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It is widely understood that stem cell treatments have the potential to revolutionize medicine. Because of this potential, in 2004 California voters approved Proposition 71 to set up a 10-year, $3 billion program to fund research on stem cells. Under the direction of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, this program will pay to build facilities for stem cell research and will fund doctors and scientists to carry out research with the ultimate goal of helping to develop therapies based on stem cells. For this research to move forward, however, will require a steady supply of stem cells, particularly human embryonic stem cells. Those stem cells are collected from developing human embryos created from eggs--or oocytes--harvested from the ovaries of female donors. Thus much of the promise of stem cells depends on women choosing to donate oocytes to the research effort. The oocyte donation process is not without risk, however. Donors are given doses of hormones to trigger the production of more eggs than would normally be produced, and this hormone treatment can have various side effects. Once the eggs have matured in the ovary, they must be retrieved via a surgical procedure that is typically performed under anesthesia, and both the surgery and the anesthesia carry their own risks. Furthermore, given the very personal nature of egg donation, the experience may carry psychological risks for some women as well. With this in mind, in 2006 the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine contracted with the National Academies to organize a workshop that would bring together experts from various areas to speak about the potential risks of oocyte donation and to summarize what is known and what needs to be known about this topic. The Committee on Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research was formed to plan the workshop, which was held in San Francisco on September 28, 2006. This report is a summary and synthesis of that workshop.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 was enacted to improve the portability and continuity of health insurance; promote medical savings accounts; improve access to long-term care services and coverage; and simplify the administration of health insurance. HIPAA's Administrative Simplification provisions focus on facilitating the electronic exchange of information for financial and administrative functions related to patient care. However, the very advances that make it easier to transmit information also present challenges to preserving the confidentiality of potentially sensitive personal information contained in medical records. In 2003, the President's Cancer Panel discovered HIPAA Privacy Rule slowed research on cancer survivors, as well as causing increased bureaucracy, informed consent problems, and complications for clinical trials. Effect of the HIPAA Privacy Rule on Health Research evaluates the impact of HIPAA provisions and provides guidance to legislators on amendments needed to make this law better serve the interests of cancer survivors and others.
In Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 128, the authors provide evidence that several families of GPCRs dynamically modulate microglial phenotypes and provide evidence that aberrations in G-protein coupled receptors-mediated signaling are prime contributors to a loss of homeostatic microglia states. A comprehensive landscape on the physiological conditions already known to be important for dendritic cell (DC) differentiation is included. Specifically: presenting stages of development of bone marrow stem cells; comparing the ontogeny of DCs in mice and humans; debating the differences between conventional DCs versus plasmacytoid DCs; highlighting that Langerhans cells (LCs) have different origins; discussing factors that may modulate the development of DC subsets; and emphasizing ontogenetic properties of DCs that make them different from monocytes and macrophages. Next, the authors review ex vivo and in vitro studies about the effects of human soluble fibrinogen molecule on blood components behavior and its effects at physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as in vitro studies conducted in experimental animal models. The tacrolimus (TAC) metabolism is reviewed in a separate study which proposes the TAC metabolism rate (C/D ratio) as a novel tool to assist physicians in risk stratification to individualize therapy in patients after (renal) transplantation. Continuing, the book postulates that modulation of nitric oxide (NO) concentrations at the maternal-fetal interface is relevant for maintaining early gestation due to failures in vascular adaptations. NO regulates vascular tone, angiogenesis, and cellular aggregation and adhesion, which are important functions in establishing and maintaining normal pregnancy. This book also presents the research and development of a collaborative, social-networked approach to train elementary and middle-school students so that the students can be aware of their bad sitting posture and timely improve it. Results show that the proposed approach and the developed posture training tools were very effective in improving teens posture.
USMLE Platinum Notes Step 1 and USMLE Platinum Notes Step 2 CK are the latest editions of these preparatory guides for the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Each book is entirely updated to equip students with the conceptual and clinical knowledge they need to score a 99 percentile in their exams. The first book, Step 1, is divided into seven chapters incorporating revision materials for anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology and biostatics. Step 2 CK incorporates clinical knowledge revision materials for medicine, paediatrics, psychiatry, dermatology, surgery, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, and obstetrics and gynaecology. These guides include USMLE type questions based on the latest exam format, clinical correlations and case scenarios, with revision questions at the end of every topic. USMLE Platinum Notes Step 1 and USMLE Platinum Notes Step 2 CK are enhanced by nearly 100 images and illustrations. Key Points Latest edition of both USMLE Step1 and Step 2 preparatory notes Previous editions published 2013 (9789350903414/9789350903421) Revision questions, clinical correlations, clinical case scenarios 96 images and illustrations
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. The high-yield questions you need to prepare for the USMLE Step 2 CK! Prepare to ace the USMLE Step 2 CK with First Aid Q&A for the USMLE Step 2 CK. The new second edition of this student-proven book features 1000 board-style questions along with easy to navigate, high-yield explanations of correct and incorrect answers. You'll also find hundreds of valuable images, diagrams, and tables. The book is correlated with First Aid for the USMLE Step 2 CK and First Aid Cases for the USMLE Step 2 CK for the ultimate review package! Features: 1000 board-style questions and answers from the top-rated USMLERx Qmax Step 2 CK Test Bank Concise, yet complete, explanations for both correct and incorrect answers -- with letter options in boldface for at-a-glance review One complete practice test -- 8 full-length test blocks -- simulate the exam experience Hundreds of high-yield images, diagrams, and tables Organized the same way as First Aid for the USMLE Step 2 CK so you can simultaneously study from both books
Passenger screening at commercial airports in the United States has gone through significant changes since the events of September 11, 2001. In response to increased concern over terrorist attacks on aircrafts, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has deployed security systems of advanced imaging technology (AIT) to screen passengers at airports. To date (December 2014), TSA has deployed AITs in U.S. airports of two different technologies that use different types of radiation to detect threats: millimeter wave and X-ray backscatter AIT systems. X-ray backscatter AITs were deployed in U.S. airports in 2008 and subsequently removed from all airports by June 2013 due to privacy concerns. TSA is looking to deploy a second-generation X-ray backscatter AIT equipped with privacy software to eliminate production of an image of the person being screened in order to alleviate these concerns. This report reviews previous studies as well as current processes used by the Department of Homeland Security and equipment manufacturers to estimate radiation exposures resulting from backscatter X-ray advanced imaging technology system use in screening air travelers. Airport Passenger Screening Using Backscatter X-Ray Machines examines whether exposures comply with applicable health and safety standards for public and occupational exposures to ionizing radiation and whether system design, operating procedures, and maintenance procedures are appropriate to prevent over exposures of travelers and operators to ionizing radiation. This study aims to address concerns about exposure to radiation from X-ray backscatter AITs raised by Congress, individuals within the scientific community, and others.
International Workshop organised by the Marcel Merieux Foundation, 21 to 23 June 2000. The debate over the ethical issues raised by stem cell research concerns essentially the practice of taking cells from human embryos and the consequent destruction of the embryo. This work, going to the heart of the controversy over such manipulations, discusses the ethical question of the legal status of the embryo. At the moment when, in France, the bioethics laws have come up for review, questions regarding the statute of the embryo return in the heart of scientific debates. Breakthroughs in the field of embryonic stem cell biology offer a glimpse of the considerable therapeutic possibilities. Research Institutes and Governments, hailed by these new therapeutic perspectives, are attempting to put in place modes of regulation this research that both respond to citizen's aspirations and conform to ethical norms.
John Libbey Eurotext continues to publish the proceedings of the gastroenterology seminars taught by leading European specialists and organised by the European Association for Gastroenterology and Endoscopy (EAGE). The aim of the book is to describe major clinical and therapeutic progress observed during 2001. It offers a complete overview of the latest techniques and therapies used to treat malignant gastro-intestinal tumours.
Compared with other disease areas, central nervous system (CNS) disorders have had the highest failure rate for new compounds in advanced clinical trials. Most CNS drugs fail because of efficacy, and the core issue underlying these problems is a poor understanding of disease biology. Concern about the poor productivity in neuroscience drug development has gained intensity over the past decade, amplified by a retraction in investment from the pharmaceutical industry. This retreat by industry has been fueled by the high failure rate of compounds in advanced clinical trials for nervous system disorders. In response to the de-emphasis of CNS disorders in therapeutic development relative to other disease areas such as cancer, metabolism, and autoimmunity, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine initiated a series of workshops in 2012 to address the challenges that have slowed drug development for nervous system disorders. Motivated by the notion that advances in genetics and other new technologies are beginning to bring forth new molecular targets and identify new biomarkers, the Academies hosted the third workshop in this series in September 2016. Participants discussed opportunities to accelerate early stages of drug development for nervous system disorders in the absence of animal models that reflect disease and predict efficacy. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
John Libbey Eurotext is continuing to publish the gastroenterology courses given by leading European specialists organised by the EAGE (European Association for Gastroenterology and Endoscopy). The aim of the book is to present the major clinical and therapeutic advances observed during the year 2000. It pays particular attention to the disease of the oesophagus known as Barrett's disease and to imaging in gastrointestinal tumours and cancer.
Thoroughly revised and updated for its 2015 Edition with the help of the physician educators of Doctors in Training.com, LLC, Step-Up to USMLE Step 1 delivers comprehensive, systems-based review for the USMLE Step 1 exam. The book has been wide ly acclaimed for its organization, which parallels the USMLE Step 1 content outline and helps students synthesize the information from their basic science courses. The popular, user-friendly format features numerous charts and diagrams, plus "Quick Hits" notes in the margins that help students integrate concepts across systems. The 2015 Edition includes a dedicated new chapter on Immunology. In addition, each chapter provides clinical vignettes, pharmacology as integrated into the systems-based format, and popular "Crunch Time Review" sections. CLASSICFeatures students swear by: Full-color interior design delivers content in a rousing, memorable style. Full-color art program illustrates concepts when a picture says it best. Complete coverage of high-yield topics ensures that students are test ready. Clinical Vignettes allow the reader to "file away" clinical medicine connections for handy retrieval at test time. Quick Hits in the margins highlight testable materials. Crunch Time Review identifies essential content to facilitate last-minute study. Drug and Bug Index enables quick reference. BONUS Material: 350 USMLE-style questions online allow for self-assessment and practice for the exam.
Axel Kahn's book, published late in 1996, which provided an overview of the opinions expressed by the Commission of Biomolecular Engineering about genetically modified plants, was a great success. Given the scale and importance of the phenomenon, the French Ministry of Agriculture and publishers John Libbey Eurotext have decided to publish an English-language version of this fundamental book about the introduction and development of genetically modified plants. For some years now, plant biotechnology, especially genetic engineering, has enabled us to modify the cycle of plant production, strengthening resistance to weedkillers and pests, improving yields and quality, adapting plants to unfavourable environments and creating new species. In France, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission (CGB) is responsible for authorising the marketing of these modified products. Over the past ten years it has certified 450 new products for public consumption. This book, which is suitable for the general public, reports on the experience acquired by the CGB and the studies it has conducted: What are the potential risks associated with so-called transgenetic plants? Are there any undetectable phenomena involved? - How can such plants be produced more safely? Axel Kahn is a world-renowned geneticist and clinician, chaired the Biomolecular Engineering Commission until 1998. Here he explains the "philosophy" of the CGB, which has gained unrivalled experience in Europe, and sets out ethical and scientific guidelines for the use of genetic engineering techniques.
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