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After air, water is the most crucial resource for human survival. To achieve water sustainability, we will have to deal with its scarcity and quality, and find ways to reclaim it from various sources. Chemistry and Water: The Science Behind Sustaining the World's Most Crucial Resource applies contemporary and sophisticated separation science and chromatographic methods to address the pressing worldwide concerns of potable water for drinking and safe water for irrigation to raise food for communities around the world. Edited and authored by world-leading analytical chemists, the book presents the latest research and solutions on topics including water quality and pollution, water treatment technologies and practices, watershed management, water quality and food production, challenges to achieving sustainable water supplies, water reclamation techniques, and wastewater reuse.
This book covers water quality indices (WQI) in depth - it describes what purpose they serve, how they are generated, what are their strengths and weaknesses, and how to make the best use of them. It is a concise and unique guide to WQIs for chemists, chemical/environmental engineers and government officials. Whereas it is easy to express the quantity of water, it is very difficult to express its quality because a large number of variables determine the water quality. WQIs seek to resolve the difficulty by translating a set of a large number of variables to a one-digit or a two-digit numeral. They are essential in communicating the status of different water resources in terms of water quality and the impact of various factors on it to policy makers, service personnel, and the lay public. Further they are exceedingly useful in the monitoring and management of water quality. With the importance of water and water quality increasing exponentially, the importance of this topic is also set to increase enormously because only with the use of indices is it possible to assess, express, communicate, and monitor the overall quality of any water source.
This comprehensive textbook highlights the fundamental concepts and design principles related to water and wastewater engineering. Problems and issues arising from the lack of sustainable conventional treatment practices and potential methods for resolving problems are discussed in detail. The book starts with an introduction to water resources and the need for water and wastewater treatment, followed by evaluation of water demand in terms of quantity and quality. Mass transfer and transformation processes that are necessary for understanding the complexity of water pollution issues and treatment processes are discussed in detail. Pedagogical features include learning objectives, chapter-wise study outlines, detailed solutions to important problems and self-evaluation exercises with answers. Case studies for specific water treatment requirements are provided to enable the students to choose and apply only relevant treatment processes in their design.
This edited volume is based on the best papers accepted for presentation during the 1st Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences (CAJG-1), Tunisia 2018. The book compiles a wide range of topics addressing various issues by experienced researchers mainly from research institutes in the Mediterranean, MENA region, North America and Asia. Remote sensing observations can close gaps in information scarcity by complementing ground-based sparse data. Spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric characteristics of satellites sensors are most suitable for features identification. The local to global nature and broad spatial scale of remote sensing with the wide range of spectral coverage are essential characteristics, which make satellites an ideal platform for mapping, observation, monitoring, assessing and providing necessary mitigation measures and control for different related Earth's systems processes. Main topics in this book include: Geo-informatics Applications, Land Use / Land Cover Mapping and Change Detection, Emerging Remote Sensing Applications, Rock Formations / Soil Lithology Mapping, Vegetation Mapping Impact and Assessment, Natural Hazards Mapping and Assessment, Ground Water Mapping and Assessment, Coastal Management of Marine Environment and Atmospheric Sensing.
Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Water Quality Control provides basic but essential knowledge of colloid and interface science for water and wastewater treatment. Divided into two sections, chapters 1 to 8 presents colloid chemistry including simple history and basic concepts, diffusion and Brown Motion, sedimentation, osmotic pressure, optical properties, rheology properties, electric properties, emulsion, foam and gel, and so on; chapters 9 to provides interface chemistry theories including the surface of liquid, the surface of solution, and the surface of solid. This valuable book is the only one that presents colloid and interface chemistry from the water quality control perspective. This book was written for graduate students in the area of water treatment and environmental engineering, and it could be used as the reference for researchers and engineers in the same area.
Most writings linking demographic trends to water availability often look only at population-growth effects, treating water supplies as static and population as increasing, inexorably leading to a water-availability crisis. This report's more holistic view of the interaction between demographics and water resources considers more demographic and local water-availability variables. It focuses on conditions in developing countries, where these factors intersect with the fewest socioeconomic resources to mediate.
Water Resources Systems Analysis through Case Studies: Data and Models for Decision Making consists of 10 case studies suitable for the classroom to demonstrate engineers use of widely available modelling software in evaluating complex environmental and water resources systems. Simulation and optimisation models, visualisation tools, and spatial analysis tools are applied to real-life situations. Each case study includes background on the geography, hydrology, and natural resources of the area as well as relevant social, economic, developmental, and political issues. A series of active-learning exercises is provided, along with additional resources for instructors. Software is not included, but all programmes and data sets are freely available online. Primarily intended for students in upper-level undergraduate and graduate level systems analysis courses, this book may also be of interest to practicing engineers in the field of water resources planning and management.
Groundwater contributes to the sustainable development of many Asian cities by providing water for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses and regulating ecosystem flows. However, groundwater has not always been properly managed, which often has resulted in depletion and degradation of the resource. Groundwater Environment in Asian Cities presents the up-to-date scientific knowledge on groundwater environment in fourteen Asian cities using Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. In detail the book presents the facts and figures of groundwater dependency, problems related to groundwater over exploitation, implementation of various policy instruments and management practices and their results in selected fourteen Asian cities, namely; Bandung (Indonesia), Bangkok (Thailand), Beijing (China), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Chitwan (Nepal), Delhi (India), Dili (East Timor), Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam), Hyderabad (India), Khulna (Bangladesh), Lahore (Pakistan), Seoul (South Korea), Tokyo (Japan), and Yangon (Myanmar). The book provides the one-step platform to get sufficient details about groundwater aquifers, hydrogeology, groundwater status, impacts on groundwater environment and responses (technology, policy, institutional, etc.) deployed in the case studies cities, and therefore, provides a snap-shot of Asian groundwater environments. The theoretical background of the topics discussed along with the case studies help the readers understand the similarities and differences about the status of groundwater development and use in each city. In addition, the information in the book will serve as a baseline for other research such as mitigation of groundwater related problems (e.g., land subsidence), impact of climate change on groundwater, and importance of groundwater for implementing sustainable development goals in future.
The definitive student text in its field for 25 years, this new edition takes an environmental perspective that is highly relevant in the context of current public policy debates. New material also includes EU regulations and changes in the UK water industry since privatisation. The latest technological developments are also taken into account.
CONTENTS: Earth Water; Water Basics; Water Cycle; Water Quality & Standards; Oceans & Saltwater; Fresh Water; Estuaries & Wetlands; Ice; Water, Weather, & Climates; Science & Technology; Science & Research; Economic Uses of Water; Water Pollution; Recreational Uses of Water; Policy & Legislative Landscape for Water Disputes; Treatment of Water.
Covering the latest developments in themes related to water disinfection by-products, this book brings the reader right up to date. Stemming from an international conference, contributions are from decision-makers, regulators and the relevant scientific community. Coverage includes emerging disinfection by-products, water treatment, water recycling, monitoring, regulation and health and toxicology aspects. It will be of interest to water companies, public health professionals, drinking water quality regulators, suppliers of laboratory and on-line monitoring equipment, analytical chemists, and academic and industry researchers working in the area of disinfection by-products.
Global awareness of the importance of monitoring and protecting our environment has grown considerably over the last ten years. Environmental concerns are now an integral part of today's legislation, product design and development, waste minimization and disposal. As well as background monitoring of the environment, scientists are involved in monitoring liquid and gaseous discharges and surveying contaminated land and landfill sites - very topical issues due to concern over waste dumping and potential problems with reuse of old industrial sites.
As well as covering long-established methods, this book includes the breadth of new developments which have taken place in the field of environmental analysis. New techniques have emerged which have now become acceptable as alternatives to more long-standing methods. There is also more use of automated techniques. Quality assurance and quality control aspects have become increasingly important for the environmental analyst with a growing emphasis on accurate quantification. The techniques discussed develop in complexity from simple volumetric measurements for water quality to the special problems of ultra-trace analysis. As well as covering all of the laboratory techniques used in extraction and analysis of samples, attention is also given to in situ monitoring and sampling strategies.
Key features include the following:
Reflecting the concerns over environmental sustainability, there has been an increasing focus on the protection of our water resources and on the proper management of our waste. Our economic growth can only be sustainable when it does not represent a threat to human health and to fauna, flora, and eco-system in the long-term. A long-term resilience, new business and economic opportunities, and environmental sustainability can be achieved through circular economy model that offers us a world of opportunity to rethink and redesign our economic activities and consumption patterns. With an aim to give the reader a new perspective on this issue, this book covers European Union's water and waste management legislation and the Czech Republic's transposition of this legislation, and includes a comparative analysis of the performances of the EU Member States on the implementation of new water and waste management policy strategies.
Determination of Metals in Natural Waters, Sediments and Soils provides analytic labs with a comprehensive overview of the various methods available for analysis of metals and serves as a manual to determine metal concentrations in different media such as natural waters, waste waters, sediments and soils. The book begins with a discussion of sampling techniques and preservation and then covers metals in rivers, surface ground and mineral waters and metals in aqueous precipitation. It concludes with detailed information on analysis of metals in sediments. Determination of Metals in Natural Waters, Sediments and Soils provides a foundation for informed action by environmental interest groups and regulators and a starting point for further study by graduate students, professionals, and researchers.
Examines the politics of transnational water resource management through case studies of the Aral Sea basin and the Danube, Euphrates, and Mekong river basins.
Advances in Membrane Technologies for Water Treatment: Materials, Processes and Applications provides a detailed overview of advanced water treatment methods involving membranes, which are increasingly seen as effective replacements for a range of conventional water treatment methods. The text begins with reviews of novel membrane materials and advances in membrane operations, then examines the processes involved with improving membrane performance. Final chapters cover the application of membrane technologies for use in water treatment, with detailed discussions on municipal wastewater and reuse in the textile and paper industries.
Over the past few years, the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in the environment has attracted great interest regarding the possible harmful effects of many of these pollutants to living organisms. One of the main sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is the discharge of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), where their removal is often incomplete. Natural wastewater treatment systems such as constructed wetlands constitute a relevant option to conventional methods due to their efficiency, low establishment costs and reduced operation and management requirements. This book discusses processes involved with wastewater treatment as well as management strategies and their impact on the environment.
This volume highlights important links existing between soils and human health which up to now are not fully realized by the public. Soil materials may have deleterious, beneficial or no impacts on human health; therefore, understanding the complex relationships between diverse soil materials and human health will encourage creative cooperation between soil and environmental sciences and medicine. The topics covered in this book will be of immense value to a wide range of readers, including soil scientists, medical scientists and practitioners, nursing scientists and staff, toxicologists, ecologists, agronomists, geologists, geochemists, public health professionals, planners and several others.
How do we assess and manage the actual risks from water contamination? Can we learn from previous experiences? What can be done in future? This book is the proceedings of the fifth conference on this topic and addresses these issues relating to drinking water and drinking water systems. With emphasis on effectively and efficiently managing the risks and threats and sharing experiences, it provides information on successful use of leading-edge technologies and best practice both now and for the future. With contributions from leading scientists and experts in academia and industry it offers a truly international perspective on our ability to deal with water contamination emergencies. Emphasis is given to prevention, strategy and unusual emergency incident situations relating to drinking water. The book will appeal across a diverse group from public health professionals, water companies and water security experts and regulators.
Concise and readable, "Drinking Water Security for Engineers,
Planners and Managers" provides an overview of issues including
infrastructure planning, planning to evaluate vulnerabilities and
potential threats, capital improvement planning, and maintenance
and risk management. This book also covers topics regarding
potential contaminants, available water security technologies,
analytical methods, and sensor technologies and networks. Other
topics include transport and containment of contaminated water,
treatment technologies and the treatability of contaminants.
Natural disasters, tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods are occurring with increasing frequency. In emergencies, pure drinking water is quickly the most important item. "Low Cost Emergency Water Purification Technologies" provides the tips and techniques for supplying potable drinking water at low cost in the direst circumstances.
Succinct and readable, this manual describes the various options
for correcting unsanitary or unsatisfactory drinking water. Several
treatment methods for contaminated water are reviewed and the pros
and cons of each are discussed.
Inadequate access to clean water afflicts people throughout the world, and in developing countries any solution to this challenge must be achieved at a low cost and low energy demand. At the same time, the use of chemicals, and subsequent environmental impact must also be reduced. Green and sustainable water remediation is a rapidly growing field of interest to governments and corporations alike, with considerable input from academics, environmental consultants and public interest groups. This book presents a focused set of articles covering a range of topics in the field, examining not only the adoption of natural products for water remediation, but also the synthesis of new materials and emerging clean technologies. Contributors from across the globe (including some "on the ground" in the developing world) present a comprehensive digest in the form of review-style articles highlighting the current thinking and direction in the field. Interested stakeholders from all sectors will find this book invaluable, and postgraduate students of chemical engineering or environmental science will benefit from the real-world applications presented.
Distribution systems represent the last barrier available to water systems to maintain safe and high-quality water, and this manual provides a "first stop" for common distribution system water quality challenges. M68 offers practical guidance and best management practices for maintaining and improving distribution system water quality. It will help drinking water utilities and professionals understand the factors that affect water quality, ways to address them and best practices for optimizing distribution system water quality. Each chapter within the manual focuses on a unique distribution challenge, how to characterize and respond to such challenges, and recommend best practices to address ongoing issues and optimization strategies. The manual covers a variety of topics such as, corrosion, taste and odor concerns, microbiology, capacity and water age, and more. M68 includes numerous case studies to better show the applications discussed. The manual also provides a larger resources section where readers can find places for additional expertise.
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