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This book gives readers the theoretical and empirical methods to analyze applied economics. They are institutional economics, information economics, environmental economics, international economics, financial economics, industrial organization, public economics, law and economics, and spatial economics. Because the chapters of this book deal with current topics in these categories, they are relevant not only to researchers and graduate students but also to policy makers and entrepreneurs. As there is uncertainty about the global economy, it is necessary to consider optimal, efficient behavior to survive in the confused world. The book is organized in three parts. Part 1 deals with institutional economics, information economics, and related topics, approached through game theory. Part 2 focuses on environmental economics, international economics, and financial economics, through a microeconomic or econometric approach. Finally, Part 3 concentrates on public economics, social security, and related fields, through microeconomics or macroeconomics.
Reflecting the diverse and profound changes triggered by the latest wave of economic globalization, this book highlights various governance responses at national, regional and global levels. The topics covered are wide-ranging and include economic history and development, European integration, exchange rate arrangements, industrial and labor economics, international cooperation and multilateralism, and public choice. The book is divided into three parts: The first part, which contains contributions by Barry Eichengreen and Marc Flandreau, is devoted to economic history. The second part examines open economy macroeconomics with a focus on Europe, including contributions by Jurgen von Hagen and Paul Krugman. The third part presents contributions to international political economy, and related interdisciplinary topics. This Festschrift is written in honor of Jorge Braga de Macedo, Professor Emeritus of Economics at the Nova School of Business and Economics and a distinguished Portuguese academic whose work has an impressive global reach. The contributions, written by a selection of international authors, deal with his oeuvre covering the wide range of topics broached in this book, as his publication record amply attests.
This book explores two recent crises in British political economy: the crisis of 1976-9, for which the trade unions were impugned, and the 2007 economic crisis, for which bankers were (at least initially) blamed. The author argues that the "crisis resolution" of the former - principally the Thatcherite reforms of the 1980s - led to the emergence of the banking crisis. Further, Kirkland demonstrates how narratives of blame have emerged and were used in both instances to promote specific agendas. Narrations of blame and crises were used to curb the trade union powers in the 1980s, whilst the 2007 crisis was quickly reframed as one of excessive government spending, which in turn has led to policies of austerity.
This accompanying document to the Guidelines for Public Debt Management, which the IMF and the World Bank co-published in 2001, contains sample case studies that illustrate how a range of countries from around the world and at different stages of economic and financial development are developing their debt management capacity in a manner consistent with the guidelines. The experience of these countries is discussed in this publication, and should offer some useful and practical suggestions to other countries, as they strive to build their own capacity in public debt management.
One of the most important functions of modern government is to marshal and deploy resources to achieve desired objectives and outcomes. This task is overseen by the Central Budget Agencies (such as Ministries of Finance and Treasuries) who have the responsibility of generating tax revenue, and controlling and allocating public expenditure. This extensive comparative study investigates the changing nature and role of Central Budget Agencies (CBAs) in ten countries reflecting a spectrum of different institutional and constitutional contexts. Eighteen expert contributors offer detailed accounts of the various trajectories that have occurred within their respective CBAs, set against the changing political environment in which they operate. A recurring theme throughout is an evaluation of the power and agenda-setting roles of CBAs, assessing how their influence has grown or waned over time. An important feature of the book is that each chapter attempts to incorporate external scholarly analyses with internal practitioner views. Four key areas are examined in each of the CBAs, including: * the changing roles and responsibilities of CBAs * the politics of the budget process and the influence of CBAs * administrative and post-administrative cultures inside government * future prospects and directions for the CBAs. The original research presented in this book provides a new window into the world of CBAs, adding an important contribution to the scholarly research on public finance and government budgeting. It will also assist many CBAs to re-evaluate their roles and contributions to public budgeting and public sector management. This volume is required reading for anyone wanting to gain greater insight into whether CBAs really are the best guardians of the public purse.
This book explores the issue of private sector over-indebtedness following the recent financial crisis. It addresses the various challenges for policymakers, investors and economic agents affected by applied remedial policies as the private non-financial sector in Europe continues to face increased challenges in servicing its debt, with the problem mainly concentrated in several countries in the EU periphery and Eastern Europe. Chapters from expert contributors address reduced investment as firms concentrate on deleveraging and repairing their balance sheets, curtailed consumer spending, depressed collateral values and weak credit creation. They examine effective policies to facilitate private sector debt restructuring which may involve significant upfront costs in terms of time to implement and committed budgetary resources, as well as necessary reforms required to improve the broader institutional framework and judicial capacity. The book also explores the issue of over indebtedness in the household sector, contributing to the literature in establishing best practice principles for household debt.
This report discusses fiscal policies to prepare for the next downturn and foster long-term inclusive growth by adapting to changing demographics, advancing technology, and deepening global integration. It also covers recent fiscal developments and the fiscal outlook in advanced economies, emerging markets, and low-income developing countries; recent trends in government debt and analysis of changes in fiscal balances, revenue, and spending; and potential fiscal risks. The report takes on in-depth look at how corruption impacts government policies and operations, the fiscal costs, and how fiscal institutions can help fight corruption.
From his birth in the lowest stratum of the samurai class to his assassination at the hands of right-wing militarists, Takahashi Korekiyo (1854-1936) lived through tumultuous times that shaped the course of modern Japanese history. Takahashi is considered "Japan's Keynes" in many circles because of the forward-thinking (and controversial) fiscal and monetary policies--including deficit financing, currency devaluation, and lower interest rates--that he implemented to help Japan rebound from the Great Depression and move toward a modern economy.
Richard J. Smethurst's engaging biography underscores the profound influence of the seven-time finance minister on the political and economic development of Japan by casting new light on Takahashi's unusual background, unique talents, and singular experiences as a charismatic and cosmopolitan financial statesman.
Along with the many fascinating personal episodes--such as working as a houseboy in California and running a silver mine in the Andes--that molded Takahashi and his thinking, the book also highlights four major aspects of Takahashi's life: his unorthodox self-education, his two decades of service at the highest levels of government, his pathbreaking economic and political policies before and during the Depression, and his efforts to stem the rising tide of militarism in the 1930s. Deftly weaving together archival sources, personal correspondence, and historical analysis, Smethurst's study paints an intimate portrait of a key figure in the history of modern Japan.
Cost-Benefit Analysis presents an authoritative collection of the most important published articles in the field together with an extensive new introduction by the editors. Whilst focusing on the practical side, looking at applications such as education, transportation and the value of life and health, this important volume also emphasises the essential role of economic theory, with sections on the economic costs of public funds, foreign exchange and labour. The result is an influential selection based on robust and fundamental theoretical propositions - ones that are readily suitable for everyday applications. This timely volume provides a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of the theory and application of cost-benefit analysis. It draws from a wide range of journals to include the key articles which are the benchmarks in the development of the field. It will be invaluable to academics and practitioners alike.
In this book, the latest volume in the annual series published in association with the London Business School and the Institute of Economic Affairs, some of the main issues in UK and EU utility regulation and competition policy are discussed. Topics examined include the new electricity and gas trading markets, regulating the railways, introducing competition into water, telecoms and Ofcom, opening EU gas and electricity markets, the 1998 Competition Act, EU merger policy and a general review of privatisation and regulation in Britain. Essays by expert commentators are followed in each case by comments from the relevant regulator. Contents: Introduction - Colin Robinson 1. The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in England and Wales: A Review - David Currie, Chairman's Comments - Callum McCarthy 2. A Critique of Rail Regulation - Dieter Helm, Chairman's Comments - Tom Winsor 3. Moving to a Competitive Market in Water - Colin Robinson, Chairman's Comments - Sir Ian Byatt 4. The New Gas Trading Arrangements - George Yarrow, Chairman's Comments - Eileen Marshall 5. A Review of Privatisation and Regulation Experience in Britain - Irwin M. Stelzer, Chairman's Comments - Stephen Littlechild 6. Converging Communications: Implications for Regulation - Mark Armstrong, Chairman's Comments - David Edmonds 7. Opening European Electricity and Gas Markets - Graham Shuttleworth, Chairman's Comments - Clare Spottiswoode 8. Concurrency or Convergence? Competition and Regulation Under the Competition Act 1998 - Tom Sharpe QC, Chairman's Comments - Geoffrey Horton 9. Ten Years of European Merger Control - Paul Seabright, Chairman's Comments - Derek Morris
These guidelines assist policymakers at all levels in considering reforms to strengthen the quality of their public debt management and reduce their countries' vulnerability to international financial shocks. Vulnerability is often greater for smaller and emerging market countries because their economies may be less diversified, have a smaller base of domestic financial savings and less-developed financial systems, and be more susceptible to financial contagion through the relative magnitudes of capital flows. As a result, these guidelines should be considered within a broader context of the factors and forces affecting a government's liquidity more generally and the management of its balance sheet.
This book provides a historical understanding of current debates over tax reform and offers a comparative framework for discussing the relationship between fiscal policy and the distribution of income and wealth. Topics covered include the evolution of income taxation since World War II; the turn toward value added taxation; the relationship between tax reform and the construction of welfare states; the impact of globalization on tax and fiscal policy; the social forces shaping tax consent; and the political economy of tax and fiscal reform. These topics are covered in case studies that focus on significant episodes in the fiscal history of Denmark, Sweden, France, Greece, the United Kingdom, Spain, Switzerland, the United States, and Japan.
These lectures aim to help readers understand the logics and nature of the main indicators of inequality and poverty, with special attention to their social welfare underpinnings. The key approach consists in linking inequality and poverty measurement with welfare evaluation. As concern for inequality and poverty stems from ethical considerations, the measurement of those aspects necessarily involves some value judgments. Those value judgments can be linked, directly or indirectly, to welfare assessments on the distribution of personal and social opportunities. Inequality and poverty are thus considered to be partial aspects of the welfare evaluation of the opportunities in a given society. The volume includes two applications that illustrate how the models can be implemented. They refer to inequality of opportunity and poverty in education, using PISA data.
This book analyzes the effects of the recent crisis and evaluates potential solutions to the gridlock that is currently dominating the Eurozone and the European Union, concerning both the monetary policy and the budgetary and fiscal policy. The timely study highlights the main challenges that European political leaders will face in the months to come. Furthermore, its interdisciplinary approach embraces economic, financial and legal perspectives, so as to ensure the global coherence and comprehensiveness of its content. The contributors to this volume are prominent experts from the areas of Economics, Finance, Law, and Political Science, offering readers a multifaceted view of the topics discussed.
This volume reflects on the consequences of the increasingly globalized nature of our world for public sector management. Globalization has triggered rapid growth in trade, global financial transactions and cross-country ownership of economic assets. The implications of these multifaceted processes for the welfare of today's and tomorrow's societies are unclear. What is clear, however, is that an increasing number of problems are too complex to be tackled solely at the level of national states. As a result, the size, functions and modi operandi of the public sector in a globalized world are emerging topics in academia and practice.
Wallace E. Oates has made a pioneering contribution to environmental and public economics. This original selection of essays honors his seminal work in both these fields. The contributions to this volume apply Wallace E. Oates's key ideas and insights to a broad range of problems. The essays on environmental economics assess environmental policy in today's conservative era and analyse environmental taxes, environmental federalism and the choice of environmental policy instruments. The chapters on public economics investigate vouchers for private schools, capitalization, urban growth controls and the welfare economics of congestible amenities in general equilibrium models. The authors also examine intergovernmental grants in South Africa, public pensions in the European Union and fiscal federalism in early American history. Environmental and Public Economics is an informative and thought-provoking celebration of Wallace E. Oates's work which will be useful for students and scholars of environmental studies, public policy and public sector economics.
This comprehensive and authoritative book offers a global approach to the modern economics of the family, family law and family policy. Beginning with the division of labour in the family, this book deals with the economics of marriage, the demand for children, inter-generational relationships, and the economics of inheritance. The family is analysed using the theory of utility maximisation assuming that individuals wish to achieve the greatest possible satisfaction with limited resources and imperfect knowledge. The family is examined from both long and short term perspectives, and it is assumed that the family is cooperative with incentives for altruistic behaviour greater than in any other social group. Francisco Cabrillo then develops the analysis to include a discussion of the economics of family policy, an area not widely discussed in the existing literature, with special reference to the European Union. He makes use of simple and clear analytical models, such as neoclassical optimization and game theory, to explain the rationality of individual behaviour in the family and the responses to the incentives created by public policies. The Economics of the Family and Family Policy will be essential reading for economists interested in the family, public policy as well as sociologists and policymakers.
This volume - the summary of a five-year research programme - describes and assesses the Scandinavian approach to local public finance. A key role of local finance in Scandinavia is redistribution in the form of a wide array of social services that are largely financed at the central level.
Comparative Public Policy provides the first truly systematic and comprehensive account of the transformation of the post-war state in the advanced countries of the Western world. The author generates new research findings which show how the economic, social and political changes of the post-war era have reshaped modern public policy across the OECD region. Francis G. Castles examines the growth of big government and the emergence of the modern welfare state and identifies ways in which the role of the state has impacted on labour markets and such personal issues as home ownership, fertility and divorce. He explains why the trajectory of policy transformation has varied from country to country, with immediate post-war policy laggards sometimes becoming leaders, and erstwhile policy pioneers on occasions stagnating. This innovative book presents a wealth of background data and a huge range of new findings, covering 12 policy areas in 21 advanced industrialized countries over a period of more than three decades. Comparative Public Policy is essential reading for students and scholars who wish to understand the dynamics of contemporary social and political development.
Paul Dale Bush has been an imaginative and important contributor to the neo-institutionalist economic literature in the United States for over three decades. This is the first of two volumes presenting a tribute to this highly influential scholar. The majority of Paul Dale Bush's recent scholarly writings have addressed the clarification and refinement of the pragmatic instrumentalist model of inquiry. This book first reviews Dale Bush's main contributions to academic life and to neo-institutional scholarship. Internationally recognized contributors - Phillip Anthony O'Hara, Erkki Kilpinen, Geoffrey M. Hodgson, Kurt Dopfer, Warren J. Samuels, Edythe S. Miller, Ann L. Jennings and William Waller - then provide a penetrating analysis of the Veblen-based neo-institutionalist theoretical approach to inquiry and its reflection in social value theory. This book will be of great interest to postgraduate students and scholars in the field of institutional economics, political economy, history of economic thought, methodology and social value theory.
At a time when state assistance to the arts sector has come under considerable scrutiny both in Europe and the United States, this book comprehensively examines the evolution of, and rationale for, state involvement with the so-called 'high' arts on both continents. This book offers an overview of the key economic issues arising in relation to the state and the arts in these regions, with a detailed analysis of the European and American models of state assistance to the high arts sector. John O'Hagan examines in detail the various channels - regulation, taxation and direct expenditure - through which the state interacts with the arts and compares and contrasts the experiences of America and Europe. Regulatory measures considered include the guarantee of artistic freedom, copyright, resale royalties for artists, and trade restrictions. He also considers taxation measures to support the arts, including deductions for charitable contributions to the arts, property tax exemption, and relief on artists' income. The discussion on direct expenditure covers state ownership of institutions, revenue funding and matching grants as well as new avenues of expenditure such as community arts/arts centres, and new revenue sources for this expenditure, such as lottery funding. Finally the book covers the non-profit making arts sector, and examines why it, and not the commercial sector, receives private and state funding. The State and the Arts will be indispensable for students and academics of public and social policy, cultural economics and public management. It will also be of considerable interest to policymakers and key players in the arts sector.
The recent shift away from reactive to creative public policy management has caused considerable problems in Central and Eastern Europe. This book questions whether public management reforms as applied in OECD countries can make a real contribution to establishing new forms of public management in Central and Eastern Europe. The book defines the main problems facing public administrations in transitional countries and provides a comparative evaluation of the relevance for these countries of reform measures undertaken in OECD states. In the first part an historical perspective on the role of the state in Europe is presented. Parts two and three present country case studies which focus on the key areas of public management and the attempts made to address its current problems. The case studies describe the constitutional and political framework in which the system of public management operates and present a critical analysis of ongoing reform processes. They focus on reforms at the central government level, changes in local-central government relations, and the high profile areas of health and education policy. The authors look at the characteristics of the policy process, financial and human resource management and the accountability system. In conclusion, they question whether models of public administration and strategies for reform applied in Western capitalist economic systems, can really provide solutions to the particular problems of Central and Eastern Europe, or whether those problems might be aggravated by copying Western models and strategies. Innovations in Public Management will be welcomed by policy makers and practitioners in both Western Europe and OECD countries as well as those working in transitional countries through its fresh comparative approach and analysis of the real applicability of reform strategies. It will also be welcomed by academics and students interested in public administration, public policy and government.
This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole. This important book examines elements of financial integration and capital mobility in North America and addresses in turn the effects of the North American Free Trade Association on Mexico, comparisons between NAFTA and the European Union, the impact of NAFTA on issues such as social protection, migration and Canadian agricultural policy, and finally, regionalism and multilateralism in the Western hemisphere. While drawing on the experience of European integration, the authors recognize that new, broader analyses are required in the Western hemisphere to allow for the ranges of country size, natural resource endowments and per capita incomes. Sensitive to the political interests involved in economic integration between unequal partners, Economic Integration in the Americas offers students, researchers and policymakers a better understanding of policy at both national and supranational levels.
This collection of essays is a state-of-the-art analysis of key issues confronting the European Union. Identifying European economic integration as one of the defining features of modern international economics, the authors examine many aspects and consequences of this integration which remain as yet obscure and unexplored. In this book, after addressing general issues concerned with European integration, the authors include empirical and theoretical analyses of the monetary union, social policy reform and social union, public finance in the EU, the EU's agriculture and technology policies, and direct foreign investment into the EU. In particular, the volume includes detailed discussion of Greek membership of the EU, supplying a context in which many of the general issues of industrial adjustment, investment and politics can be examined. Using a wide range of topics, methodologies and perspectives, Economic Integration and Public Policy in the European Union offers a stimulating and wide-ranging presentation which will be of interest to economic theorists, empirical social scientists, policymakers and the informed general reader.
Local communities in all countries are increasingly aware of resource scarcity and are pressing for more say in how funds are used. Developments in Local Government Finance examines key issues for economists interested in local government and, in particular, the functioning of institutions at regional and local levels. Local government organization and finance are addressed from a variety of approaches by the authors who critically examine the current intergovernmental distribution of responsibility for service provision and revenue raising. Adopting a multilateral approach to theory and policy, this major book stresses the need for real, and not just formal, devolution and greater local accountability. The contributors highlight how instruments for financing local government and for pursuing interpersonal and geographical equity can vary considerably between countries with broadly similar systems, yet be surprisingly similar for countries with quite different institutional arrangements. Particular reference is made to emerging problems in the European Union and the experience of Switzerland, a country where fiscal federalism and tax harmonization are living together in a unique equilibrium of forces. Developments in Local Government Finance presents a major contribution to the understanding of local government and finance for both students and practitioners.
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