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Books > Social sciences > Politics & government > Political control & freedoms > Political control & influence > Political oppression & persecution > General

The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies (Hardcover): Guenter Lewy The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies (Hardcover)
Guenter Lewy
R1,687 Discovery Miles 16 870 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Roaming the countryside in caravans, earning their living as musicians, peddlers, and fortune-tellers, the Gypsies and their elusive way of life represented an affront to Nazi ideas of social order, hard work, and racial purity. They were branded as "asocials," harassed, and eventually herded into concentration camps where many thousands were killed. But until now the story of their persecution has either been overlooked or distorted.
In The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies, Guenter Lewy draws upon thousands of documents--many never before used--from German and Austrian archives to provide the most comprehensive and accurate study available of the fate of the Gypsies under the Nazi regime. Lewy traces the escalating vilification of the Gypsies as the Nazis instigated a widespread crackdown on the "work-shy" and "itinerants." But he shows that Nazi policy towards Gypsies was confused and changeable. At first, local officials persecuted gypsies, and those who behaved in gypsy-like fashion, for allegedly anti-social tendencies. Later, with the rise of race obsession, Gypsies were seen as a threat to German racial purity, though Himmler himself wavered, trying to save those he considered "pure Gypsies" descended from Aryan roots in India. Indeed, Lewy contradicts much existing scholarship in showing that, however much the Gypsies were persecuted, there was no general program of extermination analogous to the "final solution" for the Jews.
Exploring in heart-rending detail the fates of individual Gypsies and their families, The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies makes an important addition to our understanding both of the history of this mysterious people and of all facets of the Nazi terror.

The Ground Kisser (Paperback): Lisa Worthey Smith The Ground Kisser (Paperback)
Lisa Worthey Smith; As told by Thanh Duong Boyer
R322 R279 Discovery Miles 2 790 Save R43 (13%) Ships in 7 - 11 working days
Europa, Europa (Paperback, New Ed): Solomon Perel Europa, Europa (Paperback, New Ed)
Solomon Perel
R390 R334 Discovery Miles 3 340 Save R56 (14%) Ships in 7 - 11 working days

The Inspiration Behind The Golden Globe —Winning Film

"An engrossing and memorable tale."Jewish Book World

"The sheer emotion of telling the tale is palpable. The whole is moving, and strange beyond belief." —The Times (London)

International acclaim for Solomon Perel's Europa Europa

"The wrenching memoir of a young man who survived the Holocaust by concealing his Jewish identity and finding unexpected refuge as a member of the Hitler Youth.

"It is a Holocaust memoir that is moving, straightforward, and quite completely bizarre, unsettling in all kinds of assumptions about identity, responsibility, and guilt." —Glasgow Herald

"Perel bares his soul to readers in this fascinating, unusual personal narrative of the Holocaust." —Book Report

"Many of the experiences of Holocaust survivors are incredible. None is more incredible than the story of a Jewish boy, Solomon Perel, who escaped from Germany to Russia, served with the Wehrmacht in Russia, was adopted by his commanding officer, and transferred to an elite Hitler Youth school." —London Jewish News

"A most remarkable story . . . extraordinary." —The Australian

"This book will move human hearts." —Berliner Morgenpost

State, Nation and Ethnicity in Contemporary South Asia (Paperback, New edition): Ishtiaq Ahmed State, Nation and Ethnicity in Contemporary South Asia (Paperback, New edition)
Ishtiaq Ahmed
R1,941 Discovery Miles 19 410 Ships in 10 - 20 working days

Few regions of the world are riven with the variety of ethnic conflicts that stalk South Asia. These conflicts stem from the impact of colonial legacies, population movements across porous borders, the disruptive effects of modernisation forces and the exigencies of electoral politics. The costs of ethnic conflict in South Asia have been staggering.... In every state of South Asia, ethnic minorities - and sometimes majorities - have been hapless victims of violence. Today several major ethnic conflicts wrack the region.

(This book) is a dispassionate and painstaking analysis of many of the ethnic problems that plague South Asia. Ishtiaq Ahmed carefully traces the historical origins of these various conflicts and discusses their contemporary dimensions. He also provides a succinct summary of a substantial body of literature on ethnicity and state-formation.....a useful analysis of a range of conflicts that continue to punctuate the South Asian political landscape....will be of particular use to scholars and policy-makers interested in understanding the origins of ethnic conflict in South Asia.' Survival

'a major compendium of theoretical, historical and political literature interspersed with rich empirical data.' International Affairs

Prisons, Peace and Terrorism - Penal Policy in the Reduction of Political Violence in Northern Ireland, Italy and the Spanish... Prisons, Peace and Terrorism - Penal Policy in the Reduction of Political Violence in Northern Ireland, Italy and the Spanish Basque Country, 1968-97 (Hardcover)
M. Page
R3,482 Discovery Miles 34 820 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

A comprehensive analysis of the role that prison policy can play in the reduction of terrorism, this book examines the experience of three western Europe jurisdictions: Northern Ireland, Italy and the Spanish Basque Country. It looks at the role of the prisons both as tools for counter-insurgency and as part of a process of conflict resolution. It looks in detail at each jurisdiction and then compares the experience of the three conflicts.

Long Road Home - Testimony of a North Korean Camp Survivor (Hardcover): Yong Kim Long Road Home - Testimony of a North Korean Camp Survivor (Hardcover)
Yong Kim; As told to Suk Young Kim
R809 R634 Discovery Miles 6 340 Save R175 (22%) Ships in 12 - 17 working days

Kim Yong shares his harrowing account of life in a labor camp--a singularly despairing form of torture carried out by the secret state. Although it is known that gulags exist in North Korea, little information is available about their organization and conduct, for prisoners rarely escape both incarceration and the country alive. "Long Road Home" shares the remarkable story of one such survivor, a former military official who spent six years in a gulag and experienced firsthand the brutality of an unconscionable regime.

As a lieutenant colonel in the North Korean army, Kim Yong enjoyed unprecedented privilege in a society that closely monitored its citizens. He owned an imported car and drove it freely throughout the country. He also encountered corruption at all levels, whether among party officials or Japanese trade partners, and took note of the illicit benefits that were awarded to some and cruelly denied to others.

When accusations of treason stripped Kim Yong of his position, the loose distinction between those who prosper and those who suffer under Kim Jong-il became painfully clear. Kim Yong was thrown into a world of violence and terror, condemned to camp No. 14 in Hamkyeong province, North Korea's most notorious labor camp. As he worked a constant shift 2,400 feet underground, daylight became Kim's new luxury; as the months wore on, he became intimately acquainted with political prisoners, subhuman camp guards, and an apocalyptic famine that killed millions.

After years of meticulous planning, and with the help of old friends, Kim escaped and came to the United States via China, Mongolia, and South Korea. Presented here for the first time in its entirety, his story not only testifies to the atrocities being committed behind North Korea's wall of silence, but it also illuminates the daily struggle to maintain dignity and integrity in the face of unbelievable odds. Like the work of Solzhenitsyn, this rare portrait tells a story of resilience as it reveals the dark forms of oppression, torture, and ideological terror at work in our world today.

Haven or Hell? - Asylum Policies and Refugees in Europe (Hardcover): D. Joly Haven or Hell? - Asylum Policies and Refugees in Europe (Hardcover)
D. Joly
R3,270 Discovery Miles 32 700 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This book brings together in a systematic manner three discrete areas of interest pertaining to refugees. Asylum is explored through studies on the evolution of legal instruments in Europe, the harmonisation process of European policies, and the broader spectrum of factors underpinning decisions on asylum. Reception and settlement of refugees are analysed through a comparative study of national programmes in France and Britain and in addition a survey of local authority policies. A typology for refugees is developed and tested by a comparison between Chilean and Vietnamese associations in France and Britain.

Haven or Hell? - Asylum Policies and Refugees in Europe (Paperback): D. Joly Haven or Hell? - Asylum Policies and Refugees in Europe (Paperback)
D. Joly
R1,587 Discovery Miles 15 870 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This book brings together in a systematic manner three discrete areas of interest pertaining to refugees. Asylum is explored through studies on the evolution of legal instruments in Europe, the harmonisation process of European policies, and the broader spectrum of factors underpinning decisions on asylum. Reception and settlement of refugees are analysed through a comparative study of national programmes in France and Britain and in addition a survey of local authority policies. A typology for refugees is developed and tested by a comparison between Chilean and Vietnamese associations in France and Britain.

Riots and Pogroms (Paperback): Paul R Brass Riots and Pogroms (Paperback)
Paul R Brass
R1,352 Discovery Miles 13 520 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Riots and Pogroms presents comparative studies of riots and pogroms in the twentieth century in Russia, Germany, Israel, India, and the United States, with a comparative, historical, and analytical introduction by the editor. The focus of the book is on the interpretive process which follows after the occurrence of riots and pogroms, rather than on the search for their causes. The concern of the editor and contributors is with the struggle for control over the meaning of riotous events, for the right to represent them properly.

Understanding Impoverishment - The Consequences of Development-Induced Displacement (Paperback): Christopher McDowell Understanding Impoverishment - The Consequences of Development-Induced Displacement (Paperback)
Christopher McDowell
R715 Discovery Miles 7 150 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Infrastructure development projects are set to continue into the next century as developing country governments seek to manage population growth, urbanization and industrialization. The contributions in this volume raise many questions about 'development' and 'progress' in the late twentieth century. What is revealed are the enormous problems and disastrous affects which continue to accompany displacement operations in many countries, which raise the ever more urgent question of whether the benefits of infrastructure development justify or outweigh the pain of the radical disruption of peoples lives, exacerbated by the fact that, with some notable exceptions, there has been a lack of official recognition on the part of governments and international agencies that development-induced displacement is a problem at all. This important volume addresses the issues and shows just how serious the situation is.

State of War - Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia (Paperback): Cynthia Arnson, Robin Kirk State of War - Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia (Paperback)
Cynthia Arnson, Robin Kirk
R333 R305 Discovery Miles 3 050 Save R28 (8%) Ships in 12 - 17 working days
Afghanistan, Where God Only Comes To Weep (Paperback): Siba Shakib Afghanistan, Where God Only Comes To Weep (Paperback)
Siba Shakib
R290 R243 Discovery Miles 2 430 Save R47 (16%) Ships in 10 - 20 working days

Shirin-Gol was just a young girl when her village was levelled by the Russians' bombs in 1979. After the men in her family joined the resistance, she fled with the women and children to the capital, Kabul, and so began a life of day-to-day struggle in her war-torn country. A life that includes a period living in the harsh conditions of a Pakistani refugee camp, being forced into a marriage to pay off her brother's gambling debts, selling her body and begging for the money to feed her growing family, an attempted suicide, and an unsuccessful endeavour to leave Afghanistan for Iran after the Taliban seized control of her country. Told truthfully and with unflinching detail to writer and documentary-maker Siba Shakib, and incorporating some of the shocking experiences of Shirin-Gol's friends and family members, this is the story of the fate of many of the women in Afghanistan. But it is also a story of great courage, the moving story of a proud woman, a woman who did not want to be banished to a life behind the walls of her house, or told how to dress, who wanted an education for her children so that they could have a chance of a future, to live their lives without fear and poverty. .

Confessions Of An Argentine Dirty Warrior (Paperback): Horacio Verbitsky Confessions Of An Argentine Dirty Warrior (Paperback)
Horacio Verbitsky
R386 R300 Discovery Miles 3 000 Save R86 (22%) Ships in 12 - 17 working days

LEAD TITLE PUBLISHING FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE UK THE LANDMARK, CRITICALLY ACCLAIMED BOOK HAILED BY ARIEL DORFMAN AND EDUARDO GALEANO, PUBLISHED TO COINCIDE WITH THE FIRST ARGENTINE WAR CRIMES TRIALS. News hook: Trials of high-level military officials, including the subject of this book, began in July 2004 in Spain. New introduction by the judge who declared the Argentine impunity laws null and void; the new epilogue is by the author Torrid aftermath of hardcover publication: The New York Times reported on its front page that the Argentine Navy captain whose story is at the heart of this book had had his face slashed by four attackers and was warned to stop speaking with journalists about military crimes - violent retribution for his breaking of the military's code of silence about the atrocities. Author's reputation: Verbitsky is Argentina's leading investigative journalist. He won a major award from the Latin American Studies Association when this book was first published in America in 1996. Author visit at the beginning of August for publicity and promotion. Argentine military's code of silence, stunning his compatriots and the world by openly confessing his participation in the hideous practice of pushing live political dissidents out of airplanes during Argentina's dirty war. Available for the first time in the UK, with a new introduction by Judge Gabriel Cavallo on the upcoming military trials and a new epilogue by the author, Confessions of an Argentine Dirty Warrior includes the complete text of Scilingo's confession in the form of interviews given to Argentina's best-known investigative journalist, Horacio Verbitsky. The afterword by Juan Mendez, General Consel of Human Rights Watch, puts Adolfo Scilingo confession of atrocities committed during the 'dirty war' into a historical and international context.

The Island - A history of Robben Island, 1488-1990 (Paperback): Harriet Deacon The Island - A history of Robben Island, 1488-1990 (Paperback)
Harriet Deacon 1
R387 R354 Discovery Miles 3 540 Save R33 (9%) Ships in 12 - 17 working days

Robben Island is a low-lying outcrop of rock and sand guarding the entrance to South Africa's Table Bay. Although it is just a few kilometres long and a barely swimmable distance from Cape Town, it may well be the most significant historical site in South Africa today.;Paradoxically it symbolises both the repressiveness of the apartheid state and the strength of those who opposed it. While interpretations of the island's history have focused mainly on its role as political prison and on the well-known prisoners held there, such as Nelson Mandela, the island has been put to many and varied uses over the last 500 years: as pantry, hospital, mental asylum, military camp as well as prison. In spite of these various roles there are continuities in its history. Above all, the island has served mainly as repository for those who were considered dangerous to the South African social order. A history of the island provides therefore an off-shore echo of the history of the mainland.

Moral Opposition to Authoritarian Rule in Chile, 1973-90 (Hardcover): Plowden Moral Opposition to Authoritarian Rule in Chile, 1973-90 (Hardcover)
Plowden
R3,500 Discovery Miles 35 000 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This text examines the political importance of moral opposition to authoritarian rule in Chile, 1973-90, as a challenge to the government's systematic human rights' violations. It was initially led by the Catholic Church, whose primate founded an organization to defend human rights: the Vicariate of Solidarity (1976-92). The book assesses the impact of moral opposition as a force for redemocratization by tracing the history and achievements of the Vicariate. It also argues that such moral matters are often underestimated in regime transition analysis.

Slaughter Among Neighbors - The Political Origins of Ethnic, Racial and Religious Violence (Paperback): Human Rights Watch Slaughter Among Neighbors - The Political Origins of Ethnic, Racial and Religious Violence (Paperback)
Human Rights Watch
R242 Discovery Miles 2 420 Ships in 12 - 17 working days

This work aims to present an understanding of contemporary causes of conflict and build the foundation on which to construct sound strategies to prevent or contain the violence. It includes profiles of situations in Armenia-Azerbaijan, India, Kenya, Labanon, Rwanda, Romania and South Africa.

Employing the Enemy - The Story of Palestinian Labourers on Israeli Settlements (Paperback): Matthew Vickery Employing the Enemy - The Story of Palestinian Labourers on Israeli Settlements (Paperback)
Matthew Vickery
R456 Discovery Miles 4 560 Ships in 12 - 17 working days

Shortlisted for the Palestine Book Awards 2018 Thousands of Palestinians, including children, are building and working on illegal Israeli settlements. Their bitter toil entails a daily rejection of their rights and subjects them to dangerous working conditions. Employing the Enemy is a deeply moving narrative that paints a faithful portrait of these workers and their families. Matthew Vickery explores not only the rationale, emotions and consequences of such employment but also why and how people collude with their own oppression. In doing so he draws attention to a previously neglected aspect of the Palestinian experience, exposing these practices as a new, insidious form of state-sponsored forced labour.

Existential Eroticism - A Feminist Approach to Understanding Women's Oppression-Perpetuating Choices (Paperback): Shay... Existential Eroticism - A Feminist Approach to Understanding Women's Oppression-Perpetuating Choices (Paperback)
Shay Welch
R957 Discovery Miles 9 570 Ships in 12 - 17 working days

Existential Eroticism: A Feminist Approach to Understanding Women's Oppression-Perpetuating Choices offer a unique lens aimed at the underbelly of the lady through which feminists can reorient discourses on rationality and moral responsibility related to women's oppression-perpetuating choices. Shay Welch utilizes feminist ethics, broadly construed as feminist philosophy concerned with the ethical commitment to eliminate oppression, to scrutinize how women regard and judge one another and to offer a more representative account of restriction, rationality, and responsibility to begin the healing process between diverse and divergent women. The book aims not only to construct an analysis of self-perpetuated oppression that will broaden feminist understandings of experiences that motivate many women to choose as they do, it serves as a means of understanding the marginalized.

Altruistic Personality - Rescuers Of Jews In Nazi Europe (Paperback, New Ed): Samuel P. Oliner Altruistic Personality - Rescuers Of Jews In Nazi Europe (Paperback, New Ed)
Samuel P. Oliner
R603 R531 Discovery Miles 5 310 Save R72 (12%) Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Why, during the Holocaust, did some ordinary people risk their lives and the lives of their families to help others--even total strangers--while others stood passively by? Samuel Oliner, a Holocaust survivor who has interviewed more than 700 European rescuers and nonrescuers, provides some surprising answers in this compelling work.

The Power of Your Life - The Sanlam Century of Insurance Empowerment, 1918-2018 (Hardcover): Grietjie Verhoef The Power of Your Life - The Sanlam Century of Insurance Empowerment, 1918-2018 (Hardcover)
Grietjie Verhoef
R1,927 Discovery Miles 19 270 Ships in 12 - 17 working days

This book explores a century of business development of The South African Life Assurance Company, from a specific local focus to a national conglomerate expanding into global insurance markets. Established as a strategic vehicle to address Afrikaner economic marginalization and abject poverty at the beginning of the twentieth century, Sanlam has displayed both path dependence and a dynamic adaptability to complex changing contexts to become a global player. The strategic convergence of economic empowerment through the mobilization of savings into insurance products, as well as Afrikaner nationalism, assisted this growth. Sanlam has played an a-typical role in the economic empowerment of an ethnic entity through extensive investments into the industrializing South African economy. This strategic diversion created operational limitations that were only resolved early in the twenty-first century. As globalization, financial deregulation, and weakened Afrikaner political and social hegemony manifested, strategic change management relied on the path dependence of empowerment strategies to address new markets with similar needs to those of the early stakeholder market of 1918. The former mutual life office demutualized operations to become a diversified financial services group of companies operating across almost the entire African continent, as well as in India, Malaysia, and the UK. This volume presents a business history of strategic management of an insurance enterprise, and its transformation from a defined cultural context into an international empowerment strategy through innovation on all levels of business operation and organization. This book is an Open Access publication, available online under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.

Putin and the Oligarch - The Khodorkovsky-Yukos Affair (Hardcover, New): Richard Sakwa Putin and the Oligarch - The Khodorkovsky-Yukos Affair (Hardcover, New)
Richard Sakwa
R875 Discovery Miles 8 750 Ships in 12 - 17 working days

The arrest of Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the head of the Yukos oil company, on 25 October 2003, was a key turning point in modern Russian history. At that time Khodorkovsky was one of the world's richest and most powerful men, while Yukos had been transformed into a vast and lucrative oil company that was set to go global. On all counts, this looked like a success story, but it was precisely at this moment that the Russian authorities struck. After two controversial trials, attracting widespread international condemnation, Khodorkovsky was sentenced to fourteen years in jail. In this book, Richard Sakwa examines the rise and fall of Yukos, and the development of the Russian oil industry more generally. Sakwa analyses Russia's emergence as an energy superpower, and considers the question of the 'natural resource curse' and the use of energy rents to bolster Russia as a great power and to maintain the autonomy of the regime. Crucially this book also examines the relationship between Putin's state and big business during Russia's traumatic shift from the Soviet planned economy to the market system.It is a detailed analysis of one of the most dramatic confrontations between economic and political power in our era, full of human drama and moral dilemmas. It is also a study of political economy, with the market and state coming into confrontation. Above all, the 'Yukos affair' continues to shape contemporary Russian politics, with a weakened judiciary and insecure property rights. It traces the struggles of the Putin era as two visions of society came into conflict. The attack on Khodorkovsky had - and continues to have - far-reaching political and economic consequences but it also raises fundamental questions about the quality of freedom in Putin's Russia as well as in the world at large.

The Rhetoric of Genocide - Death as a Text (Hardcover): Ben Voth The Rhetoric of Genocide - Death as a Text (Hardcover)
Ben Voth
R1,803 Discovery Miles 18 030 Ships in 12 - 17 working days

Genocide represents one of the deadliest scourges of the human experience. Communication practices provide the key missing ingredient toward preventing and ending this intensely symbolic activity. The Rhetoric of Genocide: Death as a Text reveals how strategic communication silences make this tragedy probable, and how a greater social ethic for communication openness repels and ends this great evil. Careful analysis of practical historical figures, such as the great debater James Farmer Jr., along with empirical policy successes in places such as Liberia provide a communication-based template for ridding the world of genocide in the twenty-first century.

The Aquariums of Pyongyang (Paperback, Main): Kang Chol-Hwan, Pierre Rigoulot The Aquariums of Pyongyang (Paperback, Main)
Kang Chol-Hwan, Pierre Rigoulot
R287 R239 Discovery Miles 2 390 Save R48 (17%) Ships in 10 - 20 working days

'I beseech you to read this account' - Christopher Hitchens A magnificent, harrowing testimony to the voiceless victims of North Korea. Kang Chol-Hwan is the first survivor of a North Korean concentration camp to escape the 'hermit kingdom' and tell his story to the world. This memoir reveals the human suffering in his camp, with its forced labour, frequent public executions and near-starvation rations. Kang eventually escaped to South Korea via China to give testimony to the hardships and atrocities that constitute the lives of the thousands of people still detained in the gulags today. Part horror story, part historical document, part memoir, part political tract, this story of one young man's personal suffering finally gives eye-witness proof to this neglected chapter of modern history.

Skeletons in the Closet, Skeletons in the Ground - Repression, Victimization & Humiliation in a Small Andalusian Town -- The... Skeletons in the Closet, Skeletons in the Ground - Repression, Victimization & Humiliation in a Small Andalusian Town -- The Human Consequences of the Spanish Civil War (Paperback)
Richard Barker
R641 R562 Discovery Miles 5 620 Save R79 (12%) Ships in 12 - 17 working days

This book examines the human consequences (individual, social, cultural, and economic) of civil war and political repression in Castilleja del Campo, a town in southern Spain with barely more than 600 inhabitants today. The narrow geographical focus allows for a coherent chronological narrative with relevance to current public issues such as the unequal distribution of wealth, political polarisation, the violation of human rights, government surveillance of civilian populations, and extra-legal detentions, torture and executions. The declarations of eyewitnesses are complemented by personal documents, contemporary newspaper accounts, and documents from the towns municipal archive and other archives in the province of Seville. The work presents the events from the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in April 1931 onward from multiple points of view and analyses the interactions among a gallery of characters: Republican and pro-Franco mayors and councilmen; union leaders and affiliates; members of the fascist-inspired Spanish Falange; the schoolteacher; the priest; widows and orphans of the men who were shot; administrators and managers of the estates of the nobles; shaved women paraded through the streets; combatants; day labourers; civil guards; black marketeers; prisoners. Placing these characters and events in their provincial, regional, and national context, the town becomes a microcosm that reflects the experience of Spain during those traumatic years. Published in association with the Canada Blanch Centre for Contemporary Spanish Studies.

Terror in My Soul - Communist Autobiographies on Trial (Hardcover, New): Igal Halfin Terror in My Soul - Communist Autobiographies on Trial (Hardcover, New)
Igal Halfin
R1,588 Discovery Miles 15 880 Ships in 12 - 17 working days

In this innovative and revelatory work, Igal Halfin exposes the inner struggles of Soviet Communists to identify themselves with the Bolshevik Party during the decisive decades of the 1920s and 1930s. The Bolsheviks preached the moral transformation of Russians into model Communists for their political and personal salvation. To screen the population for moral and political deviance, the Bolsheviks enlisted natural scientists, doctors, psychologists, sexologists, writers, and Party prophets to establish criteria for judging people. Self-inspection became a central Bolshevik practice. Communists were expected to write autobiographies in which they reconfigured their life experience in line with the demands of the Party.

Halfin traces the intellectual contortions of this project. Initially, the Party denounced deviant Communists, especially the Trotskyists, as degenerate, but innocuous, souls; but in a chilling turn in the mid-1930s, the Party came to demonize the unreformed as virulent, malicious counterrevolutionaries. The insistence that the good society could not triumph unless every wicked individual was destroyed led to the increasing condemnation of Party members as helplessly flawed.

Combining the analysis of autobiography with the study of Communist psychology and sociology and the politics of Bolshevik self-fashioning, Halfin gives us powerful new insight into the preconditions of the bloodbath that was the Great Purge.

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