines which focused on the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of environmental applications. These include technical-economic aspects of chemical precipitation; different substrates and concentrations of double chamber microbial fuel cells; the impact of pre-treatment on COD from paper industry wastewater; the synthesis of PES/Go-SiO2 mixed matrix membranes; predictions of a wastewater treatment plants performance of aeration demands; the performance of hydrological models for green roofs; short-term flexibility for energy grids from wastewater treatment plants; an integrated platform between water-energy-nexus and a business model for sustainable development; resilience-informed decision making in critical infrastructure networks. In Focus - a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.
This book focuses on the recent results of the research project funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 23226017) from FY 2011 to FY 2015 on an autonomous spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system and its applications to marine disaster prevention systems from a scientific point of view. This book spotlights research on marine disaster prevention systems related to incidents involving oil tankers and offshore platforms, approaching these problems from new scientific and technological perspectives. The most essential aspect of this book is the development of a deep-sea underwater robot for real-time monitoring of blowout behavior of oil and gas from the seabed and of a new type of autonomous surface vehicle for real-time tracking and monitoring of oil spill spread and drift on the sea surface using an oil sensor. The mission of these robots is to provide the simulation models for gas and oil blowouts or spilled oil drifting on the sea surface with measured data for more precision of predictions of oil and gas behavior.
The book extends the knowledge on wetland ecosystem services based on the new research. The information combines the achievements gained in carbon sequestration, nutrient accumulation, macrophyte decomposition, wastewater treatment, global warming mitigation in constructed as well as natural wetlands across the globe. The book presents up-to-date results of ongoing research and the content of the book could be used by wetland scientists, researchers, engineers, designers, regulators, decision-makers, universities teachers, landscape engineers and landscape planners as well as by water authorities, water regulatory offices or wastewater treatment research institutions.
This book highlights the anthropogenic pressures on the fresh water bodies and in particular, the Dal and Anchar Lake. As a result of climate change and global warming there is a likelihood that the glaciers which feed these water bodies may be lost. The lakes discussed in this volume can prove a vital source of information on water and biodiversity as well as the environmental features. The detailed examination of phytoplankton and zooplankton in this volume will prove a key factor for future studies in the field of biology and ecology. An in-depth analysis on the physical-chemical properties of the lakes' water is also presented.
Knowing how to manage the losses from water supply networks and how to get to the next level in bettering your system is a major problem and one that is most common in the majority of water companies worldwide. Sometimes water companies set their sights too high and cannot deliver due to non-realistic targets setting. Of course this is considered or seen as a failure within the company or country when it is really just exceeding expectations of what can be delivered. The aim of System Losses from Water Supply Networks is to assist water companies to identify where they are on the 'water loss ladder' and what is required to move to the next level. The book will provide an understanding of what the water companies need to achieve and where they should be aiming for in their efforts to reduce water losses. The book provides useful and practical information on non-revenue water (NRW) issues and solutions enriched with relevant case studies.
This book provides an overview of the digital tools available in the market as well as the impact of digitalisation on the water sector by sharing Singapore's experiences. PUB, Singapore's National Water Agency, unveiled its SMART PUB Roadmap in 2018 to digitalise Singapore's entire water system to improve the utility's operational excellence and meet the nation's future needs. This book shares PUB's digitalisation drive, highlights the deliberations behind its decisions, showcases its projects, and underlines the infrastructural, cybersecurity and human elements in digitalisation that other water utilities need to consider in crafting their own path forward. To guide the digitalisation efforts, PUB has come up with four major goals: * to create value for the utility through new capabilities, * more efficient operations, * a better work environment, and * improved customer service. With these goals, PUB has been able to focus their research and investments, plan their digitalisation journey in greater detail, and consider more deeply how to collect and use data in innovative ways.
Based upon half a century of research by the authors, Physical and Chemical Separation in Water and Wastewater Treatment addresses the whole water cycle spectrum, from global hydrological cycle, urban-regional metabolic cycle to individual living and production cycle, with respect to quality control technology based on fundamental science and theories. For every treatment process, basic scientific and environmental physical and chemical natures are explained with respect to those of water and its impurities. Health danger and risks for human beings are also covered. The authors define water qualities on a "Water Quality Matrix" composed of 35 elements. The vertical axis (row), has individual 7digit impurity size from 10-10m (water molecule 3?) to 10-3m (0.1mm sand grains) and in the horizontal axis(column) there are 5 categories of surrogate chemical and biochemical quality indices. The same 35 element matrix is used to correspond with several typical water quality treatments, unit-operation/unit-process, with a suitable characteristic grouping of the elements. The authors then present "the Water Quality Conversion Matrix" or "Water Quality Treatment Matrix". With respect to typical treatment processes, the basic concept and scientific background are explained and the background of the technologies is clarified. Mechanisms of the process are explained and a kinetic process is formulated. The kinetics are experimentally verified quantitatively with important equilibrium and rate constants. Based on the authors' research, various new treatment technologies are proposed with high efficiency, high capacity and less energy, and with steady operation ability. This comprehensive reference book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, and also serves as a guide book for practical engineers and industry and university researchers.
The book is intended to provide a more complete understanding of the social and environmental eco-system that affects and is affected by industrial water use, encourage collaboration among the stakeholders in this ecosystem to promote more sustainable use, and identify concrete actions (e.g., increased incentives for sustainable use and penalties for unsustainable use) that can be collaboratively pursued for the benefit of long-term economic well-being, communities, and the environment. The book will feature the voices of individuals in different industrial sectors, as well as those affecting and affected by industrial water use. In addition to relating the practical experiences of the various authors and their 'lessons learned', the book will include a discussion of currently available water management and planning tools in order to encourage additional research and greater collaboration between potential partners. Since water use by industry includes the water used to produce raw materials (e.g. cotton in the case of textiles) and use of the product by the consumer, it will also include a discussion of how relationships between companies, their suppliers and their customers can be designed to improve industrial water use.
Selenium contamination of air, aquatic environments, soils and sediments is a serious environmental concern of increasing importance. Selenium has a paradoxical feature in bringing about health benefits under the prescribed level, but only a few fold increase in its concentration causes deleterious effects to flora and fauna, humans and the environment. Environmental Technologies to Treat Selenium Pollution: principles and engineering: - presents the fundamentals of the biogeochemical selenium cycle and which imbalances in this cycle result in pollution. - overviews chemical and biological technologies for successful treatment of selenium contaminated water, air, soils and sediments. - explores the recovery of value-added products from selenium laden waste streams, including biofortication and selenium based nanoparticles and quantum dots. This book may serve both as an advanced textbook for undergraduate and graduate students majoring in environmental sciences, technology or engineering as well as a handbook for tertiary educators, researchers, professionals and policy makers who conduct research and practices in selenium related fields. It is essential reading for consulting companies when dealing with selenium related environmental (bio)technologies.
With its 104 chapters, this Encyclopedia of aquatic ecotoxicology reveals the diversity of issues, problems and challenges that have faced, and are facing today, receiving environments. It also indicates ways by which tools, strategies and future investigations can contribute to correct, minimize, solve and prevent water quality degradation.
Structured homogeneously, the chapters convey salient information on historical background, features, characteristics, uses and/or applications of treated topics, often complemented by illustrations and case studies, as well as by conclusions and prospects. This work is most suitable for teaching purposes. Academics, for example, could literally deliver comprehensive lectures to students simply based on chapter outlines and contents.
Meet theAuthors of the Encyclopedia
Even though ozone has been applied for a long time for disinfection and oxidation in water treatment, there is lack of critical information related to transformation of organic compounds. This has become more important in recent years, because there is considerable concern about the formation of potentially harmful degradation products as well as oxidation products from the reaction with the matrix components. In recent years, a wealth of information on the products that are formed has accumulated, and substantial progress in understanding mechanistic details of ozone reactions in aqueous solution has been made. Based on the latter, this may allow us to predict the products of as yet not studied systems and assist in evaluating toxic potentials in case certain classes are known to show such effects. Keeping this in mind, Chemistry of Ozone in Water and Wastewater Treatment: From Basic Principles to Applications discusses mechanistic details of ozone reactions as much as they are known to date and applies them to the large body of studies on micropollutant degradation (such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) that is already available. Extensively quoting the literature and updating the available compilation of ozone rate constants gives the reader a text at hand on which his research can be based. Moreover, those that are responsible for planning or operation of ozonation steps in drinking water and wastewater treatment plants will find salient information in a compact form that otherwise is quite disperse. A critical compilation of rate constants for the various classes of compounds is given in each chapter, including all the recent publications. This is a very useful source of information for researchers and practitioners who need kinetic information on emerging contaminants. Furthermore, each chapter contains a large selection of examples of reaction mechanisms for the transformation of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, fuel additives, solvents, taste and odor compounds, cyanotoxins. Authors: Prof. Dr. Clemens von Sonntag, Max-Planck-Institut fur Bioanorganische Chemie, Mulheim an der Ruhr, and Instrumentelle Analytische Chemie, Universitat Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany and Prof. Dr. Urs von Gunten, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dubendorf, and Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Hydrology and water resources management in a changing world reflects important challenges for both researchers and practitioners in the public and private sectors. This book features contributions from all sectors on the following themes: water in urban areas; groundwater; floods; climate services; hydrological processes and models; hydropower; water consumption; environmental impact and water quality. In Focus - a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.
Increasing urbanization and changing climate are two critical stressors that are adversely affecting the biophysical environment of urban areas in the Hindu Kush Himalaya. The book discusses various choices and options - from demand management to supply enhancement, understanding ecological footprints of towns to managing water at a bioregional scale. In doing so, it is vital to address issues of equity and empower local institutions in managing water. The focus for the future must be on building urban resilience by strengthening the adaptive capacities of affected communities while also understanding the limits to adaptation. In Focus - a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.
Lakes and reservoirs hold about 90% of the world's surface fresh water, but overuse, water withdrawal and pollution of these bodies puts some one billion people at risk. The Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs reviews the physical, chemical and ecological characteristics of lakes and reservoirs, and describes their uses and environmental state trends in different parts of the world. Superbly illustrated throughout, it includes some 200 entries in a range of topics, including acidification, artificialisation, canals, climate change effects, dams, dew ponds, drainage, eutrofication, evaporation, fisheries, hydro-electric power, nutrients, organic pollution, paleolimnology, reservoir capacities and depths, sedimentation, water resources and more.
Today, multi-disciplinarity is the key to tackle challenges for the sustainable management of water resources, especially considering the increasing complexity in the water world. It is thus fundamental to link the mathematical laws describing water bodies and the new technologies given by the ICT and information science scientific communities. The 16 chapters in this book cover five main topics: numerical models to predict the water hydrodynamic in terms of flow fields and contaminant dispersion; problems related to floods in urban and coastal areas and to wastewater treatments; problems concerning water distribution networks; hydrological and climate change problems; and groundwater and erosion. The complexity of the problems and the different approaches used within the chapters of this book clearly show the multi-disciplinary nature of the researche focused on water bodies. Thanks to the vivacity of the hydroinformatics community, day by day fundamental advances are made in understanding complex phenomena related to water physics as well as in novel methodologies and tools to drive sustainable and efficient management of natural and artificial water systems. In Focus - a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.
Alluvial Aquifer Processes
Achieving true wholesome sustainability requires a change of heart. Hence this book starts in the heart. It asks the timely question of 'how do we become true water stewards?' The transformation to a new sustainable practice will be made through a new connection with our heart, a more holistic type of analysis (brains) and the right actions based on personal integrity (hand). A water steward should be similar to the shepherds of olden days. They were given the responsibility to guard the sheep. The village trusted they would take care of the flock, make sure it would be well fed, protected from storms and kept together. The shepherd learned to take a long term perspective for the flock, ensuring that the pastures were not overgrazed, that the flock was not led too far away from access to water and that shelter was in reach in the event of storms and dangerous predators. Over time the shepherds became increasingly skilled in caring for the flock. They integrated the responsibility of the well-being of the flock into their identity. In a similar way, we can take the responsibility for human water consumption and our interaction with the natural world. We need to understand and work according to the big picture and the very long term perspective. Being a water steward requires deep reflection of how water should be treated and our relationship with water. Water utility professionals have the knowledge and have been trusted with the role of managing human water consumption. This is a great responsibility and requires deep reflection of how this should be done. The book will present ideas and concepts for the new role as well as questions for personal reflection.
Harvesting rain and using it for drinking and domestic use will help to give scattered rural households and under-served city dwellers access to water. The world cannot ignore using rain - as the source of all water. This book presents stories and experiences from some 15 countries from all over the globe, developed and less developed. There are many more experiences that can be highlighted, but those included are thought to give the reader a good overview of what can be done when water supply engineering investment has not yet reached the unserved. Rainwater harvesting has an important role to play as a safe water supply when other sources are not safe or not available. A rainwater system brings along storage. It may be perceived as a little expensive but will normally be cheaper than a house connection from a centrally treated water supply system. Moreover, the storage will be invaluable in an emergency when tankered water can be stored. Also, in times of drought households with rainwater storage will still have a supply of water.
This book highlights the impacts of emerging pollutants (both organic and inorganic) in water bodies and the role and performances of different water and wastewater treatment approaches that are presently being employed in the field of environmental engineering. Some of these approaches are focused on 'end-of-pipe' treatment, while most of these approaches are focused on the application of novel physic-chemical and biological techniques for wastewater treatment and reuse. The goal of this book is to present the emerging technologies and trends in the field of water and wastewater treatment. The papers in this book provide clear proof that environmentally friendly (bio)technologies are becoming more and more important and playing a critical role in removing a wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants from water. In Focus - a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector. This book highlights the impacts of emerging pollutants (both organic and inorganic) in water bodies and the role and performances of different water and wastewater treatment approaches that are presently being employed in the field of environmental engineering. Some of these approaches are focused on 'end-of-pipe' treatment, while most of these approaches are focused on the application of novel physic-chemical and biological techniques for wastewater treatment and reuse. The goal of this book is to present the emerging technologies and trends in the field of water and wastewater treatment. The papers in this book provide clear proof that environmentally friendly (bio)technologies are becoming more and more important and playing a critical role in removing a wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants from water. In Focus - a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector. This book highlights the impacts of emerging pollutants (both organic and inorganic) in water bodies and the role and performances of different water and wastewater treatment approaches that are presently being employed in the field of environmental engineering. Some of these approaches are focused on 'end-of-pipe' treatment, while most of these approaches are focused on the application of novel physic-chemical and biological techniques for wastewater treatment and reuse. The goal of this book is to present the emerging technologies and trends in the field of water and wastewater treatment. The papers in this book provide clear proof that environmentally friendly (bio)technologies are becoming more and more important and playing a critical role in removing a wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants from water. In Focus - a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.
Water is life. But water is also a threat to life. During the past decade, the risks from water-related disasters are increasing and hamper sustainable development by causing political, social, and economic upheaval in many countries. Water-related disasters, such as floods, droughts, storm surges and tsunamis, account for 90% of all disasters in terms of number of people affected. The issue of "water and disasters" must be addressed if we hope to make sustainable development a reality. We must share our experiences and lessons learned, strengthen regional coordination and collaboration, and set common goals and targets in order to lay a foundation for weathering the water-related disasters to come, and make progress towards creating a better-prepared and more resilient society. All these elements should be translated into clear-cut messages and practical advice for decision makers to create effective policies and mechanisms that address water and disaster issues appropriately at all levels. The High Level Experts and Leaders Panel on Water and Disasters (HELP) was established to assist the international community, governments and stakeholders in mobilizing political will and resources. It promotes actions to raise awareness, ensure coordination and collaboration, establish common goals and targets, monitor progress, and take effective measures aimed at addressing the issues of water and disasters. Members of HELP solicited the 10 case studies on water and disasters that form this book. In Focus - a book series that showcases the latest accomplishments in water research. Each book focuses on a specialist area with papers from top experts in the field. It aims to be a vehicle for in-depth understanding and inspire further conversations in the sector.
This book covers the topic of microplastics in water and wastewater. The chapters start with introductory issues related to the growing interest in the scientific community on microplastics and the human water cycle and point out where the microplastics could interact with water. The subsequent chapters examine evidence of the microplastic presence in freshwater, such as in both rivers and lakes, in freshwater biota, and hazardous chemicals associated with microplastics in such systems. Another set of chapters discuss the presence of microplastics in wastewater: their sources; their transfer through a wastewater treatment plant; the concentration of microplastics in effluents throughout the world; the plastic biomedia used in wastewater treatment plants and the effect on the surrounding environment of effluent wastewater pipes. These chapters also discuss the sampling methods, the sample treatment and analysis techniques used so far for microplastics in wastewater. Additionally, the presence of microplastics in sewage sludge and in soils irrigated with wastewater or fertilized with sludge are discussed. The possible impact of plastics and their additives on plants, microalgae, and humans are reviewed and presented in a critical way. Finally, a chapter summarizes all the relevant regulations and initiatives that point to the necessity of a global directive for the protection of the environment from plastic and microplastic pollution. The topic of microplastics in freshwater systems and in wastewater has scarcely been studied and requires more attention. Microplastics in Water and Wastewater aims to bring these initial findings to the attention of a broader audience and especially to operators and managers of freshwater and wastewater systems. It will also be helpful to people already aware of the marine debris problem to understand the sources of microplastics in the oceans, from freshwater systems and wastewater treatment plants.
Anaerobic sewage treatment using UASB reactors has significantly expanded in the last few decades and is now a consolidated technology in some warm climate regions. Several advantages of the anaerobic process make it a more sustainable option for sewage treatment. However, there are still important constraints related to design, construction, and operation of UASB reactors. Conversely, there is enough knowledge, experience, and proven technology that can be used to effectively tackle all the related drawbacks. This book delivers the most relevant techno-scientific developments from academia and water authorities, comprehensively addressing the main aspects of interest in design, construction, and operation of UASB reactors for sewage treatment. Special attention is given to the proper and integrated management of sludge, scum, gaseous emissions, energy recovery, and effluent quality. The main purpose is to provide information and share experiences not yet compiled in the specialized literature on anaerobic sewage treatment. Therefore, a sequence of 12 well-interconnected chapters consolidates the practical knowledge and experiences that important research groups and recognized professionals worldwide have acquired over the past 20 years in demo- and full-scale anaerobic-based sewage treatment plants. Anaerobic Reactors for Sewage Treatment: Design, Construction and Operation can significantly contribute towards a responsible expansion of the anaerobic technology in the world. The book is a valuable tool for engineers, constructors, operators, wastewater utility managers, as well as for students interested in anaerobic processes for sewage treatment.
This book focuses on and discusses the results of research done on the risk assessment levels associated with relevant regional variables in the Aral Basin (the research outcome of the EU-INCO FP6 research project Jayhun: Interstate Water Resource Risk Management: Towards a Sustainable Future for the Aral Basin). A strategy for an improved management of the region's water resources is developed The book provides current and reliable information on: the rate of glacial retreat in the Amu Darya Basin and the implications for future water resources in the region. the impact and assessment of global changes on annual precipitation. the establishment of rates of reservoir siltation by hydrographic surveys, the analyses of wastage and effectiveness of water usage in the large irrigation massifs Water resources models are used to analyse existing and newly generated data and these are calibrated with existing data and subsequently used for simulating various possible future scenarios. The book provides a risk analysis for water resources management in the Amu Darya Basin and identifies sustainable options for improved management of the region's water resources. Interstate water resource risk management: towards a sustainable future for the Aral Basin is of particular interest to water and technical engineers, research institutions, universities and technical colleges, water authorities and water management facilities
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