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Central Asia is a fascinating part of the world. It is rich in culture, natural resources, unique landscapes, wonderful people and of course water. The exhibition catalogue "From the Glaciers to the Aral Sea - Water Unites" wants to foster a better understanding of the Central Asian countries we associate with the Silk Road. The exhibition shows how people live in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It also shows how water serves all the living beings in the region. The book has two parts: An analytical part, which contains background information on water and transboundary water resources management and a second part with photos, which aim to bring the region closer to the reader.
This book offers a broad and global level description of the current status of wastewater use in agriculture and then brings the readers to various places in the MENA Region and Europe to explain how some countries and regions have addressed the challenges during implementation. On a global scale, over 20 million hectares of agricultural land are irrigated using wastewater. This is one good, and perhaps the most prominent, example of the safe use potential of wastewater. Water scarcity and the cost of energy and fertilisers are among the main factors driving millions of farmers and other entrepreneurs to make use of wastewater. In order to address the technical, institutional, and policy challenges of safe water reuse, developing countries and countries in transition need clear institutional arrangements and more skilled human resources, with a sound understanding of the opportunities and potential risks of wastewater use. Stakeholders in wastewater irrigation who need to implement from scratch or improve current conditions, find it difficult to gather the necessary information on practical implementation aspects. The main objective of this book is to bridge that gap.
This book is an unique integrated treatise, on the concepts of fractional calculus as models with applications in hydrology, soil science and geomechanics. The models are primarily fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs), and in limited cases, fractional differential equations (fDEs). It develops and applies relevant fPDEs and fDEs mainly to water flow and solute transport in porous media and overland, and in some cases, to concurrent flow and energy transfer. It is an integrated resource with theory and applications for those interested in hydrology, hydraulics and fluid mechanics. The self-contained book summaries the fundamentals for porous media and essential mathematics with extensive references supporting the development of the model and applications.
The development of eco-industrial parks and associated 'ecological industry' concepts offer progressive integrated approaches to resolve pollution problems from effluents and wastes of all kinds. Most industry however is now located in business parks and industrial estates, with relatively few industries having direct discharges of process effluents to the water environment. But that does not mean no pollution. Many of these estates are very large, with many companies of all kinds spread over extensive areas. All have surface water drainage and stormwater runoff is often contaminated by many diffuse sources. Wealth Creation without Pollution is the culmination of several years of deliberations by academics and regulators, engaging with industrial and commercial sectors to characterise and quantify environmental problems and identify best practice solutions. Equally important have been efforts to explore sufficiently flexible regulatory regimes that offer effective means to prevent pollution and achieve good working environments in which industry and commerce can flourish. This book explores how modern industries are striving towards more sustainable practices, with case studies of impacts and of greener industry practices, as well as philosophical and policy papers. The role of regulators, planners and government in fostering a greener industrial base is also examined. Wealth Creation without Pollution is a valuable text book for environmental science and engineering students, and a useful resource for industrial architects, developers and practitioners.
Remediation of groundwater is complex and often challenging. But the cost of pump and treat technology, coupled with the dismal results achieved, has paved the way for newer, better technologies to be developed. Among these techniques is permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology, which allows groundwater to pass through a buried porous barrier that either captures the contaminants or breaks them down. And although this approach is gaining popularity, there are few references available on the subject. Until now. Permeable Reactive Barrier: Sustainable Groundwater Remediation brings together the information required to plan, design/model, and apply a successful, cost-effective, and sustainable PRB technology. With contributions from pioneers in this area, the book covers state-of-the-art information on PRB technology. It details design criteria, predictive modeling, and application to contaminants beyond petroleum hydrocarbons, including inorganics and radionuclides. The text also examines implementation stages such as the initial feasibility assessment, laboratory treatability studies (including column studies), estimation of PRB design parameters, and development of a long-term monitoring network for the performance evaluation of the barrier. It also outlines the predictive tools required for life cycle analysis and cost/performance assessment. A review of current PRB technology and its applications, this book includes case studies that exemplify the concepts discussed. It helps you determine when to recommend PRB, what information is needed from the site investigation to design it, and what regulatory validation is required.
The problem of reservoir eutrophication and resulting increase of algal activity is common for seven Dutch waterworks. In this context, the text investigates dissolved air flotation (DAF) as an alternative for algae removal, compared to conventionally applied sedimentation.
Membranes are an energy efficient separation technology that are now the basis for many water treatment and food processing applications. However, there is the potential to improve the operating performance of these separations and to extend the application of membranes to energy production, gas separations, organic solvent-based separations, and biomedical applications through novel membrane materials. This book contains 20 chapters written by leading academic researchers on membrane fabrication and modification techniques and provides a comprehensive overview on the recent developments of membrane technology. Membranes can be manufactured from a range of materials including polymeric compounds, and ceramic materials, and both these materials are considered in the book. There are 5 chapters on water and wastewater membranes that cover the fabrication of thin film (TFC) composite membranes for nanofiltration(NF)/reverse osmosis (RO)/forward osmosis (FO) applications, stimuli responsive membranes, electrospun membranes, porous ceramic membranes, and polymeric ultrafiltration (UF) manufacture and modification. There are another 6 chapters on gas separation that consider carbon membranes, zeolite membranes, silica template and metal oxide silica membranes, TFC membranes, silica membranes, and metal organic framework (MOF) membranes. Zeolite membranes are also considered for organic solvent applications, as are solvent-resistant membranes manufactured by phase inversion, ceramic-supported composite membranes, and ceramic NF membranes. The emerging areas of membranes for energy and biomedical applications have 3 and 2 chapters, respectively. Energy applications consider ion exchange membranes for use in fuel cells, membranes for electrodialysis, and membranes for use in microbial fuel cells. For biomedical applications the chapters focus on hemodialysis membranes and redox responsive membranes.
Combining background knowledge and practical tools, Handbook of Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Management gives you an overview of how to manage inland waters in a holistic manner. It examines the problems that threaten aquatic inland water ecosystems and presents a set of toolboxes for solving them. The book focuses on lakes, reservoirs, ponds, rivers, wetlands, lagoons, and estuaries, including the predominant freshwater ecosystems as well as saline and brackish ecosystems. Understand Ecosystem Properties and Ecological Processes The book consists of two parts. The first part reviews the basic scientific knowledge needed in the environmental and ecological management of aquatic ecosystems, from limnology and ecology of inland water ecosystems to environmental physics and chemistry. It emphasizes the interacting processes that characterize all inland aquatic ecosystems and explains the scientific considerations behind the conservation principles and their applications. Define the Problems and Quantify Their Sources The second part of the book presents toolboxes that you can apply to achieve more holistic environmental and ecological management. After an overview of the environmental problems of inland aquatic ecosystems and their sources, the book examines toolboxes to help you identify the problem, namely mass balances, ecological indicators, and ecological models. It also discusses toolboxes that can be used to find an environmental management solution to the problem: environmental technology, cleaner technology, and ecotechnology. Integrate Science and Practical Toolboxes to Manage Inland Waters More Effectively This book shows you how to integrate biology, ecology, limnology, and chemistry with the toolboxes in an up-to-date, multidisciplinary approach to environmental management. It provides a powerful framework for ident
This volume includes selected contributions presented during the 2nd edition of the international conference on WaterEnergyNEXUS which was held in Salerno, Italy in November 2018. This conference was organized by the Sanitary Environmental Engineering Division (SEED) of the University of Salerno (Italy) in cooperation with Advanced Institute of Water Industry at Kyungpook National University (Korea) and with The Energy and Resources Institute, TERI (India). The initiative received the patronage of UNESCO - World Water Association Programme (WWAP) and of the International Water Association (IWA) and was organized with the support of Springer (MENA Publishing Program), Arab Water Council (AWC), Korean Society of Environmental Engineering (KSEE) and Italian Society of Sanitary Environmental Engineering Professors (GITISA). With the support of international experts invited as plenary and keynote speakers, the conference aimed to give a platform for Euro-Mediterranean countries to share and discuss key topics on such water-energy issues through the presentation of nature-based solutions, advanced technologies and best practices for a more sustainable environment. This volume gives a general and brief overview on current research focusing on emerging Water-Energy-Nexus issues and challenges and its potential applications to a variety of environmental problems that are impacting the Euro-Mediterranean zone and surrounding regions. A selection of novel and alternative solutions applied worldwide are included. The volume contains over about one hundred carefully refereed contributions from 44 countries worldwide selected for the conference. Topics covered include (1) Nexus framework and governance, (2) Environmental solutions for the sustainable development of the water sector, (3) future clean energy technologies and systems under water constraints, (4) environmental engineering and management, (5) Implementation and best practices Intended for researchers in environmental engineering, environmental science, chemistry, and civil engineering. This volume is also an invaluable guide for industry professionals working in both water and energy sectors.
As we embark into the 21st century, we need to address new challenges ranging from population growth, climate change, and depletion of natural resources to providing better health care, food security and peace to humankind, while at the same time protecting natural ecosystems that provide the services which allow life to flourish on Earth. To meet those challenges, profound changes are required in the way that societies conduct their everyday affairs, ways that will lead to better preservation, protection and sustainable management of natural resources with long lasting impacts. The aim of CleanWAS 2016 is to provide productive opportunities for academics and practitioners from interdisciplinary fields of Environmental Sciences to meet, share and bring expertise and ideas in related disciplines. The CleanWAS conference was first organized in the year 2012. It is an annual event organised by the International Water, Air and Soil Conservation society (INWASCON) and is supported by various Malaysian (UKM, UMS, UIAM) and Chinese universities (CUG, NKU, SYSU).
The book presents a comprehensive study of the percolation of water from surface runoff with a focus on the retention capacity and intensity of precipitation. Discussing the state of the art in scientific knowledge and solutions for the infiltration of water from surface runoff, the book addresses a wide variety of rainwater management issues, from precipitation, surface runoff and water infiltration, to impact on the drainage system. Although modern urban hydrology has improved the management of rainwater runoff for flood protection, public health, and environmental protection, current methods of drainage in urban areas mean that there is a continued threat to the regime of water flow and water resources. In this context, the book presents a new approach to rainwater management based on a unique fusion of hydrology, hydrogeology, urban engineering, and water management. It also includes research findings that are helpful in developing recommendations and technical guidelines for the use of infiltration systems in urban areas.
The book focuses on Application of Nanotechnology in Membranes for Water Treatment but not only provides a series of innovative solutions for water reclamation through advanced membrane technology but also serves as a medium to promote international cooperation and networking for the development of advanced membrane technology for Universal well-being and to achieve the common goal of supplying economically, environmentally and societally sustainable freshwater and better sanitation systems. This book is unique because the chapters were authored by established researchers all around the globe based on their recent research findings. In addition, this book provides a holistic coverage of membrane development for water treatment, from the membrane preparation and characterizations to the performance for specific processes and applications. Since that water scarcity has become a global risk and one of the most serious challenges for the scientific community in this century, the publication of this book is therefore significant as it will serve as a medium for a good reference of an alternative solution in water reclamation. This book will provide the readers with a thorough understanding of the different available approaches for manufacturing membranes both with innovative polymeric systems and inorganic nano-materials which could give enhanced functionalities, catalytic and antimicrobial activities to improve the performance of the existing membranes. It will be useful for leading decision and policy makers, water sector representatives and administrators, policy makers from the governments, business leaders, business houses in water treatment, and engineers/ scientists from both industrialized and developing countries as well.
Sustainable Water Initiative for Tomorrow describes a forward-looking innovative solution to tackling various environmental issues related to water including dwindling ground water supplies and land subsidence. The lack of far thinking and innovative methods regarding these issues is a worldwide problem. This title provides a detailed step-by-step account using scientific research, and engineering analysis to help any municipality deal with these issues. Sustainable Water Initiative for Tomorrow is accessible and is designed to reach a wide range of diverse professionals and students.
This book reviews the work in the field of nanoadsorbents derived from natural polymers, with a special emphasis on materials finding application in water remediation. It includes natural materials both with an organic or an inorganic skeleton, from which the nanomaterials can be made. Those nanomaterials can therefore be used to reinforce other matrices and in their pristine form have an extraordinary adsorption efficiency. Being of natural or biological origin, the materials described in this book distinguish themselves as eco-friendly and non-toxic. The book describes how these benefits of the described materials can be combined and exploited. It will thus appeal to chemists, nanotechnologists, environmental engineers and generally all scientist working in the field of water pollution and remediation as an inspiration for the innovation toward new technologies.
High-Risk Pollutants in Wastewater presents the basic knowledge regarding the diversity, concentrations, and health and environmental impacts of HRPs in municipal wastewater. The book summarizes information on the types (e.g. heavy metals, toxic organics and pathogens) and toxicities of HRPs in wastewater. In addition, it describes ecological and health hazards arising from the living things' direct/indirect contacts with the HRPs during their full lifecycles (generation, disposal, discharge and reuse) in wastewater or water environments. Sections cover the concepts of appropriate technology for HRP hazard/risk assessment and wastewater treatment/reuse and the issues of strategy and policy for increasing risk control coverage. Finally, the book focuses on the resolution of water quality monitoring, wastewater treatment and disposal problems in both developed and developing countries.
Manual of Small Public Water Supply Systems presents current concepts and practices affecting water treatment, financing, management, community involvement in water supply, institutional support, and development of human resources for improved operations and management of water supplies. Information on ground water, surface water, and SDWA requirements is also provided. In short, everything you need to run your small water treatment facility can be found in this book. Material is presented in a thorough, easy-to-read format and a complete bibiliography is included. Fully illustrated, Manual of Small Public Water Supply Systems will soon be dog-eared with use.
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology provides concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.
This book brings together and integrates contributions on water quality modeling, monitoring and assessment techniques; wastewater treatment technologies; and sociological approaches in a single text. Divided into twenty chapters, it offers a comprehensive reference for students, professionals and researchers working on various aspects of water environment technology. The papers published in this book - selected from those presented at the 1st International Forum on Asian Water Environment Technology, held in 2013 in New Delhi, India - highlight the water environmental problems in Asia and respective countermeasures. This book addresses water quality requirements, emphasizing the factors that affect the water environment. Treated wastewater as a new source of water is also examined, introducing readers to important aspects of water reuse. Selecting the most effective and proper wastewater treatment approach is actually the most essential part of generating a new water resource, as well as protecting the receiving water environments. Thus, the fundamental principles of wastewater treatment and monitoring are a major focus in this book, which is intended to help readers effectively address various water environmental problems in Asian countries.
Published in 1992, this book concentrates on recent developments, applications and aspects relating to numerical hydraulic models for predicting flow and water quality parameters in coastal, estuarine and river waters and river systems. The various chapters cover a range of different types of models and discuss the role of such numerical models for environmental impact assessment studies. The book is based on papers presented by leading experts in the field at a symposium held on 13 November 1991, organized by the Tyne and Humber Branch of the Institution of Water and Environmental Management. It covers the latest developments in modelling techniques and approaches and also the concepts of water quality modelling as required and seen from the viewpoints of regulatory agencies such as the NRA, consulting engineers and specialist modelling laboratories such as HR Wallingford and WRc. As well as an up-to-date review, it provides an understanding of the problems relating to water quality modelling, and the scope and requirements for using water quality models in the water industry. Readership includes practising engineers and scientists in the water industry, including consulting engineers, water companies and the NRA and other government departments, university and polytechnic libraries, staff and students and all other members of the water engineering profession._
At a time of great turmoil and crisis, environmentally, socially and politically, water has emerged as a topic of huge global concern. Moreover, many argue that what is needed in order to change our relationship with the environment is a cultural paradigm shift. To this end, this volume brings together diverse approaches to exploring human relationships with the watery world and the other living things that rely upon it. Through exploring multiple creative ways of engaging with water and people, the volume adds to the current zeitgeist of writing about water by expanding the discussion about this vital substance and how, as humans, we relate to it. Chapters focus on creative explorations and explorations of creativity in relation to developing these understandings, including concepts such as hydrocitizenship and responses to drought and flooding. Drawing on the in-depth research and experience of arts practitioners including participatory artists, as well as academics from a variety of fields including geography, anthropology, health studies and environmental humanities, the book provides a rich and multidisciplinary perspective on water and creative ways of engaging and understanding human-water relationships. It represents a valuable source and inspiration for academics, arts practitioners and those involved in environmental policy and governance.
Lessons can be learnt from the past; from time to time it is useful for practitioners to look back over the historical developments of their science. Hydrogeology has developed from humble beginnings into the broad church of investigatory procedures which collectively form the modern-day hydrogeologist's tool box. Hydrogeology remains a branch of the over-arching science of geology and today provides analysis of the sub-surface part of the water cycle within a holistic approach to problem solving. The History of Hydrogeology, is a first attempt to bring the story of the evolution of the science of hydrogeology together from a country- or region-specific viewpoint. It does not cover history to the present day, nor does it deal with all countries involved in groundwater studies, but rather takes the story for specific key countries up and until about the period 1975 to 1980. This is when hydrogeology was still evolving and developing, and in some areas doing so quite rapidly. The book has been written not only for practitioners of hydrogeology and hydrology but also for teachers and students to see the context of the evolution of the science around the globe. The History of Hydrogeology will also be of interest to science historians and all those interested in the role that individuals, institutes and nations have played over the years in defining modern day studies of groundwater.
Key features: Takes a quantitative approach to the science of aquaculture Covers the complete landscape of the scientific basis of fish culture Promotes problem solving and critical thinking Includes sample problems at the end of most chapters Guides the reader through the technical considerations of intensive aquaculture, including fish growth rates, hydraulic characteristics of fish rearing units, oxygen consumption rates in relation to oxygen solubility and fish tolerance of hypoxia, and water reconditioning by reaeration and ammonia filtration. Discusses the environmental effects of aquaculture Includes a chapter on hatchery effluent control to meet receiving water discharge criteria Aquaculture Technology: Flowing Water and Static Water Fish Culture is the first book to provide the skills to raise fish in both a flowing water and a static water aquaculture system with a pragmatic and quantitative approach. Following in the tradition of the author's highly praised book, Flowing Water Fish Culture, this work will stand out as one that makes the reader understand the theory of each type of aquaculture system; it will teach the user "how to think" rather than "what to think" about these systems. The book presents the scientific basis for the controlled husbandry of fish, whether it be in a stream of water or a standing water pool. Part 1, Flowing Water Fish Culture, is a major revision of the author's initial book and includes greatly expanded coverage of rearing unit design criteria, fish growth and the use of liquid oxygen, hatchery effluent control, and recirculating systems. Part 2, Static Water Fish Culture, presents the scientific basis of fish culture in standing water systems including nutrient and dissolved gas dynamics, pond ecology, effects of fertilization and supplemental feeding, water quality management and representative static water aquacultures. Aquaculture Technology conveys the science in a manner appropriate for use by university students and teachers and others involved in fish production and aquaculture research and development worldwide. It will enable the reader to adapt to changing technologies, markets, and environmental regulations as they occur.
This time-saving book provides extensive coverage of all important aspects of nitrates in groundwater, ranging from prevention to problem assessment to remediation. It begins by highlighting the nitrogen cycle and related health concerns, providing both background information and a unique perspective on health issues. It then analyzes subsurface pr
Groundwater is integral to many human and environmental systems but there are significant challenges in dealing with the impact of anthropogenic activities on groundwater systems. These challenges need innovative solutions. This book contains a wide range of content, from a discussion of the Australian regulatory framework for unconventional hydrocarbons, the extraction of which have the potential to significantly impact groundwater systems, to the best way to apply numerical models to help solve complex, real world problems. The impact of urbanisation on groundwater systems in the developing world is also discussed, at both a local scale in Nigeria and at a world scale. The use of innovative tools such as managed aquifer recharge, a critical tool in solving the groundwater challenges of the 21st century, is also discussed. The framework used to manage the legacy of agricultural contamination in Denmark, covering investigation to regulation and remediation, is also presented, focussing on how the many challenges in implantation were solved. This book is targeted at professional hydrogeologists, experts in governance, law and policy as well as other professionals that need to incorporate an understanding of groundwater. The book will also appeal to politicians, resource managers, regulators and others interested in sustainable water supply.
State-of-the-art GIS spatial data management and analysis tools are revolutionizing the field of water resource engineering. Familiarity with these technologies is now a prerequisite for success in engineers' and planners' efforts to create a reliable infrastructure. GIS in Water Resource Engineering presents a review of the concepts and applications of GIS in the various sub-fields of water resource engineering. After a summary review of analyses and database functions, the book addresses concepts and applications in the following areas: Surface Water Hydrology Groundwater Hydrology Water Supply and Irrigation systems Wastewater and Stormwater Systems Floodplain Management Water Quality Water Resource Monitoring and Forecasting River Basin Planning and Management The book develops a general understanding of the nature of GIS and how it is used to create and analyze geographic data. The author first introduces primary field data collection methods and describes procedures for interpretation and analysis. The second portion of the book focuses on the linkage of GIS data with water resource analysis and management models. Applications are presented with descriptions of GIS database development, analysis background theory, and model integration with GIS. The profound impact of GIS systems on water resources engineering continues to grow. GIS in Water Resource Engineering arms engineers and planners with an arsenal of tools to assist in the creation of a reliable, environmentally sensitive, infrastructure.
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