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Fiscal sustainability analysis is the use of a simple set of tools to analyze a government's budget and its debt position, and leads to conclusions - given the government's debt level - about the appropriateness of fiscal policy. Many economists are familiar with fiscal sustainability analysis, but there is no single reference work that explains it. Fiscal Sustainability in Theory and Practice fills this gap. The handbook is organized around three themes: (i) Basic theory and tools for everyday use, (ii) The effects of business cycles on public finance and the role of fiscal rules, and (iii) Crises and their impact on fiscal sustainability. The first theme is central to the book's purpose of bringing the basic theoretical literature together, along with a set of examples used to illustrate particular methods of analysis. The second and third themes develop the topic of fiscal sustainability further, by extending it to topics at the forefront of policy debates in the recent past. Aimed at economists previously unfamiliar with fiscal sustainability analysis, this book will also serve as a useful reference work for all economists with either an advanced undergraduate or basic graduate level of training.
This book provides an assessment of public financial management (PFM) reforms in developing countries using Turkey as a case study. The book elaborates on revenue management, expenditure management, public budget, public financial management information systems, asset and liability management, intergovernmental fiscal relations, accounting, financial reporting, and auditing. Bringing together academics and practitioners, the book analyzes the PFM reforms in the light of theoretical explanations and practices to reveal the achievements, challenges, and future perspectives of PFM.
In Casino Capitalism Hans-Werner Sinn examines the causes of the
banking crisis, points out the flaws in the economic rescue
packages, and presents a master plan for the reform of financial
markets. Sinn argues that the crisis came about because limited
liability induced both Wall Street and Main Street to gamble with
real estate properties. He meticulously describes the process of
lending to American homeowners and criticizes both the process of
securitizing and selling mortgage claims to the world, as well as
the poor job rating agencies did in providing transparency. He
argues that the American Dream has ended because the world now
realizes that this dream was built on loans that are never likely
to be repaid.
This book offers a critical assessment of the history of the euro, its crisis, and the rescue measures taken by the European Central Bank and the community of states. The euro induced huge capital flows from the northern to the southern countries of the Eurozone that triggered an inflationary credit bubble in the latter, deprived them of their competitiveness, and made them vulnerable to the financial crisis that spilled over from the US in 2007 and 2008. As private capital shied away from the southern countries, the ECB helped out by providing credit from the local money-printing presses. The ECB became heavily exposed to investment risks in the process, and subsequently had to be bailed out by intergovernmental rescue operations that provided replacement credit for the ECB credit, which itself had replaced the dwindling private credit. The interventions stretched the legal strictures stipulated by the Maastricht Treaty which, in the absence of a European federal state, had granted the ECB a very limited mandate. These interventions created a path dependency that effectively made parliaments vicarious agents of the ECB's Governing Council. This book describes what the author considers to be a dangerous political process that undermines both the market economy and democracy, without solving southern Europe's competitiveness problem. It argues that the Eurozone has to rethink its rules of conduct by limiting the role of the ECB, exiting the regime of soft budget constraints and writing off public and bank debt to help the crisis countries breathe again. At the same time, the Eurosystem should become more flexible by offering its members the option of exiting and re-entering the euro - something between the dollar and the Bretton Woods system - until it eventually turns into a federation with a strong political power centre and a uniform currency like the dollar.
The choices facing the 112th Congress come at a time when the federal government's debt has increased dramatically in the past few years and when large annual budget deficits are projected to continue indefinitely under current laws or policies. Beyond the coming decade, the ageing of the U.S. population and rising health care costs will put increasing pressure on the budget. If federal debt continues to expand faster than the economy, as it has since 2007, the growth of people's income will slow, the share of federal spending devoted to paying interest on the debt will rise more quickly, and the risk of a fiscal crisis will increase. This book examines options that would reduce projected budget deficits covering an array of policy areas from defence to energy, to entitlement programs, to provisions of the tax code.
In his foreword, Geoffrey Brennan states, "The papers in this volume represent a coherent set of pieces focused on aspects of public-expenditure theory and constitute all of Buchanan's papers in this area."
The International Comparison Program (ICP) is a worldwide statistical initiative led by the World Bank under the auspices of the United Nations Statistical Commission. It produces comparable price and volume measures of gross domestic product (GDP) and its expenditure aggregates across economies. Through a partnership with international, regional, sub-regional and national agencies, the ICP collects price data and GDP expenditures to estimate purchasing power parities (PPPs) for the world's economies. The report provides ICP results for the benchmark year 2017 and revised results for earlier years. ICP data are used for socio-economic analyses by researchers, academics, policy makers at the national and international levels, and by organizations such as the European Union, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations, and the World Bank. Notably, PPPs and ICP data are used in indicators monitoring progress towards eight goals of the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the World Bank's international poverty lines, and the construction of the Human Development Index by the United Nations, among others. The use of PPPs continues to grow and the ICP website (icp.worldbank.org) lists many applications of the data by the development community, academia, media and others.
Examining the political and economic forces that have shaped the civil service system from the Pendleton Act of 1883 through today, the authors explain why, despite efforts to overhaul the federal bureaucracy (most recently by Vice President Al Gore), significant change remains a formidable challenge. Although politicians criticize the unwieldiness of the bureaucracy, this volume shows how they have been largely responsible for its design. The authors examine the development of federal employee interest groups and their negotiations with the president and Congress over hiring policies, salaries and conditions for terminating employment. Using transaction cost analysis and public choice theory, this book aims to provide a new understanding of the growth of the federal bureaucracy and the political and economic obstacles to reforming it.
This Handbook responds to the needs and aspirations of current and future generations of development economists by providing critical reference material alongside or in relation to mainstream propositions. Despite the potential of globalisation in accelerating growth and development in low and middle-income countries through the spread of technology, knowledge and information, its current practice in many parts of the world has led to processes that are socially, economically and politically and ecologically unsustainable. It is critical for development economists to engage with the pivotal question of how to change the nature and course of globalisation to make it work for inclusive and sustainable development. Applying a critical and pluralistic approach, the chapters in this Handbook examine economics of development paths under globalisation, focusing on sustainable development in social, environmental, institutional and political economy dimensions. It aims at advancing the frontier of development economics in these key aspects and generating more refined policy perspectives. It is critically reflective in examining effects of globalisation on development paths to date, and in terms of methodological and analytical approaches, as well as forward-thinking in policy perspectives with a view to laying a foundation for sustainable development.
This book offers a critical assessment of the history of the euro, its crisis, and the rescue measures taken by the European Central Bank and the community of states. The euro induced huge capital flows from the northern to the southern countries of the Eurozone that triggered an inflationary credit bubble in the latter, deprived them of their competitiveness, and made them vulnerable to the financial crisis that spilled over from the US in 2007 and 2008. As private capital shied away from the southern countries, the ECB helped out by providing credit from the local money-printing presses. The ECB became heavily exposed to investment risks in the process, and subsequently had to be bailed out by intergovernmental rescue operations that provided replacement credit for the ECB credit, which itself had replaced the dwindling private credit. The interventions stretched the legal structures stipulated by the Maastricht Treaty which, in the absence of a European federal state, had granted the ECB a very limited mandate. These interventions created a path dependency that effectively made parliaments vicarious agents of the ECB's Governing Council. This book describes what the author considers to be a dangerous political process that undermines both the market economy and democracy, without solving southern Europe's competitiveness problem. It argues that the Eurozone has to rethink its rules of conduct by limiting the role of the ECB, exiting the regime of soft budget constraints and writing off public and bank debt to help the crisis countries breathe again. At the same time, the Eurosystem should become more flexible by offering its members the option of exiting and re-entering the euro - something between the dollar and the Bretton Woods system - until it eventually turns into a federation with a strong political power centre and a uniform currency like the dollar.
This important textbook has been revised and updated to continue its focus on the link between ethics and economic policy analysis, whilst ensuring that perspectives addressing the moral limits of the market, latest behavioural economics literature, and the changes in inequality over the years are included. Basic philosophical concepts are systematically described, followed by conventional welfare economic theory and policy, and applications to some topical economic problems such as income distribution and sustainable development.
This book expands on issues like fiscal sustainability, state enterprises and the variety of subsidies, with a multi-country focus. Drawing examples from numerous countries, it presents issues in contemporary finance and especially fiscal policy that can benefit researchers and civil servants from both developed, as well as developing worlds and emerging market economies.
Written in a simple and accessible manner, this book will be of interest to civil servants and practitioners. It also serves as a reference source for students and academics, and can be used as a text book for advanced courses on public finance.
Public-goods theory constituted a major element in James M.
Buchanan's research agenda throughout the 1960s. "The Demand and
Supply of Public Goods" is a major part of that work.
The Egyptian protests in early 2011 took many by surprise. In the
days immediately following, commentators wondered openly over the
changing situation across the Middle East. But protest is nothing
new to Egypt, and labor activism and political activism, most
notably the Kifaya (Enough) movement, have increased dramatically
over recent years. In hindsight, it is the durability of the
Mubarak regime, not its sudden loss of legitimacy that should be
more surprising. Though many have turned to social media for
explanation of the events, in this book, Samer Soliman follows the
age-old adage--follow the money.
Americans today face no shortage of threats to their financial well-being, such as job and retirement insecurity, health care costs, and spiraling college tuition. While one might expect that these concerns would motivate people to become more politically engaged on the issues, this often doesn't happen, and the resulting inaction carries consequences for political debates and public policy. Moving beyond previously studied barriers to political organization, "American Insecurity" sheds light on the public's inaction over economic insecurities by showing that the rhetoric surrounding these issues is actually self-undermining. By their nature, the very arguments intended to mobilize individuals--asking them to devote money or time to politics--remind citizens of their economic fears and personal constraints, leading to undermobilization and nonparticipation.
Adam Seth Levine explains why the set of people who become politically active on financial insecurity issues is therefore quite narrow. When money is needed, only those who care about the issues but are not personally affected become involved. When time is needed, participation is limited to those not personally affected or those who are personally affected but outside of the labor force with time to spare. The latter explains why it is relatively easy to mobilize retirees on topics that reflect personal financial concerns, such as Social Security and Medicare. In general, however, when political representation requires a large group to make their case, economic insecurity threats are uniquely disadvantaged.
Scrutinizing the foundations of political behavior, "American Insecurity" offers a new perspective on collective participation.
This edited collection explores the links between human capital (both in the form of health and in the form of education), demographic change, and economic growth. Using empirical as well as theoretical perspectives, the authors investigate several important issues in the context of human capital, namely population ageing, inequality, public policy, and long-term economic development. Ultimately, they demonstrate that the accumulation of human capital is of crucial importance to long-run economic growth.
The demand for high quality detailed public finance statistics covering a globally representative sample of countries has increased dramatically during the recent financial crisis. Due to the complexity of public finance statistics, however, such data tend to be either available in oversimplified high level aggregates and lacking in methodological transparency, or, available with a great level of detail and a unified methodological approach yet overly complicated to understand. The IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook shows fiscal data of around 140 countries following the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 framework. The associated database includes data series covering over an almost 40 year period. The IMF's Statistics Department embarked on several initiatives to improve its accessibility
Who are the political barbarians bankrupting America -- Democrats or Republicans? Where are taxpayers' dollars really going? Joe Scarborough gives you the inside scoop on how Washington really works and on the out-of-control deficit spending that takes place in our nation's capital each and every day.
Joe Scarborough, former Republican congressman and current host of MSNBC's top-rated Scarborough Country, takes you behind the closed doors of Congress and wittily presents the reasons why Democrats and Republicans are alike when it comes to squandering taxpayer dollars.
As part of the Gingrich Republican Revolution, he witnessed the principles of fiscal responsibility get buried in the political swamp of Washington. Now Scarborough offers profound solutions on how excessive government spending by politicians of all stripes can be minimized, and how the Repub-lican Party can be called back to the principles that President Ronald Reagan made famous.
The treasurers' and chamberlains' accounts of Elizabethan Ipswich are a detailed record of the annual income and expenditure of the town's ruling body during one of the most fascinating periods of its history. A major source for any detailed study of the Suffolk borough at a time when it was among the country's ten richest provincial towns, the entries selected from the accounts not only shed light on sixteenth-century urban administration but also provide vivid insights into the social and economic life of the period: the equipping of soldiers, ducking of scolds, and performances of town minstrels and itinerant players.JOHN WEBB was formerly Principal Lecturer in History at Portsmouth Polytechnic.
This book introduces recent developments in both theoretical and empirical analyses of local public economics. Theories of those economics as well as empirical analyses have been developed dramatically in various directions in recent years. One direction has been to reflect real economic circumstances, especially in Japan. In the early 2000s, Japan experienced the so-called great merger (or consolidation) of municipalities in the Heisei era (1999 through the present), with the number of municipalities shrinking from 3,232 to 1,821 for increasing administrative and financial efficiency. This phenomenon is mainly due to a drastic change in demography in Japan: the dimishing birthrate and aging population. Following the consolidation, regional coordination has been undertaken to raise overall administrative and financial efficiency. In sum, various types of public policies for tackling the decreasing birthrate and aging population have been carried out. Urban sprawl and the timing of municipal mergers are dealt with from a broad point of view, and public child care services and tax competition are investigated from a policy standpoint. Another direction has been to incorporate new ideas for forming theoretical frameworks for local public finance, most of which have been based on static situations. In the recent trend toward globalization, local governments have attended not only to the welfare of residents but also to the interests of regional economic development. In addition, decision making by local governments has tended to be affected by political activities. Thus, the endogenous growth setting and lobbying activities for the activities of local governments are discussed in the book. With these new directions for analyses, the author tackles the topics of tax competition, cross-border shopping, local provision of public goods, and soft budgets, thus covering a broad range of aspects of local public finance.
In this time of acute financial pressure on public budgets, there is an increasing interest worldwide in alternative ways for governments to raise money, and how public authorities can develop the capacity to administer revenues efficiently and effectively. Taxation, the primary source of public revenue, is exposed to various threats, while alternative sources of public revenues have much potential but are rarely carefully designed and harnessed. Public Sector Revenue: Principles, Policies and Management sets itself apart from other textbooks through its exclusive focus on the revenue side of public financial management. It provides the reader with the theoretical foundations and practical tools to understand the generation and management of revenues in the public sector, and it weaves a wide range of international examples throughout the text. Students will also benefit from a companion website with supplements including test questions and answers to the end-of-chapter discussion questions inside the book. This textbook will be essential reading for students, managers and policymakers within the areas of public financial management, public sector accounting and public administration.
Since 1997, education tax benefits have become an increasingly important component of federal higher education policy. Fourteen tax benefits are currently available for college students and their parents to help pay for higher education. The available tax benefits are a mixture of credits, deductions, exclusions, and other incentives. The benefits can be placed into one of three general categories: incentives for current year expenses, preferential tax treatment of student loans, and incentives for saving for college. This book provides an overview and contrast of higher education tax benefits with traditional student aid; a brief history of higher education tax policy over the past 60 years; a summary of key features of the available tax benefits; and an estimate of revenue losses resulting from individual tax provisions.
When the Act of Union was passed in 1707, Scottish parliament was dissolved and the nation's capital became London. While the general public balked at the perceived unfairness of the treaty, the majority of Scottish ministers seemed satisfied with its terms. This book offers an explanation of how that outcome came about. By examining the influence of a particular strain of mercantilist thought, Ramos demonstrates how the negotiations preceding the passage of the Act of Union were shaped by ideas of value, wealth, trade and power, and, accordingly, how the model of positive balance was used to justify the necessity of the Act. Utilizing contemporary evidence from the English and Scottish ministers involved, this book explores alternative arguments regarding the Union, from before 1707 and in early Scottish political economy, thus highlighting the differing economic and political views that have persisted between England and Scotland for centuries. With twenty-first century discontent leading to the Scottish independence referendum and arguments that persist in the wake of the Brexit decision, Ramos produces timely research that investigates ideas of protectionism that feed into mercantilist economic thought.
The euro crisis made Europe's stateless currency falter. This book retraces and interprets the ways in which the crisis impacted the unique institutional set-up of Europe's Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). It argues that the crisis propelled the European continent towards the institutionalization of an unprecedented form of centralized authority: Europe's New Fiscal Union. Diving into the central functions of fiscal surveillance, financial assistance, lending of last resort and banking resolution, the book reveals how a covert and convoluted mutualisation process occurred in the shadow of the euro crisis management. Based on 62 interviews conducted by the author with senior policy-makers in Brussels, Frankfurt, Helsinki and Rome, the book claims that Europe's New Fiscal Union is largely unsettled and still unstable. It therefore engages with the challenges arising from the patchwork of newly adopted rules, instruments and bodies, suggesting crucial reform steps to make EMU sustainable.
The revolution occurring in finance for low-income people refers to commercial microfinance--the delivery of financial services to the economically active poor on a large scale through competing, financially self-sufficient institutions. 'Lessons from Indonesia', volume 2 of 'The Microfinance Revolution', examines in the Indonesian context the principles and practices of commercial microfinance that were explored and analyzed in volume 1. The first country to develop profitable microfinance on a large scale, Indonesia is home to the world's oldest and largest commercial microfinance institutions, as well as many others. The book examines many financial institutions, with a special emphasis on Bank Rakyat Indonesia's microbanking system, which in the mid-1980s was transformed from a failed subsidized credit program to a nationwide commercial financial intermediary that now profitably provides microfinance services--savings and credit--to more than 20 million people. Commercial microbanking remained stable and profitable in Indonesia even as the country's financial system collapsed during the recent crisis. This volume shows why, and offers crucial lessons for developing countries everywhere.
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