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The Festschrift in Honor of Professor Paul Nadim Tarazi includes a collection of articles discussing the latest scholarly findings in the field of the Old Testament studies. Scholars from around the world conducting research in the Old Testament text, theology, canon, interpretation, and criticism have contributed their recent findings in the fields of their research and teaching to this volume.
After crossing the Reed Sea, Moses and the Israelites celebrate Yahweh's victory over the Egyptians in the "Song of the Sea" (Exod. 15:1-18). Much of the song rejoices over their recent deliverance, but its latter portion anticipates what Yahweh would do for his people in the future. Specifically, he will lead them past enemy nations and "plant" them on a mountain. Also included in this context is a reference to "the sanctuary, O Lord, which your hands have established" (v. 17). Commentators throughout the history of interpretation have understood this "sanctuary" as a reference to Solomon's temple on Mount Zion. However, since the temple was eventually destroyed, equating it with a divinely "established" sanctuary is questionable. Eschatological Sanctuary in Exodus 15:17 and Related Texts argues that the sanctuary mentioned in Exod. 15:17 does not refer to Solomon's temple or to any other "man-made" structure but to an eschatological sanctuary distinctively established by divine hands. Such an understanding of this sanctuary impacts the theology of the Pentateuch and provides a reference point for predictions of an eschatological temple in the Prophets and the Writings and for references to unconventional temples in the New Testament.
First published in 1925, this book provides a selection from a previously unpublished work on Genesis and Exodus by the Medieval Greek poet Georgios Chumnos. The selection was taken from a British Museum manuscript, and illustrations from this manuscript are included. The text is presented in the original Greek, alongside a facing-page English metrical translation. A detailed editorial introduction, notes and a glossary are also provided. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in Medieval Greek poetry and European literature.
The Book of Job is one of the most celebrated pieces of biblical literature, probing profound questions about faith. It is a beautifully written work, combining two literary forms, framing forty chapters of verse between two and a half chapters of prose at the beginning and the end. The Book of Job is presented here in five different versions: The King James Version, Douay-Rheims, The American Standard, Bible in Basic English and the Webster Bible Version.
This second part of Genesis is the story of God's choosing of the Jews. As you read and study your way through this second part of Genesis, I think you'll be struck, as I was, at what a total mess this chosen family was. And perhaps you'll come to the same conclusion I have: All families are dysfunctional in more ways than we know! Genesis Part 2 is full of hope and a little humor for all of us dysfunctionals.
The second installment of Dr. Allen Ross's acclaimed three-volume commentary
For thousands of years, Psalms has been one of the richest resources for worship and development of the spiritual life. At the same time it is one of the more complex and challenging sections of the Bible for expositors and students. Pastors, teachers, and all serious students of the Bible will find this commentary invaluable for developing an understanding of Psalms and for improving the ability to expound it with precision and depth This is volume two of a three-volume commentary on Psalms.
For each psalm, Dr. Allen Ross provides a translation of the text and an overview of the context. He then guides the reader through a detailed exegetical outline and offers an expository idea for the message of the whole psalm.
The commentary includes discussion throughout of three primary challenges to understanding Psalms:
- Textual issues: Every major textual difficulty is addressed in order to help the expositor understand the interpretive issues and make decisions when there are multiple available readings.
- Poetic language: The psalms are full of poetic imagery, devices, and structures Ross discusses Hebrew poetry in its context with each psalm, specifying the precise devices being used and how they work in the psalm.
- Hebrew grammar and syntax: The Hebrew of Psalms poses a challenge to many expositors. This commentary illuminates Hebrew constructions and word meanings in a way that is helpful both to readers who are comfortable with Hebrew and those who are not.
The Book of Job is one of the most celebrated pieces of biblical literature, probing profound questions about faith. It is a beautifully written work, combining two literary forms, framing forty chapters of verse between two and a half chapters of prose at the beginning and the end. The Book of Job is presented here in five different versions: The King James Version, Douay-Rheims Version, The American Standard Version, Bible in Basic English Version and the Webster Bible Version.
The Book of Job presents the story of the sufferings of a man of God at the hands of the devil. God allowed it! In fact, God put Job forth to the devil as a wonderful servant of God! The Book of Job teaches how God operates in this world. As a servant of God, Job thought he knew God...but not nearly as well as he thought he did. The book contrasts the knowledge of the world, represented in the words of Job's three friends, to Job's confusion concerning the ways of God, to the truth of God explained by the Lord! Hopefully, by studying the details of Job's experiences, each of us will learn to turn our attention and trust to God - without the need to personally endure affliction and suffering like Job!
Few phrases in Scripture have occasioned as much discussion as has the "I am who I am" of Exodus 3:14. What does this phrase mean? How does it relate to the divine name, YHWH? Is it an answer to Moses' question (v. 13), or an evasion of an answer? The trend in late-nineteenth- and twentieth-century scholarly interpretations of this verse was to superimpose later Christian interpretations, which built on Greek and Latin translations, on the Hebrew text. According to such views, the text presents an etymology of the divine name that suggests God's active presence with Israel or what God will accomplish for Israel; the text does not address the nature or being of God. However, this trend presents challenges to theological interpretation, which seeks to consider critically the value pre-modern Christian readings have for faithful appropriations of Scripture today. In "Too Much to Grasp" Exodus 3:13?15 and the Reality of God, Andrea Saner argues for an alternative way forward for twenty-first century readings of the passage, using Augustine of Hippo as representative of the misunderstood interpretive tradition. Read within the literary contexts of the received form of the book of Exodus and the Pentateuch as a whole, the literal sense of Exodus 3:13-15 addresses both who God is as well as God's action. The "I am who I am" of v. 14a expresses indefiniteness; while God reveals himself as YHWH and offers this name for the Israelites to call upon him, God is not exhausted by this revelation but rather remains beyond human comprehension and control.
Catherine McDowell presents a detailed and insightful analysis of the creation of adam in Gen 2:5-3:24 in light of the Mesopotamian mis p pit p ("washing of the mouth, opening of the mouth") and the Egyptian wpt-r (opening of the mouth) rituals for the creation of a divine image. Parallels between the mouth washing and opening rituals and the Eden story suggest that the biblical author was comparing and contrasting human creation with the ritual creation, animation, and installation of a cult statue in order to redefine ?elem ~eloh m as a human being--the living likeness of God tending and serving in the sacred garden. McDowell also considers the explicit image and likeness language in Gen 1:26-27. Drawing from biblical and extrabiblical texts, she demonstrates that ?elem and d?m t define the divine-human relationship, first and foremost, in terms of kinship. To be created in the image and likeness of Elohim was to be, metaphorically speaking, God's royal sons and daughters. While these royal qualities are explicit in Gen 1, McDowell persuasively argues that kinship is the primary metaphor Gen 1 uses to define humanity and its relationship to God. Further, she discusses critical issues, noting the problems inherent in the traditional views on the dating and authorship of Gen 1-3, and the relationship between the two creation accounts. Through a careful study of the toledot in Genesis, she demonstrates that Gen 2:4 serves as both a hinge and a "telescope" the creation of humanity in Gen 2:5-3:24 should be understood as a detailed account of the events of Day 6 in Gen 1. When Gen 1-3 are read together, as the final redactor intended, these texts redefine the divine-human relationship using three significant and theologically laden categories: kinship, kingship, and cult. Thus, they provide an important lens through which to view the relationship between God and humanity as presented in the rest of the Bible. ;
The juxtaposition of 'favour' and 'righteousness' in the flood narrative raises an interpretative and theological problem: Is Noah chosen because of divine favour or because of his piety ? Source-critical scholars identify two different theologies by J and P: J understands Noah's election to be an act of grace whereas P emphasizes Noah's righteousness as the basis for his election. Scholars who interpret the flood narrative according to its final form argue that Noah is chosen because he is righteous. This view is problematic, however, since in the primaeval history grace is shown to the 'undeserving', thus it is characteristically unmerited. This book entails an exegetical analysis of, and according to, the final form of the text, with particular attention being given to the meaning and function of these verses in the Toledot structure. Kaminski argues against the commonly held view that Noah finds favour because he is righteous, and seeks to demonstrate that divine favour is unmerited in accordance with the theme of grace in the primaeval history and in Genesis as a whole. Thus what sets the flood story in motion is not Noah's righteousness, but the divine favour he finds.
While there are many textbooks about the prophetic literature, most have taken either a historical or literary approach to studying the prophets. A Chorus of Prophetic Voices, by contrast, draws on both historical and literary approaches by paying careful attention to the prophets as narrative characters. It considers each unique prophetic voice in the canon, in its fully developed literary form, while also listening to what these voices say together about a particular experience in Israel's story. It presents these four scrolls--Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Book of the Twelve--as works produced in the aftermath of destruction, works that employ prophetic characters, and as the words uttered during the crises. The prophetic literature became for Israel, living in a context of dispersion and imperial domination, a portable and adaptable resource at once both challenging and comforting. This book provides the fullest picture available for introducing students to the prophetic literature by valuing the role of the original prophetic characters, the finished state of the books that bear their names, the separate historical crises in the life of Israel they address, and the "chorus of prophetic voices" one hears when reading them as part of a coherent literary corpus.
The Body As Property indicates that physical disfigurement functioned in biblical law to verify legal property acquisition, when changes in the status of dependents were formalized. It is based on the reality the cuneiform script, in particular, was developed in Sumer and Mesopotamia for the purpose of record keeping: to provide legal proof of ownership where the inscription of a tablet evidenced the sale, or transfer, of property. Legitimate property acquisition was as important in biblical law, where physical disfigurements marked dependents, in a similar way that the veil or the head covering identified a wife or concubine in ancient Assyrian and Judean societies. This is primarily substantiated in the accounts of prescriptive disfigurements: namely circumcision and the piercing of a slave's ear, both of which were required only when a son, or slave, was acquired permanently. It is further argued that legal entitlement was relevant also to the punitive disfigurements recorded in Exodus 21:22-24, and Deuteronomy 25:11-12, where the physical violation of women was of concern solely as an infringement of male property rights.
Joerg Jeremias outlines for the modern reader the most important ideas emerging from the Old Testament concerning God. He connects the historical background with the generic history and aspects from systematic theology. In this volume the author outlines the most important ideas about God in the Old Testament. Some of the texts, however, span more than 500 years and belong to very different genres: The Old Testament is not a homogeneous book but a library of separate volumes. Thus, the author connects for the modern reader the historical background with a generic history as well as with aspects from systematic theology. His choice of themes reflects the cohesion of the Old and New Testaments and serves to inform the modern reader.
Though interest in the use of metaphor in the Hebrew Bible has gained momentum in recent years, there is, to date, no investigation which concentrates exclusively on the animal metaphors in the book of Jeremiah. In this book, the author brings to light this neglected area of study by examining the language and imagery of the animal metaphors for the people of Israel in the book of Jeremiah. The contribution that these metaphors make to the theology of the book is given special attention, and since different interpretations have been given to many of the metaphors in question, the author resolves some of the questions regarding the meaning of these images in his in-depth study. Additionally, scholars have not tended to research metaphors for the nation of Israel and thus this volume draws attention to a particular subject which has largely been overlooked. In chapter one Foreman familiarizes the reader with the major theoretical approaches to metaphor and spells out the approach taken in his investigation. Eighteen metaphors are then thoroughly analyzed in chapters two, three, and four. These metaphors are grouped into three categories, each of which constitutes a chapter: pastoral metaphors, mammal metaphors, and bird metaphors. Chapter five draws the results of the inquiry together. This study reveals how animal metaphors make important theological claims about the nation of Israel and demonstrates that they are essential elements of the message of the book of Jeremiah. Foreman's elucidation of the language and imagery of the animal metaphors for the people of Israel leads to a richer understanding of these metaphors and ultimately contributes to a more precise interpretation of the message of the book of Jeremiah as a whole.
"Babel is everywhere! Migrant readings from Africa, Europe and Asia" sets out to explore the intersection between religion, identity and migration. It does so by telling entangled histories between diaspora/s and homeland and by analysing biblical in-roads to issues and challenges of migration. It also explores hyphenated identities and takes a close look at the role of migrant religion specifically regarding issues of mission, of identity formation and of ecclesial and societal formation. This book challenges static notions of diaspora, stable identities and Western-centred notions of Christianity and offers kaleidoscopic insights from Pentecostal, migrant and intercultural perspectives.
Six Minor Prophets Through the Centuries is the work of highly respected biblical scholars, Richard Coggins and Jin H. Han. The volume explores the rich and complex reception history of the last six Minor Prophets in Jewish and Christian exegesis, theology, worship, and arts. * This text is the work of two highly respected biblical scholars * It explores the rich and complex reception history of the last six Minor Prophets in Jewish and Christian theology and exegesis
A lengthy history of readers' struggles with Joel lies behind Merx's characterization of the book as "the problem child of Old Testament exegesis, insofar as the resources utilized by interpreters thus far are entirely insufficient to dispel its darkness". Long before Vernes posited that chapters 3-4 were a composition distinct from 1-2, Augustine voiced his perplexity about how the book constituted a unity. Many attempts to expound it as a unity have subdued the book's tensions through problematic harmonizations. On the other hand, theories of the book's development within the construction of a Book of the Twelve not only bar understanding the book as a whole, but also fall short of explaining its composition. In this volume, Ronald L. Troxel acknowledges the perennial problems raised by the book, but argues that taking account of the signs of its genre elucidates numerous cruxes and spotlights salient interpretive features that are infrequently discussed. Recognizing that chapter four comprises a series of late additions permits recognition of narrative markers that unite the first three chapters as a product of schriftgelehrte Prophetie, "scribal prophecy". The book's features align well with those of two other prophetic narratives fashioned as composite works: Jonah and Haggai. All three books are better accounted for in this way than through the prism of redactional expansion. Correlatively, the long-standing arguments against chapter 3 as the literary continuation of chapters 1-2 prove reliant on social conceptions of prophecy that are alien to schriftgelehrte Prophetie. Instead, Troxel shows Joel 3 to be the culmination of a didactic narrative meant to prepare a future generation to survive the Day of the Lord. The first chapter of Troxel's study illuminates the persistent conundrums addressed in the history of interpretation, as well as the social contexts from which resolutions have been proposed. Chapters two and three address the book's composite texture and narrative marks, while chapter four expounds its distinctive eschatology. The fifth chapter synthesizes these observations in a synopsis of Joel's genre, scope, and meaning.
In the first book of the Bible, every patriarch and many of the matriarchs become angry in significant ways. However, scholars have largely ignored how Genesis treats this emotion, particularly how Genesis functions as Torah by providing ethical instruction about handling this emotion's perplexities. In this important work, Schlimm fills this gap in scholarship, describing (1) the language surrounding anger in the Hebrew Bible, (2) the moral guidance that Genesis offers for engaging anger, and (3) the function of anger as a literary motif in Genesis. Genesis evidences two bookends, which expose readers to the opposite extremes of anger and its effects. In Gen 4:1-16, anger takes center stage when Cain kills his brother, Abel, although he has done nothing wrong. Fratricide is at one extreme of the spectrum of anger's results. In the final chapter of Genesis, readers encounter the opposite extreme, forgiveness. Here, Joseph and his brothers forgive one another after a long history of jealousy, anger, deception, and abuse. It is a moment of reconciliation offered just before the book closes, allowing readers to see Joseph as an anti-Cain--someone who has all the power and all the reasons to harm his brothers but instead turns away from anger and, despite the inherent difficulties, offers forgiveness. Although Genesis frames its post-Edenic narratives with two contrasting outcomes of anger--fratricide and forgiveness--it avoids simplistic moral platitudes, such as demanding that its readers respond to being angry with someone by forgiving the person. Genesis instead returns to the theme of anger on many occasions, presenting a multifaceted message about its ethical significance. The text is quite realistic about the difficulties that individuals face and the paradoxes presented by anger. Genesis presents this emotion as a force that naturally arises from one's moral sensitivities in response to the perception of wrongdoing. At the same time, the text presents anger as a great threat to the moral life. Genesis thus warns readers about the dangers of anger, but it never suggests that one can lead a life free from this emotion. Instead, it portrays many characters who are forced to deal with anger, presenting them with dilemmas that defy easy resolution. Genesis invites readers to imagine ways of alleviating anger, but it is painfully realistic about how difficult, threatening, and short-lived attempts at reconciliation may be.
The essays published here are revised versions of papers presented in 2008 and 2009 in the section devoted to Israel and the Production and Reception of Authoritative Books in the Persian and Hellenistic Period at the annual meeting of the European Association of Biblical Studies. The various contributors explore what was authoritative for Chronicles and what authoritative might have meant for the Chronicler from different perspectives. The volume includes chapters by Yairah Amit, Joseph Blenkinsopp, David J. Chalcraft, Philip R. Davies, David A. Glatt-Gilad, Louis Jonker, Mark Leuchter, Ingeborg L wisch, Lynette Mitchell, Steven J. Schweitzer, Amber K. Warhurst, and the two editors, Diana V. Edelman, and Ehud Ben Zvi. This volume will be of particular interest to scholars and students of biblical literature and all who are interested in ancient Israelite historiography, in Chronicles, in the intellectual history of Israel in the Persian/early Hellenistic period, and in issues of biblical proto-canonicity, authority, and criticism.
Originally published in 1911, this book contains the complete text of the Psalms in six different English translations: Coverdale (1535); Great Bible (1539); Geneva (1560); Bishops (1568); Authorised (1611); Revised (1885). It was edited by the renowned nonconformist writer and critic William Aldis Wright (1831-1914). This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the Psalms and biblical translation.
The Bible, Gender, and Reception History: The Case of Job's Wife investigates the fleeting appearance in the Bible of Job's wife and its impact on the imaginations of readers throughout history. It begins by presenting key interpretive gaps in the biblical text concerning Job and his wife, explaining the way gender studies offers guiding principles with which the author engages a reception history of their marriage. After analyzing Job and his wife within medieval Christian theology of Eden, the author identifies ways in which Job's wife visually aligns with medieval images of Satan. The volume explores portrayals of Job and his wife in publications on marriage and gender roles in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, moving onto an investigation of William Blake's sharp artistic divergence from the common tradition in his representation of Job's wife as a shrew. In the exploration of societal portrayals of Job and his Wife throughout history, this book discovers how arguments about marriage intertwine with not only gender roles, but also, with political, social, and historical movements.
First published in 1911 as the second edition of a 1909 original, this book contains an English translation of the odes and psalms attributed to the biblical king Solomon. Rendel Harris draws on Syriac manuscripts to compose a fluid and poetic translation, and includes a transcription of the Syriac original at the back of the volume. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in ancient Jewish poetry.
In this commentary James McKeown approaches the book of Ruth as part of the canon of Scripture, studying not only the content of the book but also its relationship to other biblical books. McKeown shows in particular how Ruth overflows with allusions to Genesis. The themes of "blessing," "seed," and "land" are common to both books, and studying Genesis and Ruth together provides profound insights. In addition to his exegetical commentary on the text of Ruth, McKeown provides useful background material on how the book has previously been interpreted, and he focuses on Ruth's theology and its application. His discussion also touches on such related topics as universalism, feminist studies, and the missiological significance of the book of Ruth. McKeown's insightful commentary will enable students, pastors, and laypeople to better understand the ancient book of Ruth so that they can better apply its message and wisdom today.
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