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Mayer I. Gruber provides a new commentary on and translation of Hosea. Building upon his work that debunked the myth of sacred prostitution, Gruber now goes on to show that the book of Hosea repeatedly advocates a single standard of marital fidelity for men and women and teaches cheated women to fight back. Gruber employs the latest and most precise findings of lexicography and poetics to solve the difficulties of the text and to determine both how Hosea can be read and what this means. The translation differs from classical and recent renderings in eliminating forms and expressions, which are neither modern English nor ancient Hebrew. Referring to places, events, and material reality of the 9th and 8th centuries BCE, Gruber uncovers the abiding messages of the heretofore obscure book of Hosea. As in previous studies, Gruber employs the insights of behavioral sciences to uncover forgotten meanings of numerous allusions, idioms, similes, and metaphors. Judicious use is made also of textual history, reception history, and personal voice criticism. One of the least biblical books now speaks more clearly to present and future audiences than it did to many previous audiences.
In this book Barbara Green demonstrates how David is shown and can be read as emerging from a young naive, whose early successes grow into a tendency for actions of contempt and arrogance, of blindness and even cruelty, particularly in matters of cult. However, Green also shows that over time David moves closer to the demeanor and actions of wise compassion, more closely aligned with God. Leaving aside questions of historicity as basically undecidable Green's focus in her approach to the material is on contemporary literature. Green reads the David story in order, applying seven specific tools which she names, describes and exemplifies as she interprets the text. She also uses relevant hermeneutical theory, specifically a bridge between general hermeneutics and the specific challenges of the individual (and socially located) reader. As a result, Green argues that characters in the David narrative can proffer occasions for insight, wisdom, and compassion. Acknowledging the unlikelihood that characters like David and his peers, steeped in patriarchy and power, can be shown to learn and extend wise compassion, Green is careful to make explicit her reading strategies and offer space for dialogue and disagreement.
Does the world we inhabit offer us hospitality or indifference? This question is central to the spiritual literature of all cultures. In We Find Ourselves Put to the Test James Crooks returns to the Bible's book of Job to explore the enduring relevance of that question and its philosophical dimensions. Beginning with the puzzle of Job's famous stoicism and nihilism in the face of loss, Crooks explores the contradictions of suffering as dramatized in the dialogue between Job and his friends. How is it that the friends' attempt to comfort Job with a rational explanation of his misfortune devolves seamlessly into victim blaming? How is it that Job's own renunciation of life at the nadir of his pain converts into an intellectual patience that outlasts the advocates of rational explanation? We Find Ourselves Put to the Test gives a portrait of the suffering protagonist looking into the heart of a creation that is, by necessity, both indifferent and hospitable. A philosophical exploration of one of the most enigmatic books in the Bible, We Find Ourselves Put to the Test goes beyond critical interpretation and suggests a way of reading the book of Job that is animated by a consideration of the reader's narratives and communities, and the limits of his or her own understanding.
C. L. Crouch provides a clear and concise introduction to the complex text of Jeremiah. Readers are introduced to the diverse approaches to the book, with attention paid to the way that these approaches differ from but also relate to one another. After a brief introduction, Crouch addresses the formation of the book, especially in relation to its Hebrew and Greek versions; the theological interests of the book and the challenges posed by attempts to link these to an actual man 'Jeremiah'; and the relationship of Jeremiah to other biblical prophets. Crouch focuses clearly on method and on approaches to the text, as is the mark of this series. This makes the book especially useful for students in the quest to navigate the diverse body of scholarly literature that surrounds this troublesome biblical book.
For many years, scholars have noted that post-biblical Hebrew and Aramaic may have influenced some of the renderings in the ancient Greek versions of the Hebrew Bible, but examination of this has usually been done only in passing with little or no discussion and scant evidence. Seulgi L. Byun examines the ancient Greek version of Isaiah, commonly referred to as LXX (Septuagint) Isaiah, and examines a number of possible cases in depth in order to determine the degree to which semantic change within Hebrew, as well as the spread of Aramaic already in the Second Temple period, may have influenced the translator. The book begins with an overview of key issues (semantic change; the development (or non-development) of the Hebrew language; previous scholarship; issues in the study of LXX Isaiah; and methodological considerations). This is followed by four larger sections representing various categories of examples where post-biblical Hebrew or Aramaic may have influenced renderings in the text, each offering specific examples. The first section contains examples where post-biblical Hebrew may have influenced LXX Isaiah; the second section offers examples of Aramaic influence; the third section addresses examples where the influence is not clear (possibly both post-biblical Hebrew and Aramaic); and the fourth section discusses the possibility of word manipulation - cases where the translator of LXX Isaiah `manipulated' the Hebrew with a post-biblical Hebrew or Aramaic meaning/word in mind.
Reading Joshua can be, frankly, a jarring experience. Serious, troubling questions about God s attitude toward his created peoples arise, questions with no easy answer. But the book of Joshua presents itself, warts (and wars ) and all, and asks readers to let it tell its story from its point of view and out of its ancient context. It asks them to give it the benefit of the doubt and permit it to speak to them. This commentary aims to give its voice a clear hearing --- to translate its ancient cultural form in such a way that it freely speaks about the life of faith today. Basically, the book of Joshua tells how biblical Israel navigated a major historical transition early in its national life. The book shows that guiding these changes is Israel s God, Yahweh, through his chosen servant, Joshua. The introductory sections to follow set the scene for entering the book of Joshua and the ancient world about which it reports. Most Bible commentaries take us on a one-way trip from our world to the world of the Bible. But they leave us there, assuming that we can somehow make the return journey on our own. They focus on the original meaning of the passage but don t discuss its contemporary application. The information they offer is valuable --- but the job is only half done The NIV Application Commentary Series helps bring both halves of the interpretive task together. This unique, award-winning series shows readers how to bring an ancient message into our present-day context. Joshua helps readers learn how the message of Joshua can have the same powerful impact today that it did when it was first written."
Key second-temple texts with introductions and notes by an international team of scholars--now available in affordable softcover bindings.
The writers of the Bible lived in a world filled with many writings. Some of these documents are lost forever, but many have been preserved. Part of these extant sources are the Pseudepigrapha. This collection of Jewish and Christian writings shed light on early Judaism and Christianity and their doctrines.
This landmark set includes all 65 Pseudepigraphical documents from the intertestamental period that reveal the ongoing development of Judaism and the roots from which the Christian religion took its beliefs. A scholarly authority on each text contributes a translation, introduction, and critical notes for each text. Volume 2 includes expansions of the "Old Testament" legends, wisdom, and philosophical literature; prayers, psalms, and odes; and fragments of lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works.
Contributors include E. Isaac, B.M. Metzger, J.R. Mueller, S.E. Robinson, D.J. Harrington, G.T. Zervos, and many others.
Of enormous value to scholars and students, religious professionals and interested laypeople.
Part of Anchor Yale Reference Library.
Can anyone say anything that has not already been said about the most scrutinized text in human history? In one of the most radical rereadings of the opening chapters of Genesis since The Zohar, David Kishik manages to do just that. The Book of Shem, a philosophical meditation on the beginning of the Bible and the end of the world, offers an inspiring interpretation of this navel of world literature. The six parts of the primeval story-God's creation, the Garden of Eden, Cain and Abel, Noah's Ark, the first covenant, and the Tower of Babel-come together to address a single concern: How does one become the human being that one is? By closely analyzing the founding text of the Abrahamic religions, this short treatise rethinks some of their deepest convictions. With a mixture of reverence and violence, Kishik's creative commentary demonstrates the post-secular implications of a pre-Abrahamic position. A translation of the Hebrew source, included as an appendix, helps to peel away the endless layers of presuppositions about its meaning.
The so-called purity laws in Leviticus 11-15 reflect a cultic and social view of the male and female body. These texts do not give detailed physiological descriptions. Instead, they prescribe what to do in the cases of skin disease, delivery and wo/man's genital discharges, but the particular way of dealing with the body and the language used in Leviticus 12 and 15 ask for clarification: how do these texts construct the male and female body? Which roles does gender play within this language? By means of themes such as menstruation and circumcision, Erbele-Kuester unfolds the language used for the body in Leviticus and its interpretation history. Her study provides material for a contemporary anthropology of bodies which relates the human sexed body to God's holiness.
The nature of the Greek of the Septuagint has long been debated. Interference from the original Hebrew is present but scholars continue to disagree on its extent and significance. The Greek of the Pentateuch builds on John A. L. Lee's previous work on the vocabulary of the Pentateuch and its links with documentary texts, while offering a fresh perspective on the field. This timely and authoritative contribution argues that the language the translators used was fundamentally the Greek of their time and that they had full competence in it. The volume is divided into seven chapters which proceed through several topics: use of evidence, language variation, educated language, the presence of Greek idiom, the translators' collaboration, and freedom of choice in dealing with the Hebrew. A final chapter draws conclusions not only about the Pentateuch translators' knowledge of Greek, but about the translators themselves, their achievement, and their audience. The book presents a wide range of examples, comprising both vocabulary and syntax, from the Septuagint itself, Greek papyri of the period found in Egypt, and Classical and Koine Greek literature.
Analysis of inner-biblical exegesis ordinarily involves examination of the intertextual relationship between two texts within the biblical corpus. But in many cases there is an often overlooked intertext that serves as a bridge between the two texts. Such an intermediary text reads the primary text in a manner similar to the way the tertiary text reads it and supplies a missing link in a very subtle yet identifiable manner. The direction of dependence between texts of this kind is not as important in the present study as the direction in which these texts were meant to be read by those who gave them their final shape.
In this commentary on Haggai and Malachi, Mignon Jacobs offers clear and insightful interpretation of the text while highlighting themes that are especially relevant to contemporary concerns, such as honoring or dishonoring God, the responsibilities of leaders, questioning God, and hearing the prophetic word in challenging times. Engaging with the latest scholarship, Jacobs provides a thorough introduction to both prophets in which she addresses questions of authorship, date, purpose, structure, and theology, followed by a new translation of the biblical text and a verse-by-verse commentary. With intertextual discussions about key aspects of the text and attention to competing perspectives, this commentary offers a rich new interpretation of Haggai and Malachi.
The book of Joel is held to be one of the latest prophetic witnesses; it cites other books of the book of the Twelve prophets with a density that distinguishes it from its neighbours. The concept of the "Day of the LORD" which runs throughout the Minor Prophets as a whole reaches its zenith in Joel and its co-mingling of ecological and military metaphors advances Hosea on the former and anticipates later texts on the latter. In this volume within T&T Clark's International Theological Commentary Series Christopher Seitz starts from a foundation of historical-critical methodology to provide an account of Joel's place and purpose within the book of the Twelve prophets as a whole. Seitz examines the theology and background of Joel, and shows how Joel's theological function can provide a major hermeneutical key to the interpretation of the wider collection, and teases out the precise character of that role.
In the Beginning is a visual tour de force. From Genesis to the Book of Daniel, this magnificent volume recounts thirty-five Biblical stories from the Old Testament through spirited illustrations paired with simple, eloquent prose. Each foundational tale is revealed through the work of acclaimed illustrator Serge Bloch, whose drawings capture the scenes and emotions of beloved allegories, such as Adam and Eve in Eden, Noah's ark, Exodus, and David and Goliath. Religious scholar Frederic Boyer and poet and translator Cole Swensen accompany these evocative illustrations with the story being told to create an accessible and enlightening journey through the ancient tales. The book closes with short essays on the history, symbolism, and interpretations of each Biblical story. Presented with gorgeous details-including a neon and metallic cover, oversised flaps, and two-colour washes throughout-this distinctive retelling invites people of all ages and faiths to immerse themselves in the Bible's enduring and universal stories.
Where did we come from? Why is there pain and suffering? Who committed the first murder? Why are there so many languages in the world? The first eleven chapters of the book of Genesis have the answers to these questions and more-providing us with the history of the human race in its earliest years prior to the time of Abraham. In this study, John MacArthur guides readers through an in-depth look at the creation story, the first murder, Noah and the Flood, the first covenant, the Tower of Babel, and the dispersion of the nations. This study includes close-up examinations of Adam, Eve, Cain, Abel, and Noah, as well as careful considerations of doctrinal themes such as "The Fall of Man" and "Heritage and Family." The MacArthur Bible Studies provide intriguing examinations of the whole of Scripture. Each guide incorporates extensive commentary, detailed observations on overriding themes, and probing questions to help you study the Word of God with guidance from John MacArthur.
Jewish Theology Unbound challenges the widespread misinterpretation of Judaism as a religion of law as opposed to theology. James A. Diamond provides close readings of the Bible, classical rabbinic texts, Jewish philosophers, and mystics from the ancient, medieval, and modern period, which communicate a profound Jewish philosophical theology on human nature, God, and the relationship between the two. The study begins with an examination of questioning in the Hebrew Bible, demonstrating that what the Bible encourages is independent philosophical inquiry into how to situate oneself in the world ethically, spiritually, and teleologically. It explores such themes as the nature of God through the various names by which God is known in the Jewish intellectual tradition, love of others and of God, death, martyrdom, freedom, angels, the philosophical quest, the Holocaust, and the state of Israel, all in light of the Hebrew Bible and the way it is filtered through the rabbinic, philosophical, and mystical traditions.
For over one hundred years International Critical Commentaries have had a special place among works on the Bible. They bring together all the relevant aids to exegesis - linguistic, textual, archaeological, historical, literary, and theological - to help the reader understand the meaning of the books of the Old and New Testaments. The new commentaries continue this tradition. All new evidence now available is incorporated and new methods of study are applied. The authors are of the highest international standing. No attempt has been made to secure a uniform theological or critical approach to the biblical text: contributors have been invited for their scholarly distinction, not for their adherence to any one school of thought. Professor John Goldingay, a noted specialist on Deutero and Trito Isaiah continues his breathtaking work of commentary, following his widely acclaimed volumes (with David Payne) of the International Critical Commentary on Isaiah 40-55.
A Redactional Study of the Book of Isaiah 13-23 argues that a series of programmatic additions were made to the oracles concerning the nations in Isaiah 13-23 during the late-exilic period by the same circle of writers who were responsible for Isaiah 40-55. These additions were made to create continuity between the ancient oracles against the nations from the Isaiah tradition and the future fate of the same nations as the late-exilic redactor(s) foresaw. The additions portray a two-sided vision concerning the nations. One group of passages depicts a positive turn for certain nations while the other group of passages continues to pronounce doom against the remaining nations. This double-sided vision is set out first in Isaiah 14 surrounding the famous taunt against the fallen tyrant. 14:1-2, before the taunt, paints the broad picture of the future return of the exiles and the attachment of the gentiles to the people of Israel. After the taunt and other sayings of YHWH against his enemies, 14:26-27 extends the sphere of the underlying theme of 14:4b-25a, namely YHWH's judgement against boastful and tyrannical power(s), to all nations and the whole earth. The two sides of this vision are then applied accordingly to the rest of the oracles concerning nations in chapters 13-23. To the nations that have experienced similar disasters as the people of Israel, words of hope in line with 14:1-2 were given. To the nations that still possessed some prominence and reasons to be proud, words of doom in line with 14:26-27 were decreed.
With an emphasis on the nature and importance of divine presence, "The Abiding Presence" provides a unique perspective on the overarching theology of Exodus drawing particular attention to God's revelation at the burning bush, Sinai, and the tabernacle. Exploring the rich theological themes that emerge from the final form of the narrative the commentary also reflects on how these themes were employed by New Testament authors in understanding the life and ministry of Christ. Bridging the gap between accessibility and scholarly rigour, this commentary offers an excellent tool for ordinands, students, teachers in higher education and preachers to engage with the theology of the book in its Old Testament context as well as how its message is revealed in the New Testament and continues to speak today.
Since the seventies, no study has examined the methodologies of Josephus' rewriting of an entire biblical book as part of his Judean Antiquities. This book attempts to fill this vacuum by exploring Josephus' adaptation of the books of Samuel, penetrating the exegetical strategies he employs to modify the biblical stories for his intended audience. Through meticulous comparison of the biblical narrative and Josephus' Antiquities, broader issues - such as Josephus' attitude towards monarchy and women - gradually come to light, challenging long-held assumptions. This definitive exploration of Josephus' rewriting of Samuel illuminates the encounter between the ancient texts and its relevance to scholarly discourse today.
Noah (Genesis 6:9-11:32) and Haftarah (Isaiah 54:1-55:5): The JPS B'nai Mitzvah Torah Commentary shows teens in their own language how Torah addresses the issues in their world. The conversational tone is inviting and dignified, concise and substantial, direct and informative. Each pamphlet includes a general introduction, two model divrei Torah on the weekly Torah portion, and one model davar Torah on the weekly Haftarah portion. Jewish learning-for young people and adults-will never be the same. The complete set of weekly portions is available in Rabbi Jeffrey K. Salkin's book The JPS B'nai Mitzvah Torah Commentary (JPS, 2017).
Lekh Lekha (Genesis 12:1-17:27) and Haftarah (Isaiah 40:27-41:16): The JPS B'nai Mitzvah Torah Commentary shows teens in their own language how Torah addresses the issues in their world. The conversational tone is inviting and dignified, concise and substantial, direct and informative. Each pamphlet includes a general introduction, two model divrei Torah on the weekly Torah portion, and one model davar Torah on the weekly Haftarah portion. Jewish learning-for young people and adults-will never be the same. The complete set of weekly portions is available in Rabbi Jeffrey K. Salkin's book The JPS B'nai Mitzvah Torah Commentary (JPS, 2017).
Va-yera' (Genesis 18:1-22:24) and Haftarah (2 Kings 4:1-37): The JPS B'nai Mitzvah Torah Commentary shows teens in their own language how Torah addresses the issues in their world. The conversational tone is inviting and dignified, concise and substantial, direct and informative. Each pamphlet includes a general introduction, two model divrei Torah on the weekly Torah portion, and one model davar Torah on the weekly Haftarah portion. Jewish learning-for young people and adults-will never be the same. The complete set of weekly portions is available in Rabbi Jeffrey K. Salkin's book The JPS B'nai Mitzvah Torah Commentary (JPS, 2017).
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