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This instructor's manual complements the textbook Money: Theory and Practice which provides an introduction to modern monetary economics for advanced undergraduates, highlighting the lessons learned from the recent financial crisis. The manual provides teachers with exercises and examples that reflect both the core New Keynesian model and recent advances, taking into account financial frictions, and discusses recent research on an intuitive level based on simple static and two-period models.
Despite the success of policymakers and the European Central
Bank in calming down financial markets since the summer of 2012,
European leaders are still facing formidable challenges in making
the single currency work in a complex environment. This book starts
with a review of the necessary elements of a currency union and
highlights the reasons why the system has run into its present
troubles. It points to important policy recommendations to be drawn
from a structural analysis of the currency union, achievements and
failures of the currency union and ways to improve fiscal
sustainability and arrive at stable macroeconomic performance for
the union. It highlights the importance and the effectiveness of
structural reforms that have to accompany fiscal consolidation and
discusses the appropriate tools of crisis management and why a
restructuring of the Eurozone is not the right step. Based on these
considerations, a long-term target picture for the Eurozone as a
part of the EU is outlined, providing a valuable contribution to a
hopefully intense public debate in the coming years.
Budgeting for the federal government is an enormously complex process. This book provides a comprehensive explanation of the federal budget process, including an overview and separate chapters on the framework for budget enforcement; the President's budget; the congressional budget resolution and reconciliation; revenues and borrowing; authorisations and direct spending; annual appropriations; and the implementation of spending laws. In addition, a thorough explanation is provided pertaining to the federal budget process; the understanding of how it works and how the data is interpreted. Excerpts from legislation, standard forms and other documentation developed at each stage of the budget process are exhibited. Appended materials include a listing of milestones in the federal budget process, citations to major budgetary laws and a glossary of budgetary terms.
This book presents latest research in the field of Political Economy, dealing with the integration of economics and politics and the way institutions affect social decisions. The focus is on innovative topics such as an institutional analysis based on case studies; the influence of activists on political decisions; new techniques for analyzing elections, involving game theory and empirical methods.
The international community has committed to scaling up aid and improving aid delivery to low-income countries to help them meet the Millennium Development Goals. Other 'emerging' donors, public and private, are increasing their assistance, and debt-relief initiatives are creating space for new borrowing. Remittances to low-income countries have been on a precipitous rise, and many countries are benefiting from high commodity prices. ""Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid"" explores approaches to the sound fiscal management that will be required to ensure effective and sustainable use of these flows. With a medium-term perspective and efficient use of resources in mind, this paper addresses questions that shape fiscal policy response to scaled-up aid. Drawing on IMF Fiscal Affairs Department technical assistance to member countries, it outlines factors that should be taken into account in preparing an action plan for public financial management reform, and proposes specific measures that will assist countries in strengthening fiscal institutions.
This book provides an insightful analysis of the looming refugee and mixed migration crisis in the context of four major, contemporary flows: two in west and east Europe, and one each in the Americas and Asia. The analysis, in each case, is followed by a judicious identification of the key issues involved and the presentation of a set of proposed policy responses to them. The discussion is then placed in a global setting and dovetailed with the recently launched United Nations initiative to adopt global compacts on refugees and migrants. The author brings to this book, the first of its kind, his vast experience of advising, and actively engaging with, many of the principal international organisations concerned with refugee and migration issues. This book will be of interest to researchers, students, NGOs, professional bodies, national ministries, international organisations and rights groups in the fields of economics, public finance, political economy, human rights and refugee law, and international relations and demography.
This edited collection explores the historical determinants of the rise of mass schooling and human capital accumulation based on a global, long-run perspective, focusing on a variety of countries in Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Africa and the Americas. The authors analyze the increasing importance attached to globalization as a factor in how social, institutional and economic change shapes national and regional educational trends. Although recent research in economic history has increasingly devoted more attention to global forces in shaping the institutions and fortunes of different world regions, the link and contrast between national education policies and the forces of globalization remains largely under-researched within the field. The globalization of the world economy, starting in the nineteenth century, brought about important changes that affected school policy itself, as well as the process of long-term human capital accumulation. Large migrations prompted brain drain and gain across countries, alongside rapid transformations in the sectoral composition of the economy and demand for skills. Ideas on education and schooling circulated more easily, bringing about relevant changes in public policy, while the changing political voice of winners and losers from globalization determined the path followed by public choice. Similarly, religion and the spread of missions came to play a crucial role for the rise of schooling globally.
This book discusses Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) and their potential to protect and maintain critical infrastructure in a variety of global governmental settings. Critical infrastructure is defined as essential services that underpin and support the backbone of a nation's economy, security, and health. These services include the power used by homes and businesses, drinking water, transportation, stores and shops, and communications. As governmental budgets dwindle, the maintenance of critical infrastructure and the delivery of its related services are often strained. PPPs have the potential to fill the void between government accounting and capital budgeting. This volume provides a survey of PPPs in critical infrastructure, combining theory and case studies to provide a comprehensive view of possible applications. Written by a diverse group of international experts, the chapters detail PPPs across industries such as transportation, social infrastructure, healthcare, emergency services, and water across municipalities from the US to New Zealand to Hong Kong. Chapters discuss objectives and legal requirements associated with PPPs, the potential advantages and limitations of PPPs, and provide guidance as to how to structure a successful PPP for infrastructure investment. This book is of interest to researchers studying public administration, public finance, and infrastructure as well as practitioners and decision makers interested in instituting PPPs in their communities.
This upper level textbook provides a coherent introduction to the economic implications of individual and population ageing. Placing economic considerations into a wider social sciences context, this is ideal reading not only for advanced undergraduate and masters students in health economics and economics of ageing, but policy makers, professionals and practitioners in gerontology, sociology, health-related sciences, and social care. This volume introduces topics in labour economics, including the economic implications of ageing workforces. It covers pension economics and pension systems with their macroeconomic and distributive effects, and the question of risk. Finally, it describes macroeconomic consequences of ageing populations on aggregate saving, inflation, international trade, and financial markets.
With the introduction of new market-oriented approaches to infrastructure finance policy decision-making in the national and subnational public sectors, there is a greater emphasis on the need for resource efficiency in the delivery of public services. There is also a critical need to evaluate and assess the effectiveness of infrastructure finance policy implementation. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) bring an agility and fresh perspective to the financing and delivery of public goods and services, and allow for a higher level of creativity, innovation, and flexibility during times of dynamic change and high demand for responsive solutions. By introducing a comprehensive new lens through which to view infrastructure finance policy as an instrument capable of achieving long-term national and subnational policy objectives, this study offers a unique insight into the potential benefits of the adoption of PPPs within the context of long-term capital investment planning. Through the examination of case studies from the United States, Albania and Mauritius, the author presents a transparent and integrated analysis of the role of PPPs as a policy option within this context. By demonstrating how PPPs can be utilized as a means of efficiently financing and delivering capital infrastructure projects within unified and comprehensive capital management and budgeting systems, this book is essential reading for researchers, policy decision-makers and students of public policy, capital budgeting and infrastructure finance.
Economists commit a category mistake when they treat democratic governments as indebted. Monarchs can be indebted, as can individuals. In contrast, democracies can't truly be indebted. They are financial intermediaries that form a bridge between what are often willing borrowers and forced lenders. The language of public debt is an ideological language that promotes politically expressed desires and is not a scientific language that clarifies the practice of public finance. Economists have gone astray by assuming that a government is just another person whose impulses toward prudent action will restrict recourse to public debt and induce rational political action.
How should policy analysts assess 'benefit validity' when behavioral anomalies appear relevant? David L. Weimer provides thoughtful answers through practical guidelines. Behavioral economists have identified a number of situations in which people appear not to behave according to the neoclassical assumptions underpinning welfare economics and its application to the assessment of the efficiency of proposed public policies through cost-benefit analysis. This book introduces the concept of benefit validity as a criterion for estimating benefits from observed or stated preference studies, and provides practical guidelines to help analysts accommodate behavioral findings. It considers benefit validity in four areas: violations of expected utility theory, unexpectedly large differences between willingness to pay and willingness to accept, non-exponential discounting, and harmful addiction. In addition to its immediate value to practicing policy analysts, it helps behavioral economists identify issues where their research programs can make practical contributions to better policy analysis.
Central to the development strategies of virtually all the sub-Saharan economies, public enterprises are nonetheless perceived as inefficient and unprofitable. Barbara Grosh examines the public enterprise system in Kenya and shows that, while average performance has indeed been poor, there has been a broad range of results - from excellent to abysmal - and many firms have performed well for long periods. Grosh uses four indicators (profitability, efficiency, prices paid to suppliers and consumer prices) to assess which firms performed well, which had problems and when and why those problems developed. Covering 1963-1988, data is provided for 17 firms in the agricultural sector, four in finance, seven in transport and communications and five in development finance. In addition, 30 publicly-owned manufacturing firms are compared with 40 private ones. She concludes that neither privatization nor policies designed to bring firms and their managers under control - approaches gaining popularity with African policymakers - is likely to solve the problems. She concludes also, however, that most of the problems are susceptible to limited and feasible reforms, and that public enterprise performance can be improved.
This Palgrave Pivot provides a concise overview of pension systems which, whether paid by governments or by private companies, are the sole source of income for millions of people around the world. By 2050, two billion elderly people will have to be ensured some form of income while, at the same time, the prospect facing younger generations is of a gloomy future. This book breaks down the jargon, investigates different designs and analyses these designs' effects on financial sustainability, their adequacy when it comes to level and replacement rates, and their effects on intra- and inter-generational distribution. The author provides also an overview of the historical, demographic and political issues connected with the pension debate. This book will be of interest to students and academics, and professionals involved in the pensions industry.
What drug provides Americans with the greatest pleasure and the greatest pain? The answer, hands down, is alcohol. The pain comes not only from drunk driving and lost lives but also addiction, family strife, crime, violence, poor health, and squandered human potential. Young and old, drinkers and abstainers alike, all are affected. Every American is paying for alcohol abuse. Paying the Tab, the first comprehensive analysis of this complex policy issue, calls for broadening our approach to curbing destructive drinking. Over the last few decades, efforts to reduce the societal costs--curbing youth drinking and cracking down on drunk driving--have been somewhat effective, but woefully incomplete. In fact, American policymakers have ignored the influence of the supply side of the equation. Beer and liquor are far cheaper and more readily available today than in the 1950s and 1960s. Philip Cook's well-researched and engaging account chronicles the history of our attempts to "legislate morality," the overlooked lessons from Prohibition, and the rise of Alcoholics Anonymous. He provides a thorough account of the scientific evidence that has accumulated over the last twenty-five years of economic and public-health research, which demonstrates that higher alcohol excise taxes and other supply restrictions are effective and underutilized policy tools that can cut abuse while preserving the pleasures of moderate consumption. Paying the Tab makes a powerful case for a policy course correction. Alcohol is too cheap, and it's costing all of us.
This book brings together scholars from the fields of politics, philosophy, sociology, anthropology and economics, to explore pathways towards implementing a Basic Income in Australia. It is the first book of its kind to outline avenues for implementation of a basic income specifically for Australia and responds to a gap in the existing basic income literature and published titles to provide a distinct standpoint in the exploration of basic income within the Australian contemporary policy landscape. The first section of the book outlines some of the continuing substantive and philosophical issues regarding BI implementation. In the second section of the book, authors offer practical strategies and models for progressing BI in Australia.
The United States has once again entered into a period of large external imbalances. This time the current account deficit, at nearly 6 percent of GDP in 2004, is much larger than in the last episode, when the deficit peaked at about 3.5 percent of GDP in 1987. Moreover, the deficit is on track to become substantially larger over the next several years. This study examines whether the large and growing current account deficit is a problem, and if so, how the problem can be solved. A central policy conclusion of this study is that it is increasingly important that the United States reduce its external current account deficit. This deficit is no longer benign as it arguably was in the late 1990s when it was financing high investment instead of high consumption and large government dissaving.
"This Handbook offers a timely 'snapshot' of the fast-moving global debates on Basic Income. Embracing a range of ideological, ethical, historical and cross-national perspectives, it looks at the case for Basic Income through both a focused and a wide-angled lens. Rather than asserting hard and fast conclusions, it ends with the valuable message that context is all." -Ruth Lister, Loughborough University, UK "A must-read Handbook that provides solid foundations for the growing number of researchers, policymakers and campaigners involved in the ongoing debate on Basic Income." -Ruben M. Lo Vuolo, the Interdisciplinary Centre for the Study of Public Policy, Argentina "A comprehensive, competent, accessible, up-to-date picture of the current state of knowledge and debate on basic income in several disciplines and in many countries." -Philippe Van Parijs, the University of Louvain, Belgium A Basic Income is an unconditional regular payment for every individual. But is it desirable? And is it feasible? This Handbook brings together scholars from various disciplines and from around the world to examine the history, characteristics, effects, viability and implementation of Basic Income. A variety of pilot projects and ideological perspectives are considered in depth.
This Handbook is a comprehensive anthology of up-to-date chapters contributed by current researchers in budget forecasting. Editors Daniel Williams and Thad Calabrese had previously found substantial deficiencies in public budgeting forecast literature with current research failing to address such matters as practices related to forecasting expenditure factors, the consequences of forecast bias, or empirical examination of the effectiveness of many deterministic methods actually used by many governments. This volume comprehensively addresses the state of knowledge about budget forecasting for practitioners, academics, and students and serves as a comprehensive resource for instruction alongside serving as a reference book for those engaged in budget forecasting practice.
This book offers an intellectual history of the libertarian case for markets in education. Currie-Knight tracks the diverse and evolving arguments libertarians have made, with each chapter devoted to a different libertarian thinker, their reasoning and their impact. What are the issues libertarians have had with state-controlled public schooling? What have been the libertarian voices on the benefits of markets in education? How have these thinkers interacted with law and policy? All of these questions are considered in this important text for those interested in debates over market mechanisms in education and those who are keen to understand how those arguments have changed over time.
The author indicates that war expenditures have been the most important single cause of the increase in the federal debt, with government countercyclical expenditures second. Increase in state and local debts is found to be largely due to the technological revolution. Originally published in 1961. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Globalization and the information revolution have highlighted the catalytic role of local governments for improving economic and social outcomes at the local level as well as growing the national economy by enhancing international competitiveness. This comprehensive account of local public finance and economics brings together principles and better practices for improving quality and access of local public services provision. The volume covers assignment of responsibilities; jurisdictional design; local service delivery; local regulation; local self-financing options such as income, sales, property and environmental taxation, user charges and fees; infrastructure finance options; and higher order government financing of local governments. The treatment is non-technical and suitable for a wide variety of audiences including scholars, instructors, students, media, policy advisers and practitioners.
This book offers a multidisciplinary account of the 'rule of law' as a central pillar of the classical liberal tradition. The authors analyze the original meaning of this expression as first introduced by British jurist A. V. Dicey, before examining its subsequent elaboration by Leoni, Fuller, Hayek and Oakeshott. Addressing the main philosophical and legal aspects of the rule of law, this volume will appeal to all those engaged in law, political theory, philosophy, economics, business ethics, and public policy.
"This book is able to explain and analyze what has eluded both scholars and thought leaders in business and the media - how and why populism has grabbed center stage. Highly recommendable." -David B. Audretsch, Indiana University Bloomington, USA "Welfens provides valuable insight into US politics and describes the strategic options for Europe going forward." -Barry Eichengreen, University of California, Berkeley, USA "With great skill Welfens traces the implications of US populism for the global economic system." - Jeffrey D. Sachs, Columbia University, USA "This critique of Trumps fiscal and international trade policies and their weak intellectual basis deserves the attention of US and European readers alike" -Richard H. Tilly, University of Munster, Germany What lies behind the Trump victory of 2016 and the US' new raft of economic policies? Is a populist presidency in the United States likely to be a temporary phenomenon or a structural long-term challenge? In an era of declining multilateralism, what can the US still stand to learn from Europe, where several countries have effective lifetime economic welfare equal to that of the US - and what can the EU learn from the US in return? Furthermore, what international economic dynamics can be expected from the Sino-US trade conflict and can globalization be maintained? In this timely volume, Paul Welfens provides a rare, clear-sighted and scholarly analysis of the global problems created by Trump's protectionism and economic policy. He leverages his understanding of these problems to make concrete policy suggestions that could help prevent the world economy from falling back into a variant of the Great Powers regime of the late nineteenth century.
Our growing national debt has dropped out of the headlines recently - but that doesn't mean that the problem has gone away. The national debt recently topped $17.5 trillion, and is projected to reach $27 trillion by 2024. Worse yet, if you include the unfunded liabilities of Social Security and Medicare, the U.S. real indebtedness exceeds $83 trillion. Despite these undeniable facts, politicians from both parties continue to avoid making the difficult decisions that must be made. Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid alone account for 48 percent of federal spending today, a portion that will only increase more rapidly with the newest entitlement program, Obamacare. The truth is that there is no way to address America's debt problem without reforming entitlements. Going for Broke provides a critical, in-depth analysis of these entitlement programs and lays out much needed solutions for real reform.
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