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Mapping and, ultimately, deciphering the human genome is a major human and scientific adventure that involves thousands of researchers world-wide and considerable funds. Bertrand Jordan, an active scientist in this field, became also a privileged observer through a sabbatical year devoted to visiting nearly a hundred participating laboratories around the world. This placed him in an ideal position to see, discuss, record and analyse progress and difficulties in this endeavour. These observations are the basis for a regular feature, "Chroniques Genomiques" (Tales of the Genome) published in the French periodical medecine/sciences. This book is an integrated, expanded and updated version of the 1990-1993 chronicles. It provides a technically detailed but accessible account of the "Genome World" from the viewpoint of a practising scientist. It describes the strategies implemented in settings that range from small laboratories to semi-industrial installations such as "Genethon", and the associated questions in terms of national policies, economic stakes and ethical issues.
To examine the promise, concerns, and challenges related to neuroscience research using genetically modified nonhuman primates, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a public workshop on October 4, 2018, bringing together an international group of experts and stakeholders representing academia, industry, laboratory animal management, disease-focused foundations, and federal agencies. The workshop was designed to explore the current state and future promise of research using genetically modified nonhuman primate models of disease to understand the complex functions of the brain that control behavior, movement, and cognition in both health and disease states. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
Comprehensive, concise and easily accessible, this is the first health economics dictionary of its kind and is an essential reference tool for everyone involved, or interested in, healthcare. The modern terminology of health economics and relevant terms used by economists working in the fields of epidemiology, public health, decision management and policy studies are all clearly explained. Combined with hundreds of key terms, the skillful use of examples, figures, tables and a simple cross-referencing system between definitions, allows the often complex language of health economics to be demystified.
On July 30-31, 2018, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop titled Continuous Manufacturing for the Modernization of Pharmaceutical Production. This workshop discussed the business and regulatory concerns associated with adopting continuous manufacturing techniques to produce biologics such as enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines. The participants also discussed specific challenges for integration across the manufacturing system, including upstream and downstream processes, analytical techniques, and drug product development. The workshop addressed these challenges broadly across the biologics domain but focused particularly on drug categories of greatest FDA and industrial interest such as monoclonal antibodies and vaccines. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
The Test is a memoir of the five years Barema spent in anguish over the decision to take the test for Huntington's disease. Barema recalls his long, emotionally wrought journey from deciding to take the test to receiving the results; he describes how his daily life was consumed by questions and fear; and he movingly depicts the patience of his wife and the compassion of his doctor. The Test is both a suspense story and a vivid portrayal of the devastation Huntington's disease causes the families it strikes. Ultimately, it is a book about the power of hope and love to reach us even in our lowest moments.
Genomic medicine is defined as the routine use of genomic information about an individual as part of his or her clinical care as well as the health outcomes and policy implications of that clinical use. It is one approach that has the potential to improve the quality of health care by allowing practitioners to tailor prevention, diagnostic, and treatment strategies to individual patients. In recent years, research breakthroughs, technological advances, and the decreasing cost of DNA sequencing have led to the wider adoption of genomic medicine. However, as with the introduction of new technologies into health care, there are concerns that genetic and genomic testing and services will not reach all segments of the population both now and in the near future, and there remains a gap in knowledge regarding potential health care disparities in genomic medicine and precision health approaches. On June 27, 2018, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a public workshop to examine the gaps in knowledge related to access to genomic medicine and to discuss health care disparities and possible approaches to overcoming the disparate use of genomic medicine among populations. Workshop participants discussed research on access to genetics and genomics services in medically underserved areas, model programs of care for diverse patient populations, and current challenges and possible best practices for alleviating health care disparities as they relate to genomics-based approaches. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
Changes in temperature, either hot or cold, is sensed through direct activation of members of the temperature-sensitive transient release potential (TRP) ion channel superfamily, the so-called "thermoTRPs". Of the 28 TRP channels discovered today, seven sense hot or warm temperatures whereas two are activated by cold. Together, these channels cover a wide temperature range with extremes that fall between 10 C and 53 C. This new and unique book reviews research on TRP channels and their relation to health and disease.
Now fully updated: the ultimate, grade-boosting case companion to First Aid for the (R) USMLE (R) Step 1 Enhanced by 400 meticulously illustrated cases in a new single-page format, the fourth edition of First Aid (R) Cases for the USMLE (R) Step 1 is an integral part of any student's USLME (R) Step 1 exam prep. Enabling test-takers to make connections between basic science principles and clinical situations, each case contains precise drawings or clinical images with Q&As that drive home main concepts. Chapters are keyed to Tao Le's First Aid for the (R) USMLE (R) Step 1, which allows students to simultaneously study cases and master high-yield facts. *Hundreds of instructive cases get students ready to ace the USMLE (R) Step 1*New full-color design, with each case self-contained in a single page for easy reference *Active recall questions and answers reinforce important concepts*A perfect companion to First Aid for the (R) USMLE (R) Step 1, with a similar organization that facilitates review
Coal remains one of the principal sources of energy for the United States, and the nation has been a world leader in coal production for more than 100 years. According to U.S. Energy Information Administration projections to 2050, coal is expected to be an important energy resource for the United States. Additionally, metallurgical coal used in steel production remains an important national commodity. However, coal production, like all other conventional mining activities, creates dust in the workplace. Respirable coal mine dust (RCMD) comprises the size fraction of airborne particles in underground mines that can be inhaled by miners and deposited in the distal airways and gas-exchange region of the lung. Occupational exposure to RCMD has long been associated with lung diseases common to the coal mining industry, including coal workersaEURO (TM) pneumoconiosis, also known as aEUROoeblack lung disease.aEURO Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures compares the monitoring technologies and sampling protocols currently used or required by the United States, and in similarly industrialized countries for the control of RCMD exposure in underground coal mines. This report assesses the effects of rock dust mixtures and their application on RCMD measurements, and the efficacy of current monitoring technologies and sampling approaches. It also offers science-based conclusions regarding optimal monitoring and sampling strategies to aid mine operatorsaEURO (TM) decision making related to reducing RCMD exposure to miners in underground coal mines.
The easy way to score high on the PANCE and PANRE
"Physician Assistant Exam For Dummies, Premier Edition" offers test-taking strategies for passing both the Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam (PANCE) and the Physician Assistant National Recertifying Exam (PANRE). It also offers information on becoming a certified Physician Assistant (PA) and the potential positions within this in-demand career field.
"Physician Assistant Exam For Dummies" provides you with the information you need to ace this demanding exam and begin your career in one of the fastest growing segments of healthcare.Offers an overview of test organization and scoringContent review with practice tests for each section of the examFive full-length practice testsAn interactive CD includes 3 of the 5 practice tests?including one PANRE?a digital slide slow featuring 20 plus images, and more than 300 flashcards covering the 13 official categories of the PANCE and PANRE
"Physician Assistant Exam For Dummies, Premier Edition" serves as a valuable, must-have resource, desk reference, and study guide for those preparing for either the PANCE or the PANRE.
CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of the e-book file, but are available for download after purchase.
The management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is complex and early intervention is needed to prevent or delay the progression of the disease. The severity of PsA and response to medication should guide the proper treatment modality, as per the recent EULAR and GRAPPA recommendations. In this collection, the authors begin by examining conventional treatment options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Next, the authors examine parasitic nematodes which cause substantial production losses in grazing animals and suffering in humans. Farmers treat animals with anthelmintics, often in an unplanned way. Frequent whole flock and herd treatments have encouraged the development of resistance as all worms in the animals are exposed to anthelmintic. The single largest problem with anthelmintic resistance is persuading farmers to adopt strategies that slow the development and spread of resistance. The authors go on to discuss the role of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in animal diagnostic technologies, molecular tracking techniques using GFP as fusion tags in studying proteinprotein interactions and real time monitoring of host pathogen interactions, as reporter tags in animal viral studies, in in-vitro and in-vivo imaging of transgenic animals for genetic screening and in animal marker vaccines and cancer studies. Following this, the authors provide their understanding of pathogenesis in spinal cord injury (SCI), the current therapeutic efforts and their limitations, and the emerging roles of retinoids in neuroprotection and functional recovery in SCI. Retinoids use retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the cells for modulation of expression of genes that eventually provide neuroprotection in SC. Pap smears detect cytologic abnormalities that indicate the possible presence of a pre-malignant lesion. The cytologic suspicion of a high grade lesion presents the risk of hiding a more severe dysplasia, which has a high risk of progression to invasive neoplastic lesion. Thus, the authors propose that adequate treatment and follow-up should be offered, such as cytology repeat, HPV testing, colposcopy, colposcopy-directed biopsy, or excision of the transformation zone. The subsequent chapter deals with the criteria that can be leant upon to prescribe retinoids for the off-label treatment of dermatological diseases. Exemplary clinical cases are illustrated. The author hopes to inspire creative physicians, and revamp classical, time-honored therapeutic methodologies as well. This book also discusses methods to study bacterial heterogeneity and its influence on phenotypic drug resistance include flow cytometry based approaches, RNA sequencing techniques, microfluidic technology time-lapse microscopy and mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches. These technological advances are powerful tools that enable us to explore and interrogate mechanisms of bacterial heterogeneity in pathogen populations. Lastly, the authors review the effects of how reproductive toxic exposures induce apoptosis of male germ cells by affecting the spermatogenic cells of the developing testis and investigate several possible mechanisms underlying alkylating agent-induced reproductive toxicity. Furthermore, an understanding of how cells cope with DNA damage caused by alkylating agents is valuable in clinical medicine.
It is widely understood that stem cell treatments have the potential to revolutionize medicine. Because of this potential, in 2004 California voters approved Proposition 71 to set up a 10-year, $3 billion program to fund research on stem cells. Under the direction of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, this program will pay to build facilities for stem cell research and will fund doctors and scientists to carry out research with the ultimate goal of helping to develop therapies based on stem cells. For this research to move forward, however, will require a steady supply of stem cells, particularly human embryonic stem cells. Those stem cells are collected from developing human embryos created from eggs--or oocytes--harvested from the ovaries of female donors. Thus much of the promise of stem cells depends on women choosing to donate oocytes to the research effort. The oocyte donation process is not without risk, however. Donors are given doses of hormones to trigger the production of more eggs than would normally be produced, and this hormone treatment can have various side effects. Once the eggs have matured in the ovary, they must be retrieved via a surgical procedure that is typically performed under anesthesia, and both the surgery and the anesthesia carry their own risks. Furthermore, given the very personal nature of egg donation, the experience may carry psychological risks for some women as well. With this in mind, in 2006 the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine contracted with the National Academies to organize a workshop that would bring together experts from various areas to speak about the potential risks of oocyte donation and to summarize what is known and what needs to be known about this topic. The Committee on Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research was formed to plan the workshop, which was held in San Francisco on September 28, 2006. This report is a summary and synthesis of that workshop.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 was enacted to improve the portability and continuity of health insurance; promote medical savings accounts; improve access to long-term care services and coverage; and simplify the administration of health insurance. HIPAA's Administrative Simplification provisions focus on facilitating the electronic exchange of information for financial and administrative functions related to patient care. However, the very advances that make it easier to transmit information also present challenges to preserving the confidentiality of potentially sensitive personal information contained in medical records. In 2003, the President's Cancer Panel discovered HIPAA Privacy Rule slowed research on cancer survivors, as well as causing increased bureaucracy, informed consent problems, and complications for clinical trials. Effect of the HIPAA Privacy Rule on Health Research evaluates the impact of HIPAA provisions and provides guidance to legislators on amendments needed to make this law better serve the interests of cancer survivors and others.
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