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Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. A thoroughly revised, in-depth guide to water and wastewater engineering This fully updated guide integrates water theory with practical strategies, design techniques, and real-world applications. Designed for both students and professionals, the book covers all aspects of water and wastewater engineering as well as water treatment and facility design. You will get new information on water quality standards, corrosion control, piping materials, and energy efficiency. Water and Wastewater Engineering, Second Edition opens with a review of environmental engineering fundamentals before moving on to cover advanced water treatment processes, including reverse osmosis, membrane filtration, UV disinfection, and biological nutrient removal. A new case study analyzing the water contamination in Flint, MI helps to demonstrate the concepts covered. *Explains the latest technologies, regulations, and climate issues*Contains a brand-new chapter on direct and indirect potable reuse*Written by an experienced environmental engineering educator
Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors is the fifth volume in the Biological Wastewater Treatment series. The first part of the book is devoted to the activated sludge process, covering the removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. A detailed analysis of the biological reactor (aeration tank) and the final sedimentation tanks is provided. The second part of the book covers aerobic biofilm reactors, especially trickling filters, rotating biological contactors and submerged aerated biofilters. For all the systems, the book presents in a clear and concise way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines. The Biological Wastewater Treatment series is based on the book Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions and on a highly acclaimed set of best selling textbooks. This international version is comprised by six textbooks giving a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment.Other books in the Biological Wastewater Treatment series: Volume 1: Wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal Volume 2: Basic principles of wastewater treatment Volume 3: Waste stabilisation ponds Volume 4: Anaerobic reactors Volume 6: Sludge treatment and disposal
This volume discusses the theoretical fundamentals and potential applications of the original electro-Fenton (EF) process and its most innovative and promising versions, all of which are classified as electrochemical advanced oxidation processes. It consists of 15 chapters that review the latest advances and trends, material selection, reaction and reactor modeling and EF scale-up. It particularly focuses on the applications of EF process in the treatment of toxic and persistent organic pollutants in water and soil, showing highly efficient removal for both lab-scale and pre-pilot setups. Indeed, the EF technology is now mature enough to be brought to market, and this collection of contributions from leading experts in the field constitutes a timely milestone for scientists and engineers.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Master the Latest Techniques to Quantify, Locate, Control, and Prevent Water and Revenue Loss in Water Utility Operations This comprehensive guide takes you step by step through every stage of the development of a water loss control program-from measuring and auditing water loss, tracking losses to their root cause, to developing a loss control program for future efficiency. Inside, you'll find precise descriptions of the most current methodologies and technologies, along with tables and figures presenting key information clearly and concisely. This second edition brings innovative approaches to water loss management, with information on new modeling methods, leak detection equipment, revenue protection programs, and best practices advocated by the American Water Works Association and the International Water Association. Includes: Updated U.S. and international standardized water audit methodologies Step-by-step guide to creating an effective water loss control program Guidance on data collection, validation, and component analysis of water supply and customer consumption volumes Detailed description of available intervention tools against real losses Detailed description of available intervention tools against apparent losses Innovations in automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) that will transform accountability in the water supply industry Integrated technologies to optimize water distribution system operations Detailed descriptions and case studies of successful water loss control and intervention programs Comprehensive glossary of terms Water Loss Control Manual covers: Various Types of Water and Revenue Losses* Traditional Control Methods * Progressive Approaches* Standard Water Audit Methodology* Meaningful Performance Indicators* Data Collection* Information Management* Validating the Water Audit Data* Field Equipment* Computer Modeling * *Strategies and Methods to Control Leakage and Optimize Revenue Recovery* Active Leakage Detection and Repair* Pressure Management* Distribution System Rehabilitation* Water Efficiency Programs* Hiring Contractors * Writing Bids* Case Studies* Calculations* Industry Papers
This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from the limiting flux model through increasingly generalized models to propose a simple numerical approach to the general case of optimal operation for batch diafiltration processes. Researchers interested in the modelling of batch processes or in the potential industrial applications of optimal control theory will find this monograph a valuable source of inspiration, instruction and ideas.
This book collects current scientific information on advanced technologies and management practices associated with the desalination industry in the Middle East and elsewhere around the world. The book opens with introductory chapter which briefly recounts the history of desalination, and describes the current state of development in the field. Part I: Desalination Systems includes ten chapters which describe a variety of techniques and designs intended not only to minimize the impact of desalination, but also to save energy and use natural resources to maximize the output of integrated desalination systems. Among the highlights are a chapter on the use of ceramic membrane technology for sustainable oil water production; a case study on the use of solar heating systems in desalination technology in Oman; discussion of fouling and its effect on design and performance of desalination systems; a review of shore approaches and sea-lines with case studies from Australia and Germany; and a discussion of the integration of desalination technology with renewable energy for climate change abatement in the Middle East and North Africa region. Part II: Environmental Systems includes among others a chapter on regulating the use of water resources and desalination technology on a regional scale reducing the carbon footprint of desalination, with examples from Australia; a description of desalination for irrigation in the Souss Massa region in the south of Morocco; a study of the impact of the coastal intake environment on operating conditions of thermal desalination plants in the United Arab Emirates; a discussion of hydrodynamic and thermal dispersion modeling of the effluent in a coastal channel, with a case study from Oman; and a mathematical model study of effluent disposal from a desalination plant in the marine environment at Tuticorin in India. The book aims to inspire developments in desalination technologies which are specifically aimed at reducing energy consumption and cost, and minimizing environmental impact.
Phosphorus has always been both a curse and a blessing. On the one hand, it is essential for all life forms and cannot be replaced by anything. On the other hand, wastewater treatment aims to minimize phosphorus concentrations in wastewater in order to minimize its discharge into rivers and lakes, where eutrophication caused by high phosphorus concentrations would lead to excessive plant growth. Phosphorus is extracted from rock phosphate deposits, which are finite and non-renewable. And as the issue of resource conservation is the focus of attention worldwide, phosphorus must be used sustainably. This includes recycling of secondary phosphates, efficient extraction and treatment of raw phosphate as well as its efficient use. The book starts from the peculiarity of the element phosphorus in Part I Phosphorus a special element?, Part II shows the possibilities and limitations of the elimination of phosphorus during the wastewater treatment. Current developments in phosphorus recovery are presented in Part III Phosphorus Recovery - Technology, where also a large number of technology developments are presented in the context of case studies. Part IV "Assessment" shows impulses for future ways. The book concludes with an "Outlook" in Part V. The book is partially based on the book Phosphorus in Environmental Technology - Principles and Application, edited by Eugina Valsami-Jones and published by IWA Publishing in 2004. Various new technologies have been developed since its release, particularly in the area of phosphorus recovery. Phosphorus: Polluter and Resource of the Future discusses all aspects of both Phosphorus elimination and recovery and summarizes the latest state of Phosphorus recovery technologies.
This book is proposed because it offers a comprehensive coverage of most of the topics pertaining to drinking water microbiology. It concerns the public health aspects of drinking water treatment and distribution and describes the different water treatment processes (pretreatment, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection) and their impact on waterborne microbial pathogens and parasites. The quality of the treated water may however be degraded in the water distribution system (WDS). Microorganisms attach to surfaces, namely water distribution pipes, and form biofilms which allow their survival and growth, gene exchange and resistance to disinfection. The biofilm environment also allows the survival and potential growth of primary and opportunistic pathogens. The water distribution system may also harbor various organisms (e.g., algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, free living amoebas, invertebrates, iron and manganese bacteria, nitrifying bacteria) which alter the quality of treated water. The biostability of the treated water is an important factor to consider if one wants to reduce bacterial growth in WDS. Various approaches/methodologies have been proposed to assess the bacterial growth potential in WDS. Due to bioterrorism threats to drinking water safety, one needs to know about the scope of this threat, the microbial agents involved and the safeguards that are put in place to protect this precious resource. The proposed book would not be complete if one fails to discuss the research on drinking water quality in developing countries which experience more the two million deaths resulting from diarrheal diseases. Various simple and low-cost treatment technologies are available for improving the quality of drinking water in developing countries. Finally, due a surge in bottled water sales around the world, there is a great need to know about the microbiological water quality of this resource which is often misunderstood by the public at large.
Rainwater as a resource has been underrated due to scientific misunderstandings about its quality, the lack of hydrologic design tools for small catchments, such as roofs, the preference for large infrastructures, and the small number of successful cases reported. This book summarizes 17 years of scientific research, operational monitoring, and practical demonstration projects made at Seoul National University Rainwater Research Center. A new paradigm of rainwater is proposed, which is to collect rainwater and use it, instead of draining it. Based on conventional hydrology and methodology, a hydrologic modelling method for micro-catchment is suggested. By incorporating several controllable measures into the design, the system can solve several water-related problems such as flooding, water conservation, emergency water storage, and groundwater recharge. Now is the time to adapt. Many good examples are reported from around the world, including South Korea. Fifty-nine South Korean cities have announced regulations and commitment to become 'Rain Cities' by offering financial incentives to rainwater management systems or subsidizing them. This book is written to give hope to those who seek to transform their community from a 'Drain City' to a 'Rain City'. It has been prepared to clear the ambiguity about rainwater management and transform the experts as well as the citizens to become active proponents of rainwater. This book can be a guide to transform the world into Rain Cities, and become a viable solution toward Sustainable Development Goal Number 6.
The ebook edition of this title is freely available as an Open Access text. Treatment Wetlands is the seventh volume in the Biological Wastewater Treatment series, which gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of sewage treatment. The major variants of wetland systems are covered in this volume, namely: (i) horizontal flow wetlands; (ii) vertical flow wetlands; (iii) French vertical flow wetlands; (iv) intensified wetlands; (v) free water surface wetlands; (vi) other applications of treatment wetlands. The book presents in a clear and didactic way the main concepts, working principles, expected performance, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines. The book has been written by an international team of top experts in the field of treatment wetlands.
The book consolidates the transdisciplinary research of the project "CuveWaters: Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Northern Namibia (Cuvelai Basin) in the SADC-Region" funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) and undertaken from 2004 to 2015 in Namibia. In these eleven years it was possible to accomplish all three phases of an ideal-typical transdisciplinary research process, from creating a common research object down to transdisciplinary dissemination. The transdisciplinary research approach was designed to tackle the life-world problems of food security, sanitation and access to water in a sustainable way. It aimed at integrating science, technology and society with the common goal of establishing a multi-resource mix for water use to improve the living conditions of people in the project region. This 'multi-resource mix' comprises water from different sources made available through adapted technological solutions which are socially embedded. The technological solutions identified with the Namibian partners were rainwater and floodwater harvesting, groundwater desalination, sanitation and water reuse. Each technological solution is reflected in terms of approach, technology, social aspects, management and governance issues, economic viability and sustainability evaluation. The book shows how technological innovation must go hand in hand with social innovation regarding knowledge, practices and institutions. A comprehensive report of the design, methodologies and procedures as well as the research findings and conclusions is provided here. The aim of the book is to share with researchers, professionals and practitioners the lessons learned during the project and provide guidance for replication.
This book explores many recent techniques including ANN, fuzzy logic, hydraulic models and IWRM utilized for integrated water resources management, a real challenge in India for obtaining high irrigation efficiency. The book deals with topics of current interest, such as climate change, floods, drought, and hydrological extremes. The impact of climate change on water resources is drawing worldwide attention these days; for water resources, many countries are already stressed and climate change along with burgeoning population, rising standard of living, and increasing demand are adding to the stress. Further, river basins are becoming less resilient to climatic vagaries. Fundamental to addressing these issues is hydrological modelling which is covered in this book Further, integrated water resources management is vital to ensure water and food security. Integral to the management is groundwater and solute transport. The book encompasses tools that will be useful to mitigate the adverse consequences of natural disasters.
Sustainable Water Initiative for Tomorrow describes a forward-looking innovative solution to tackling various environmental issues related to water including dwindling ground water supplies and land subsidence. The lack of far thinking and innovative methods regarding these issues is a worldwide problem. This title provides a detailed step-by-step account using scientific research, and engineering analysis to help any municipality deal with these issues. Sustainable Water Initiative for Tomorrow is accessible and is designed to reach a wide range of diverse professionals and students.
This text series of "Water and Wastewater Engineering" have been written in a time of mounting urbanisation and industrialisation and resulting stress on water and wastewater systems. Clean and ample sources of water for municipal uses are becoming harder to find and more expensive to develop.
The text is comprehensive and covers all aspects of water supply, water sources, water distribution, sanitary sewerage and urban stormwater drainage. This wide coverage is helpful to engineers in their every day practice.
Wastewater and Biosolids Management covers a wide range of current, new and emerging topics in wastewater and biosolids. The book addresses the theoretical and practical aspect of the reuse and looks to advance our knowledge on wastewater reuse and its application in agricultural production. The book aims to present existing modern information about wastewater reuse management based on earlier literature on the one hand and recent research developments, many of which have not so far been implemented into actual practice on the other. It combines the practical and theoretical knowledge about 'wastewater and biosolids management' and in this sense it is useful for researchers, students, academics as well as for professionals.
Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane technology with a range of possible water treatment applications (desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery). Recent Developments in Forward Osmosis Processes provides an overview of applications, advantages, challenges, costs and current knowledge gaps. Commercial technology, hybrid FO systems for both desalination and water recovery applications have shown to have higher capital cost compared to conventional technologies. Nevertheless, due to the demonstrated lower operational costs of hybrid FO systems, the unit cost for each m3 of fresh water produced with the FO system are lower than conventional desalination/water recovery technologies (i.e. ultrafiltration/RO systems). There are key benefits of using FO hybrid systems compared to RO: * chemical storage and feed systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost savings, * reduced process piping costs, * more flexible treatment units, * higher overall sustainability of the desalination process, while producing high quality water.
This book reviews advanced nanotechnology in food, health, water and agriculture. In food, nanobiosensors display an unprecedented efficiency for the detection of allergens, genetically modified organisms and pathogens. In agriculture, nanofertilisers improve plant nutrition by releasing nutrients slowly and steadily. Nanomaterials synthesised using biomass such as fungi are further found remarkable to clean waters polluted by heavy metals. However, as newly introduced materials in the environment, nanoparticles may exhibit toxic effects, which are reviewed in this book. In the context of climate change, methods for water desalinisation are also presented.
Economical, Political, and Social Issues in Water Resources provides a fully comprehensive and interdisciplinary overview of all three factors in their relation to water resources. Economic issues consist of Water accounting, Water economy, Water pricing, Water market, Water bank and bourse. Political issues consist of Water power and hydrogemistry, Water diplomacy and hydropolitics, Water rights and water laws, Water governance and policy, Shared water resources management, Water management systems, and social issues consist of Water and culture, civilization and history, Water quality, hygiene, and health, Water and society. This book familiarizes researchers with all aspects of the field, which can lead to optimized and multidimensional water resources management. Some of abovementioned issues are new, so the other aim of this book is to identify them in order to researchers can easily find them and use them in their studies.
This book, the second volume in the series, continues to raise contextual issues and presents perspectives regarding multifaceted challenges in management and governance of water in India. This volume attempts to broad base and expand the dialogue started in the first volume and would touch upon issues that need immediate discussion but have been left unattended like politics and management of groundwater, efficient utilization of water in agriculture (irrigation) and improving water use efficiency and building resilience. As in the first volume, this book presents a set of suggestions and recommendations in each chapter that can help frame policy guidelines in the country.
This is Volume II in a three-volume set on the Behavior of Radionuclides in the Environment, focusing on Chernobyl. Now, so many years after the Chernobyl accident, new data is emerging and important new findings are being made. The book reviews major research achievements concerning the behavior of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides, including their air transport and resuspension, mobility and bioavailability in the soil-water environment, vertical and lateral migration in soils and sediments, soil-to-plant and soil-to-animal transfer, and water-to-aqueous biota transfer. The long-term dynamics of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are also discussed, in particular, the heavily contaminated cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which is in the process of being decommissioned. Lessons learned from long-term research on the environmental behavior of radionuclides can help us understand the pathways of environmental contamination, which, in turn, will allow us to improve methods for modeling and predicting the long-term effects of pollution. This book features a wealth of original data and findings, many of which have never been published before, or were not available internationally. The contributing authors are experts from Ukraine, Russia and Belarus with more than 30 years of experience investigating Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in the environment. The content presented here can help to predict the evolution of environmental contamination following a nuclear accident, and specifically the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) is responsible for
construction, operations, and maintenance of much of the nation's
water resources infrastructure. This infrastructure includes flood
control levees, multi-purpose dams, locks, navigation channels,
port and harbor facilities, and beach protection infrastructure.
The Corps of Engineers also regulates the dredging and filling of
wetlands subject to federal jurisdictions. Along with its programs
for flood damage reduction and support of commercial navigation,
ecosystem restoration was added as a primary Corps mission area in
1996. The National Research Council (NRC) Committee on U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers on Water Resources Science, Engineering, and
Planning was convened by the NRC at the request of the Corps of
Engineers to provide independent advice to the Corps on an array of
strategic and planning issues. National Water Resources Challenges
Facing the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers surveys the key water
resources challenges facing the Corps, the limits of what might be
expected today from the Corps, and future prospects for the agency.
This report presents several findings, but no recommendations, to
the Corps of Engineers based on initial investigations and
discussions with Corps leadership.
This book provides guidance to utilities that are involved in or may face legal challenges to its rates and fees. It explains key legal concepts encountered in water ratemaking with citations to relevant court cases, offers guidance in preparing for litigation or alternative dispute resolution, and describes successful litigation strategies that have been used by water utilities.
This book provides the first comprehensive overview of the most important water-related issues that centre on Italy, analysed from several disciplinary perspectives - such as hydrology, economics, law, sociology, environmental sciences and policy studies - in order to promote full understanding of the challenges the country is facing and the ways it could best tackle them. Despite the misconception that Italy is a water-scarce country, is in fact quite rich in water resources. Such resources, however, are unevenly distributed over the Italian territory. Italy's northern regions rely on quite an abundant quantity of freshwater, whereas in the southern area water endowment is limited. Moreover, climatic differences between North and South contribute to widen the divide. This disparity has notable consequences of socio-economic character, some of which, in turn, feed back into the environmental conditions of Italian regions: pollution, floods, landslides and droughts are among the problems affecting the country. There are numerous features of water use and consumption that distinguish Italy from other comparable countries, such as the significant role played by agriculture (a water-intensive activity), a lead position in the consumption of bottled water, lower-than-average prices of water and a far-from-optimal efficiency of waterworks. All such aspects, and many others, make Italy an essential case study.
This book documents state of the art research designed to compliment the advances being made in the global water quality sector. Book 2 provides further detail on supporting programmes.
The most important resources at any utility are human resources. People make all the difference in the success or failure of your utility's operation. Managing utility workforce issues is the focus of this practical handbook for water utility human resources managers.The Water Workforce: Recruiting & Retaining High-Performance Employees examines the special human resource challenges facing utilities and offers tested strategies to address them. It will help you recruit, train, motivate, and retain high-quality employees-and build a stable and productive workforce that will meet the short- and long-term needs of your utility. The book focuses on the specific technical work needs of utilities and how to successfully apply workforce management principles in a water utility environment.The book discusses workforce planning methodology, recruiting, and retention, and presents a comprehensive approach to workforce improvement and organizational capacity building. It outlines four workforce development processes:* Defining the organization's work processes* Recruiting* Capacity building* Retention and succession planningUtilities can implement effective solutions to workforce problems with a planned approach to organization and work design, followed by action to improve the capacity of individual employees and their units, and ultimately, the whole organization. Although all utilities face workforce management issues, there are considerable differences between large and small utilities. This book addresses the needs of both with strategies to apply workforce management principles in even the smallest utility.Contents1. Workforce Challenges and Strategies for Success2. Jobs in Water and Wastewater Utilities3. A Strategic Approach to Workforce Planning4. Utilities as Employers of Choice5. Organization Change and Workforce Development6. Job Analysis and Position Descriptions7. Recruiting and Selecting Your Workforce8. Work Planning and Performance Evaluation9. Learning Organizations and Knowledge Management10. Training and Development Programs11. Employee Retention12. Succession Management13. Solutions for Smaller UtilitiesThe book includes several appendices, including general competencies for water and wastewater jobs, utility positions in AWWA's compensation study, occupational data on technical positions, a model training program for utilities, and a comprehensive listing of major water associations in the US that can be used as a resource for recruiting and training.
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